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HISTORY 



OF THE 



seventy-eighth pennsylvania 
Volunteer Infantry 

EDITED BY J. T. GIBSON 

UNDER THE DIRECTION 
OF THE 

HISTORICAL COMMITTEE 

OF THE 

Regimental Association 



1905 



LIBRARY of CO(<GRESS 
Two Conies Received 

DEC 14 1905 

^CGpyri^ht Entry 
CLASS a. XXc. No. 
COPY B. 



PRESS OF THE PITTSBURGH PRINTING CO. 
PITTSBURGH, PENN'A, 



COPYRIGHT 1905 
BY 

J. T. GIBSON 



BATTLES 



The Seventy-eighth Regiment took part in three great Epoch- 
making Battles, namely : 

Stone River, December, 1862 — January, 1863; 
Chickamauga, September, 1863; 

Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, November, 
1863. 

In the Stone River, Chickamauga and Atlanta Campaigns, 
there was hard fighting for many days, and even weeks, before the 
decisive battles, and we do not attempt to enumerate all these 
engagements. The most prominent engagements in which the 
Regiment participated are as follows : 

1st. Green River, Kentucky — December, 1861. 

2nd. Rogersville, Tennessee — May, 1862. 

3rd. Lavergne — October 1, 1862. 

4th. Neeley's Bend, Tennessee — October 19, 1862. 

5th. Goodletsville, Tennessee. 

6th. Franklin, Tennessee — December 5, 1862. 

7th. Stone River — December 26, 1862 — January 3, 1863. 

8th. Liberty Gap, Tennessee — January 24, 1863. 

9th. Hoover's Gap, Tennessee — January 26, 1863. 

10th. McLemore Cove or Dug Gap — September 10-11, 1863. 

11th, Chickamauga — September 10-23, 1863. 

12th. Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge — Nov., 1863. 

13th. Buzzard's Roost, Georgia — May, 1864. 

14th. Resacca, Georgia— May 21, 1864. 

15th. New Hope Church, Georgia — May 27, 1864, 

16th. Kenesaw Mountains — June, 1864. 

17th. Fight as Train Guard — June 27, 1864. 

18th. Dalton, Georgia— August 14, 1864. 

19th, Pulaski, Tennessee, 

20th. Nashville. 



INDEX 



INTRODUCTION 7 

I. 
Organization of the First Regiment 12 

II. 
From Camp Orr to the Front 23 

III. 
Camps Nevin and Negley, Kentucky 25 

IV. 
Green River, Kentucky — First Noise of Battle 30 

V. 
Onward 'to Nashville, Tennessee . . 34 

VI. 

The Summer of 1862 — Franklin, Columbia, Pulaski, Elkton and 

Rogersville, Tennessee 38 

VII. 
Buell's Army in Kentucky, Seventy-eighth Regiment at Nash- 
ville, Tennessee — Neeley's Bend, Lavergne, Franklin .... 41 

VIII. 
The Battle of Stone River — Advance on Murfreesboro — First 

Day's Battle — Second Day's Battle 47 

IX. 
Provost Guards of Murfreesboro 68 

X. 

TuLLAHOMA CAMPAIGN — Liberty Gap, Hoover's Gap, Elk River .... 70 

XI. 
The Chickamauga Campaign 75 

XII. 
Crossing Lookout Mountain into Chickamauga Valley 79 

XIII. 
Concentration of Rosecrans' Army 86 

XIV. 
The Battle of September Nineteenth 92 

XV. 

The Battle of September Twentieth 100 

XVI. 

Observations Concerning the Battle of Chickamauga 119 

XVII. 

Siege of Chattanooga 122 

XVIII. 
The Coming of General Hooker, and the Opening of the Cracker 

Line — Battle of Wauhatchie 126 



5 



I N D E X — Continued 

XIX. 

The Battle of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge 130 

XX. 

On Lookout Mountain 139 

XXL 

Atlanta Campaign 141 

XXH. 

Resaca 146 

XXIIL 

The Battle of New Hope Church 147 

XXIV. 
The Regiment Ordered to Chattanooga — On Duty as Train Guards .... 151 

XXV. 

Return of the Regiment to be Mustered out of the Service 152 

XXVI. 

Review and Remarks 154 

XXVII. 
Organization into two Companies of the Veterans and of Soldiers 

whose terms of Service had not Expired 157 

XXVIII. 
Second Regimental Organization — Sketch of the Concentration of 

General Thomas' Army at Nashville 158 

XXIX. 

Battle of Nashville 160 

XXX. 

Conclusion 162 



APPENDIX 

I. 

Chickamauga Park 167 

II. 
Dedication of Monument • 168 

III. 
Regimental Association 176 

IV. 
Official Report of the Battle of Stone River 178 

V. 
Official Report of the Battle of Chickamauga 185 

VI. 

Origin of this Regimental History 192 

VII. 
Regimental Roster 195 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



1 General George H. Thomas 9 

2 Colonel William Sirwell 13 

3 Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Blakeley 21 

4 Major Augustus B, Bonnaffon 27 

5 Stone River Battlefield 50 

6 General Jas. S. Negley 55 

7 Charge of the 78th Regiment at the Battle of Stone River 59 

8 The Campaign for Chattanooga 76 

9 McLemore's Cove 80 

10 Lee and Gordon's Mill 87 

11 Battle of Chickamauga, September 19th 93 

12 The Brotherton House 95 

13 The Kelley Field and House 101 

14 Battle of Chickamauga, September 20th 107 

15 The Snodgrass House 109 

16 Snodgrass Hill 115 

17 Chattanooga — Lookout Mountain — Missionary Ridge • • 129 

18 The Craven House 133 

19 The Regimental Monument 163 

20 Monument 173 



Introduction 



The 78th Regiment Pennsylvania Infantry Volunteers 
comprises two different organizations. The first organiza- 
tion was mustered into the United States Service October 12, 
1 86 1, and was mustered out November 4, 1864. The connec- 
tion between the two organizations is two-fold. First, the 
new organization succeeded to the name and number, 78th 
Regiment Pennsylvania Infantry Volunteers. Second, the 
men who served in the first organization, and whose term of 
service had not expired when the old regiment was mustered 
out, and the men of the old regiment who had re-enlisted were 
transferred to Companies A and B of the new regiment, and 
comprised nearly the whole of these two companies in the 
new organization. To avoid confusion, we have made two 
distinct rolls, and the names of the men who served in both 
organizations will appear in both rolls, and the date of muster 
will show how far each one participated in the services and 
honors of each organization. 

If this Regimental History were designed only for sur- 
viving comrades an outline sketch would be sufficient, and each 
comrade could, from the store-house of his own memory, fill 
up the gaps ; but, being for all comrades, their descendants 
and the people of the State, we deem it wise to explain mili- 
tary terms and give sketches of everyday camp life. If this 
history were written with special regard for literary beauty, 
or, as a specimen of interesting narrative, we could blend fact 
and fiction in such a way as to make it more interesting to our 
readers ; but, being designed for an accurate record of facts, 
all fiction, however interesting, must be excluded. Many of 
the current stories concerning our army experiences have an 



element of truth in them, but they have been so embellished by 
the exuberant imagination of the narrators that they cannot 
now be accepted as veritable history, and we have introduced 
only such well authenticated incidents as will enable our read- 
ers to form a correct estimate of the lives these soldiers led, and 
the manner of men they were. 




General George H. Thomas 



History of the 78th Regiment, 
Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry 



The history of every generation centers in a few great 
names, and its principal events are directed by a few great men. 
If we would get a correct knowledge of the history of any 
period or people, we must look at this history from the stand- 
point of those who directed its great movements. We get 
the most accurate knowledge of history when we study the bi- 
ographies of great men. If we would know the history of 
this country we must study the lives of Washington, Lincoln 
and the other great men who were national leaders in great 
national crises. If we would understand the history of the 
military movements during the War of the Rebellion we must 
study the biographies of Grant, Sherman, Thomas and other 
great military leaders. Nevertheless, if we study history only 
in this way we are in danger of losing sight of the fact that 
these men were but the leaders and not the army. Our coun- 
try was not saved by the courage, skill and self-sacrifice of a 
few great commanders alone, but by the courageous, patient 
patriotism of private soldiers, field and line officers who faced 
the greatest dangers and made the greatest sacrifices with the 
least hope of reward. It would not be possible to make a 
record of all the brave acts of these brave men ; we may not 
be able to even call the roll of the men who took an honorable 
part in the great War of the Rebellion, but there should be a 
clear, concise and complete history of every organization, and 
the great Commonwealth of Pennsylvania did well when it 
made some provision for preparing and preserving such his- 
tories. It will be our aim in this volume to give a brief his- 
tory of the 78th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 
first and second organizations. 



12 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

I. 

Organization of the First Regiment 

The inauguration of President Lincoln, March 4, 1861, 
was followed by the firing on Fort Sumter on the 12th of 
April, and this was followed by the President's call for 75,- 
000 soldiers to suppress the rebellion. These soldiers were 
enlisted to serve for three months. Many people. North and 
South, refused to recognize the gravity of the situation but 
honest, intelligent, thoughtful and patriotic citizens, North and 
South, recognized the fact that the nation was on the eve of 
a desperate civil war. The volcanic forces generated by an 
attempt to combine freedom and slavery had been rumbling 
for a quarter of a century and were now about to burst forth 
with intensest fury. The 75,000 troops called out for three 
months instead of quelling the rebellion only added fuel to 
the flames. From the Atlantic to the Pacific, from Canada to 
the Gulf there was deep anxiety in every truly patriotic heart, 
while the civilized world was looking on the experiment of a 
Republican Government with deep interest. 

When the President of the United States issued his call 
for 300,000 soldiers to serve for three years or during the war, 
every town, village and hamlet in the North became a center 
of military activity and a recruiting station. The Governors 
of the different states vied with each other in responding 
promptly and offering to furnish their full quota. Andrew 
G. Curtin, Governor of the State of Pennsylvania, had been 
among the number who had hoped against hope that there 
might be no war; but, when the time came for action, he used 
all his official power with the greatest possible, personal energy 
to bring the strength of this great Commonwealth to the sup- 
port of the National Government. 

When the call was made for 75,000 men to serve for three 
months, it appealed very strongly to the roving and adventur- 
ous spirit of young men ; they regarded it as an opportunity 
for ministering to their love of excitement, and they did not 
feel that they were incurring any very great danger. Three 
months seemed only sufficient time for an enjoyable outing; 
but when the call came for men to serve for a period of three 
years or during the war, it was a more serious matter. Every 
intelligent man knew that enlistment meant the facing of real 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMEXT P. V. I. 



13 




Colonel W^illiani Sirwell 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 15 

dangers and the making of real sacrifices, and men did not en- 
list without stopping to count the cost. It was in response to 
this call for 300,000 men for three years that the 78th Regi- 
ment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry was organized. 

By an order of the Secretary of War, Camp Orr, on the 
Northeastern bank of the Allegheny River, about two miles 
above Kittanning, was authorized as a rendezvous for the or- 
ganization of troops. There was, at first, a question as to 
whether the encampments of State troops should be under con- 
trol of the United States Government, or under the control 
of the Commonwealth ; but it was finally decided that they were 
to be under the control of the Commonwealth. Wealthy citi- 
zens of Kittanning furnished the money to sustain the en- 
campment. It V, as called Camp Orr in honor of General Rob- 
ert Orr, and was located on the Fair Grounds and on a farm 
belonging to the Gilpin and Johnston heirs. William Sirwell 
was placed in command of the encampment and afterwards 
became Colonel of the 78th Regiment. 

The first company came into camp on the 14th of August, 
1 86 1, and by the 17th of September all the companies were in 
camp and temporarily organized. 

Company A was recruited in Indiana County under the 
direction of William Cummins and others. An old military 
organization had been in existence at Chambersville for a 
number of years, and a majority of this organization re- 
sponded to the President's call for troops, enlisting for three 
years or during the war. These, with other enlisted men. as- 
sembled at Chambersville, Indiana County, on the 27th day of 
August, 1861, and were given a farewell banquet by the citi- 
zens of the community. It was a beautiful day and seemed 
much like an ordinary Fourth of July celebration. Uniformed 
soldiers, marching to martial music, with their streaming ban- 
ners, were the center of attraction. The company was com- 
posed mostly of farmers and the sons of farmers, descendants 
of pioneers who had erected homes and carved for themselves 
and their families an honorable destiny in the northwestern 
part of Indiana County. The great majority were unmarried 
young men, and the average age was not above twenty-one 
years. 

Living amid the quiet and peaceful surroundings of these 
better days, secure in our comfortable homes, we can hardly 
realize what it meant for such a company of young men to 



16 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

leave home for the tented field. All sought to be cheerful^ 
hopeful and happy, but there was a deep undertone of anxiety 
and sadness, liusbands and wives, brothers and sisters, pa- 
rents and sons felt that they might be bidding a final farewell 
to each other, and that there was a possibility, if not a proba- 
bility, that they should never again meet each other on earth. 
The future was uncertain, and seemed very ominous. The 
clouds of war portended a most terrific storm. The martial 
music, the streaming banners and the patriotic enthusiasm 
could hardly suppress the sobs of grief or hide the dark fore- 
bodings. 

The company marched or was transported to Indiana, and 
thence by way of Elderton to Camp Orr. An organization 
was effected at Camp Orr with William Cummins as captain, 
John Marlin as first lieutenant, W. R. Maize as 2nd lieutenant, 
James Miller, Evan Lewis, William Garrett, Daniel Bothell 
and J. T. Gibson, as sergeants, with William W. Bell, David 
Blue, William Thomas, George Adams, David A. Rankin, 
James A. Carroll, William Fleming and John M. Brown as 
corporals. 

Company B was recruited at Kittanning, Armstrong 
County, by Captain Hilberry and others. This company was 
composed mostly of farmers and mechanics, with an average 
age of about twenty years. This was the first company to en- 
ter camp, and the date of their coming was August 14th. As 
Camp Orr was located near Kittanning, the members of this 
company did not say farewell to their friends at home until 
the Regiment left Kittanning for Pittsburgh. The company 
was organized with James S. Hilberry, captain ; Martin Mc- 
Canna, ist lieutenant; Samuel N. Lee. 2nd lieutenant; John 
B. McNabb, James B. Fleming, Patrick Shaner, George D. 
Watson and Archibald D. Glenn, sergeants, and William Mc- 
Canna. David K. Thompson, James S. Craft, Philip Smith, 
John B. Adams, Michael Sullivan, William Hughes and Bar- 
nard Collins, corporals. 

Company C was recruited in New Bethlehem, Clarion 
County, by John M. Brinker and others. The occupations of 
the members of this company are not given in the Descriptive 
Book of the Regiment, but it is to be presumed that a large 
part of them were farmers and lumbermen. The date of 
enlistment is August 29th, and it is probable that this was 
about the date when the company came to Camp Orr. The 
company was organized with John M. Brinker, captain ; David 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 17 

Mohney, ist lieutenant, John Girtz, 2nd lieutenant; with Azel 
S. McCulloch, David R. Brinker, Andrew Brown, William 
H. Thomas and William Latimer, sergeants, and Simon 
Stokes, Henry S. Grey, Solomon Altman, Joseph Mohney, 
Samuel Lankard, B. F. Slaughenhaupt, Peter Heck and Sam- 
uel Hepler, corporals. The ages of the members of this com- 
pany averaged about twenty-three years. 

Company D was recruited at Cherry Tree on the Sus- 
quehanna River, in the northeastern part of Indiana County, 
by Michael Forbes and others. It was made up of lumbermen, 
farmers and mechanics, with an average age of about twenty- 
two years. The company entered Camp Orr September sixth, 
and was organized with Michael Forbes, captain ; Robert I [. 
McCormick, ist lieutenant; Willis J. Nugent, 2nd lieutenant; 
with Adam C. Braughler, Thomas ]\I. Bell, Leonard D. Hol- 
lister, Joseph L. Butterbaugh and David Barkey. sergeants, 
and Isaac Keirn, Lewis D. Shaw, Samuel Irwin, Abram C. 
Wike. George Langdon, Betherel Johnston and John Shelters, 
corporals. 

Company E w^as recruited by James N. Hosey and others 
in Clarion County. It was composed of natives of Armstrong, 
Berks. Butler, Clarion, Fayette, Huntingdon, Jefferson, Juni- 
ata, Lehigh, Mercer, Union, Venango and Westmoreland 
Counties, together with a few who had been born across the 
sea. This company comprised farmers, teachers, mechanics, 
lumbermen, laborers and others. They ranged in age from 
eighteen to forty-two years, wdth an average of twenty-two 
years. Their enlistment dated from August igth, but the com- 
pany came to Camp Orr September loth, and was organized 
with James N. Hosey, captain; Thomas J. Elliott, ist lieu- 
tenant; James H. Anchors. 2nd lieutenant; with William F. 
Elliott, James G. Briggs. Samuel Kelley. Thomas M. Graham 
and Christian H. George, sergeants, and Henry A. Crick, 
James Callender, Peter Werner, l^euben Latshaw, Jeremiah 
Hurmel, Thomas Reese, Ralph Boyer and John Grunden, cor- 
porals. 

Company F was recruited in Freeport, Armstrong 
County, by Dr. Charles P> Gillespie and others. This com- 
pany was composed of mechanics, farmers, laborers, miners 
and teachers. The date of enlistment is given as September 
loth. but the company came to Camp Orr September 3rd. with 
twenty-four men. In the remarks found in the Morning Re- 
port Book of this company, we find the following : "A grand 



18 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

dinner was given by the ladies of North Buffalo, September 
2 1 St." The company was organized with Dr. Charles B. 
Gillespie, captain; William B. AlcCue, ist lieutenant, and 
Henry W. Torbett, 2nd lieutenant ; with Jonathan D. Murphy, 
John'lveiffer, John Flannigan, Absalom R. Weaver, George 
W. McGraw, sergeants, and William M. Hughes, John M. 
Alter, Hugh McFadden, Michael Sullivan. Samuel Boreland, 
James M. Slusser, William H. Huff and William H. Sheffer, 
corporals. The company ranged in age from eighteen to 
forty-five years, with an average age of about twenty-two 
years. 

Company G was recruited in Armstrong County, under 
the direction of John Jordan and others, and came to camp 
September 6th. It was composed of men of various avoca- 
tions, with an average age of about twenty-four years. An 
organization was effected in Kittanning with John Jordan, 
captain; William J. Gailbraith, ist lieutenant; Jacob R. Mc- 
Afoose, 2nd lieutenant; with David L. McVey, Samuel H. 
Croyle, William A. Henderson, Bernard Huber and Sam- 
uel Klugh, sergeants, and Andrew J. Thompson, Peter O. 
Bowser, George G. Boreland, Thomas Shea, George Hughes, 
John C. White, James McColIum and Arthur S. Myrtle, cor- 
porals. 

Company H was recruited in Butler County by William 
S. Jack and others, and came to Camp Orr on the 17th of Sep- 
tember. It was composed of farmers, students, mechanics 
and laborers, with an average age of not more than twenty- 
one years. The company was organized with William S. Jack, 
captain; Joseph B. Mechling, ist lieutenant; Hugh A. Ayres, 
2nd lieutenant; with Samuel J. McBride, Alfred G. Reed, 
Frederick F. Wiehl, Henry A. Miller and Charles S. Smith, 
sergeants, and Hugh D. Martin, James A. Gilmore, Harvey J. 
Miller. David L. McNees, Robert C. Boreland, Lycurgus R. 
Cummins, James McCleary and Benjamin W. Truxall, corpor- 
als. 

Company I was recruited in Armstrong County by 
Robert D. Elwood and others, and was composed of men 
from Armstrong and adjoining counties, with an average age 
of about twenty-two years. This company comprised la- 
borers, students, farmers and mechanics, and came to camp 
on the 2f)th of August. It was organized with Robert D. 
Elwood, captain; George W. Black, ist lieutenant; Samuel 
M. Crosbv, 2nd lieutenant, with Samuel H. Kerr, William B. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 19 

Kerr, William C. Murphy, Daniel Bryson and John D. Hall, 
sergeants, and Aaron Hawk, Lewis T. Hill, William Henry, 
Jr., John S. Mcllwain. Hezekiah V. Ashbaugh, Joseph L. 
Kerr and James Drnmmond, corporals. 

Company K was recruited in North Buffalo Township, 
Armstrong County, under the direction of Rev. D. W. C. Her- 
vey and others. Saturday afternoons for drilling and recruit- 
ing purposes until the loth of September, when the company 
came to Camp Orr. A small body of enlisted men from Day- 
ton, Armstrong County, joined the Company at Kittanning. 
An organization was effected with DeWitt C. Hervey, captain ; 
Joseph B. Smith, ist lieutenant, Matthew J. Halstead, 2nd 
lieutenant ; with Robert W. Dinsmore, John W. Rowen, 
Robert M. Smith, Marion J. Dinsmore and William P. Eng- 
land, sergeants, and William W. Smith, John Painter, Enoch 
Gillam, Peter A. Painter, W. Martin, Erastus Pierce, Albert 
Cople)'' and Thomas Callender, corporals. 

Ten companies being in camp, a regimental organiz?.tion 
was effected, with William Sirw^ell, colonel, Archibald Blake- 
ley, lieutenant colonel, and Augustus B. Bonnaffon. major. 

Colonel Sirwell was born in the United States arsenal at 
Pittsburgh, called the Allegheny Arsenal, where his father 
held some position. His fondness for military life began in 
his childhood and was probably the result of his environment. 
As a young man he formed and drilled military companies 
wherever he had an opportunity, and when the first call came 
for soldiers for three months' service, he was at once recog- 
nized as the acknowledged leader of the company of volun- 
teers that went from Kittanning. His services during the 
three months indicated that he was the right man to take 
charge of Camp Orr. He was an exceptionally fine looking 
soldier, six feet high, erect, w^ith a martial bearing, and a 
man of few words. He possessed many of the qualities that 
go to make a successful leader of men and commander of 
troops. He had sufficient knowledge of military life to be a 
good disciplinarian, and he gave strict attention to the organ- 
izing and disciplining of the soldiers in camp. 

Archibald Blakeley was a successful and influential mem- 
ber of the Butler County Bar, with no special ambition for 
military life. He had for a number of years been deeply in- 
terested in national affairs, and had exerted a large influence 
in persuading men to offer their services to their country in its 
time of need. His discussion of the matter led him to the 



20 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

conclusion that the time had come when he should offer his 
own services as a soldier, and he was commissioned lieutenant 
colonel of the Regiment. 

Augustus B. Bonnaffon was of French descent, a citizen 
of Pittsburgh, with decided military taste and talent. He 
had been in the three months' service, and, although he had not 
taken any important part in organizing the Regiment, he was 
commissioned as major. 

Rev. Richard C. Christy, a priest of the Roman Catholic 
Church, was commissioned as chaplain, September loth. 1861. 
A very large majority of the Regiment were Protestants, and 
the selection of the Rev. Mr. Christy was seriously objected 
to by many; nevertheless. Chaplain Christy succeeded in se- 
curins: the love and confidence of the soldiers and officers of 
the regiment without regard to denominational distmction. 
He had a kind and generous heart, and entered into the fullest 
sympathy with the men with whom he was associated. 

We should not pass over the account of the organization 
of the Regiment without speaking of Dr. William P. McCul- 
lough, who had acted as surgeon of the Regiment while in Kit- 
tanning, but was not at once commissioned as surgeon. This 
was a great disappointment to the soldiers, who had come 
to have the highest regard for Dr. McCullough. Arrange- 
ments were made by which he remained with the Regiment, 
and was afterwards commissioned assistant surgeon. 

The men who were chosen captains of the different com- 
panies were men of high character with influence in the several 
communities in which the companies were recruited. Captain 
Cummins was a successful merchant at Chambersville. Indiana 
County, and had been, for a time, captain of a military organ- 
ization at that place. When the time came to select a captain 
for Company A. no other one was thought of as being avail- 
able. Captain Hilberry had been in the three months' service, 
and his knowledge and experience as a soldier led to his selec- 
tion as captain of Company B. Captain Brinker was a prom- 
inent business man of New Bethlehem, Clarion County, and 
was chosen commander of Conijiany C. Captain Forbes was 
a prominent lumberman from the northeastern part of Indi- 
ana County, and was recognized as the man to lead Company 
D. Captain Hosey was a well known teacher, a graduate of 
Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa. He enjoyed the confi- 
dence and esteem of the men who had enlisted under his di- 
rection, and was selected as captain of Company E. Captain 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78fh REGIMENT P. V. I. 21 




HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 23 

Gillespie was a prominent, practicing physician of Freepoit. 
He had a wide knowledge of this country, having been one of 
the men who went to California in 1849. He was promptly 
recognized as the right man to lead Company F. 

Jordan had considerable experience in managing men, and 
having recruited the larger part of the company, was chosen 
as the leader of Company G. Captain Jack was a well known 
and popular citizen of Butler, having the esteem of all who 
knew him. He had been in the three months' service, and 
had taken an active part in the recruiting of Company H, and 
was selected to lead that company. Captain Elwood was an en- 
terprising young business man of Apollo, Armstrong County; 
he was captain of a canal packet, and was unanimously chosen 
as a litting leader for Company I. Captain Hervey, a well 
known Baptist minister, was selected as a suitable leader for 
Company K. 

The time spent in Camp Orr was devoted to organization, 
drill and discipline. Each day was quite fully occupied. In 
the morning, before breakfast, we had squad drill, in the fore- 
noon, company drill, in the afternoon, as soon as a sufficient 
number of companies had arrived, we had regimental drill, 
with dress parade in the evening. If our military evolution 
had taken place in the presence of troops who had been in the 
army for two or three years, they would, no doubt, have af- 
forded great amusement; but all were alike unskilled, and very 
few seemed capable of recognizmg the awkwardness of their 
fellows. It only required a few weeks to enable the soldier of 
average intelligence to keep step with his comrade, and he soon 
imbibed a wholesome respect for rightful military authority. 

The Remarks in the Morning Report Book of Company F 
show how unconscious the average enlisted man was of the 
needful restraints of military life, as they tell of some one 
marching sixteen men out of camp without permission, and 
of their being brought back under guard, and dismissed with a 
reprimand. 

11. 

From Camp Orr to the Front 

On the 1 2th of October the Regiment was, in a formal 
manner, mustered into the United States Service, by a regu- 
lar armv officer de^-^'^^d for the duty, the oath heinof adminis- 



24 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

tered with due solemnity. The men of the Regiment hav- 
ing profound regard for the sacredness of an oath, were 
greatly impressed by this formal induction into the United 
States Army. 

On the 14th of October, 1861, the Regiment marched out 
of Camp Orr, bade farewell to the people of Kittanning, and 
was transported by the Allegheny Valley Railroad to Pitts- 
burgh and encamped in Camp Wilkins on Penn Avenue, below 
Lawrenceville, where it remained four days, during which tiine 
a brigade, comprising the 77th, 78th and 79th Pennsylvania 
Regiments Infantry Volunteers and a battery of Light Artil- 
lery, was organized under command of Brig. Gen. James S. 
Negley. 

The 77th Pennsylvania Regiment, comprising eight in- 
fantry companies and a battery of artillery, was recruited and 
organized at Chambersburg, Pa., and was commanded by 
Frederick Stambaugh. The 79th Pennsylvania Regiment was 
recruited and organized in Lancaster County, and w^as com- 
manded by Col. Henry A. Hambright. 

On the 1 8th of October, 1861, these three regiments, in- 
cluding the battery, marched through Pittsburgh to the Mon- 
ongahela River and embarked on five large steamboats for 
Louisville, Ky. It was thought possible that these trans- 
ports might be fired on from the southern shore of the 
Ohio River after we had reached the Kentucky line, and some 
excitement was created by the sight of a company of men 
with a piece of artillery at one point on the river. It w^as dis- 
covered, however, that they were only there for the purpose 
of firing a salute, and the brigade reached Louisville in safety 
at five o'clock on the afternoon of the twenty-first, and spent 
the night in a tobacco warehouse. At eight o'clock on the 
22nd w-e marched through the city to Oakland and encamped 
in a beautiful grove. 

Kentucky was at this time in a most unhappy political 
condition. It w^as a slave state and most of its productions 
found remunerative markets in the cotton growing states. 
Many business and social ties bound the state to the Southern 
people, ^^^^ile sympathizing with the Southern States the 
majority of the people loved the Union, and the State deter- 
mined to assume the position of armed neutrality, and, if pos- 
sible, act as a mediator between the two sections. The Gov- 
ernor and State Legislature refused to furnish the quota of 
men dcmanrled by the F'ederal Government in the call of April' 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. 1. 25 

T2th, 1 86 1. Neutrality, however, was impossible. The Con- 
federate forces moved into Kentucky, September 3rd, and 
the Federal troops, September seventh. The Governor, in 
accordance with the resolution of the Legislature, demanded 
the withdrawal of the Confederates as violators of the neu- 
trality of the State. They refused to do so except on the con- 
dition that the Federals should also withdraw, and this led to 
an outbreak of hostilities in which its people were divided, 
many joining each army. During the war 91,900 men were 
recruited in Kentucky for our army, while about 40,000 Ken- 
tuckians went South and joined the Confederate forces. Not 
only was neighbor arrayed against neighbor, but members of 
the same family were arrayed against each other, some being 
intensely loyal, while others were in fullest sympathy with the 
people of the South and the cause of the rebellion. 

At Louisville, General Lovell Harrison Rousseau was the 
military leader of the Union troops and friends of the Govern- 
ment, while General Simon Bolivar Buckner was recognized 
as the military leader of the element that was in rebellion 
against the Government. The loyal citizens of Louisville ex- 
tended to Negley's Brigade of Pennsylvanians a very hearty 
welcome, and we heard from their lips many marvelous stor- 
ies of the conflict between General Rousseau and General 
Buckner. 

in. 
Camps Nevin and Negley 

On October 24th our brigade was transferred by the 
Louisville and Nashville Railroad to Camp Nevin on the north 
side of Nolin Creek, about fifty-two miles south of Louisville, 
where it joined a division commanded by General Alexander 
McDowell McCook. On the 24th of November we moved 
with the brigade south of Nolin Creek to Camp Negley, about 
two miles from our first encampment. About this time the 
77th Pennsylvania Regiment was transferred to the Brigade 
of General Thomas J. Wood, and the 21st Wisconsin Volun- 
teer Infantry. Colonel Starkweather commanding, and the 38th 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, Colonel Scribner commanding, 
were transferred to Negley's Brigade. Our position at Camp 
Nevin was on a sloping bluff, healthful, clean and comfortable, 



26 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

but in Camp Negley we were in a swamp and lost many men 
by fevers and other sickness. In camps Nevin and Negley we 
spent our time in squad, company and regimental drill, and 
felt, for the first time, that we were near the enemy. Here 
we had our first lessons in picket duty. General McCook's di- 
vision, the second of the Army of the Ohio, consisted of four 
infantry brigades, the first Regiment Kentucky Cavalry, Bat- 
tery A, 1st Ohio Artillery, Battery A, ist Kentucky Artillery 
and the 26th Pennsylvania Artillery. No other troops were 
within supporting distance. 

Our picket line extended around the whole division and 
when it was thrown out the proper distance from the encamp- 
ment made a line of five or six miles. The command of this 
picket line was habitually given to a lieutenant colonel or ma- 
jor whose duty it was to ride along the line once during the 
day and twice during the night. Nearly the whole line was in 
a dense woods, and the picket on duty guarded a certain por- 
tion of this line. The picket guard was divided into three 
reliefs ; each relief spending two hours on duty and four 
hours off duty. Our line was about a mile from camp and 
the pickets about one hundred yards apart, some in fields, but 
most of them in the woods. During the day pickets not on 
duty amused themselves in various ways, and when encamped 
near tobacco barns exercised their skill in making cigars, for 
personal use, out of cured tobacco leaves. 

Sentinels on the picket line were ordered to call halt three 
times if any one approached from without. During our first 
night on picket in the dense woods, soon after midnight, a 
cry rang out,, "Halt! halt!! halt!!!" It was loud, louder, 
loudest, and the last halt was ])receded by an expression that 
was not found in Hardee's Tactics, and was followed by a loud 
report. The sentinel who fired the shot explained that he 
heard something approaching him and declared that it was 
rattling chains. This occurred twice during the night and it 
was ascertained afterwards that a hobbled mule, in a field near 
by, was the cause of the alarm. Another sentinel from Com- 
pany B made a bayonet charge that night, and captured an 
opossum, thus providing fresh meat for breakfast next morn- 
ing. Another writer, giving a description of picket duty while 
in this camp, says. "Hardly a night passed that a horse, a 
cow or a mule did not pay the penalty with his life for ap- 
proaching too near the picket line. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER TStli REGIMENT P. V. I. 27 




Major Augustus B. Bonnaffon 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 29 

At Camp Nevin, a private of Campany H was shot while 
on picket. Whether the shot was fired by a comrade accident- 
ally, or by an enemy, was never determined. His thigh bone 
was shattered by the bullet, and the wounded limb was am- 
putated, but he died from the effects of the shock, and his body 
was interred in the National Cemetery at Louisville. 

In order to understand the military position, and the po- 
sition of the 78th Regiment, it wnll be necessary for us to say 
a few words about the organization of this department of the 
army. 

When we landed in Kentucky General William T. Sher- 
man was in command, having succeeded General Robert An- 
derson who had command at Charleston Harbor wdien Fort 
Sumter was captured. November 9, 1861, by General Order 
from Washington, General Sherman was relieved, and General 
Don Carlos Buell was assigned the command of the Fourth 
Department of the United States Army, which was designated 
as the Department of the Ohio. 

When General Buell assumed command, the department 
of the Ohio comprised six divisions with thirty-two brigades. 
General George H. Thomas commanding the First Division, 
General Alexander McDowell McCook the Second, General O. 
M. Mitchell the Third, General William Nelson the Fourth, 
General Thomas L. Crittenden the Fifth and General T. J. 
Wood the Sixth. By a General Order December 3rd. the Sec- 
ond Division comprised the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh 
Brigades, together wnth a cavalry regiment and three batteries 
of artillery. The 78th Pennsylvania was in the Seventh Bri- 
gade of McCook's Division, under command of General Xeg- 
ley. 

Nearly three months have elapsed since the soldiers of the 
78th Regiment entered Camp Orr, and the Regiment now had 
a definite place in the Army of the Ohio. The rank and file of 
this Regiment were good specimens of the men who enlisted 
under the President's first call for 300,000 troops. Up to 
this time they seemed to have no thought of either pay or 
promotion. Young men of high social position and superior 
education felt that any contention for office would degrade 
their patriotism, and many felt that willingness to serve in the 
ranks was the best proof of patriotism. These men would 
have enlisted about as cheerfully for thirteen cents a month as 
for thirteen dollars a month. Thev did not go to war for 



30 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

greed of gain, nor at the call of ambition, but at the call of 
patriotism. 

Very few of the members of the 78th Regiment had any- 
experimental knowledge of camp life when they entered the 
army. Each soldier received an adequate supply of comfort- 
able clothing and a good blanket, and he knew how^ to use 
these without special instructions; but, when it came to the 
matter of pitching his tent and living in it, he was utterly ignor- 
ant and inexperienced. The tents in use in the army at that 
time were called "wedge tents." They might have been 
pitched in such a way as to shelter the soldiers without under- 
mining their health, but they were, in reality, pinned close to 
the ground, so that when six men were asleep, and one of them 
wished to turn over on the other side, it was necessary for all 
the others to turn with him. When the tents were pitched, the 
soldiers generally tried to gather some grass or straw or hay 
and strew it on the ground for bedding. A blanket was then 
spread on this bedding, and another blanket w^as used for a cov- 
ering. When the camp was in low, wet ground, it requires 
no effort of the imagination to picture the sanitary condition. 
Most of the soldiers were disposed to economize in oxygen, 
and slept with the tents made as close as possible. The only 
wonder is that ignorance of the laws of health did not under- 
mine the physical constitution of all the soldiers in these first 
months of their army life. Each company had, at this time, 
as much baggage as afterwards sufficed for a whole regiment, 
but the company wdthout experience was far less comfortable 
than the regiment with experience. 



IV. 

At Green River 

FIRST NOISE OF BATTLE 

On the 1 2th of December the brigade marched south to 
Bacon Creek, where we encamped until the 17th of December, 
and then advanced to Munfordsville, a little town on the north 
bank of Green River. The Confederate outpost had retreated 
from this point without offering any special resistance to our 
advance. The banks of Green River at Munfordsville are very 
high, and the railroad bridge that spanned the river was about 
one hundred and fiftv feet above the water. This bridge was 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 31 

destroyed by the retreating Confederates, and a pontoon 
bridge was constructed across the stream by our troops. 

Some of our readers may not know exactly what a pon- 
toon bridge is, but it will be sufficient to say that it is a bridge 
constructed on flat boats placed side by side, about ten feet 
apart, and reaching across the river. 

The soldiers of the 78th Regiment will never forget the 
evening of the 17th of December when they arrived at Mun- 
fordsville. The site for the regimental encampment had been 
selected, arms had been stacked, and the soldiers were busy 
pitching their tents, or gathering prairie grass for bedding, 
when the sound of musketry, interspersed with the roar of ar- 
tillery, was borne to their ears from across the river, and the 
long roll summoned them to arms. It was the first time we 
had ever heard the long roll as a summons to prepare for bat- 
tle, and when we realized w^hat it meant, there was intense ex- 
citement. We were exhilerated rather than alarmed, not so 
much because we were courageous, as because we did not 
know the danger. In less time than it takes to write it, the 
Regiment was under arms and marching rapidly in the direc- 
tion of Green River. But in a few minutes the firing ceased, 
and all was over. Nevertheless there had been a desperate and 
bloody conflict between General Hindman's Confederate troops 
ai:d our pickets on the other side of the river. 

Tt is impossible to get the exact facts in regard to this 
fight, but current reports at that time represented the enemy 
as numbering about 3,000, under General Hindman. together 
with a regiment of Texas rangers, commanded by Colonel 
Terry. The only troops engaged on our side were the 32nd 
Indiana Regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Von 
Trobea, who were on picket; and they numbered in all about 
four or five hundred. When the attack was made the reserve 
of the picket line formed a hollow square, and met the attack 
with great coolness, and finally repulsed it. The loss of the 
32nd Indiana was twelve killed and about twenty wounded. 
Citizens in the neighborhood reported that the loss of the Con- 
federates was forty-nine killed and seventy wounded. Gen- 
eral Hindman's report makes his loss very small, but Colonel 
Terry, the commander of the Texas rangers, was among the 
killed. This bloody conflict was worse than useless; it was 
not magnificent, and it was not war. In the ethics of war, 
savage attacks on pickets, that are not a prelude to a great 



32 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78tli REGIMENT P. V. I. 

battle, could hardly be reckoned anything else than inexcusable 
murder. Bush whacking is no part of civilized warfare. 

In preparing this history the writer regrets the loss of his 
diary, in which he had kept a daily record of passing events 
and observations up to the 27th of May, 1863. This diary 
had been his constant companion for nearly three years, and 
was lost when he was wounded at the battle of New Hope 
Church. Its loss will prevent his being able to describe things 
just as they seemed to us at the time. So far as the matter 
of dates is concerned, we have the diaries of the late Captain 
Marlin, W. H. Dickey, William Millen and others, and we 
have also the Morning Reports of a number of companies ; but 
we cannot see things now exactly as we saw and described 
them then. Our change in the point of observation leads us 
to see and describe things in the light of subsequent history. 
We notice, for example, the marked change in the use of terms. 
In the first year of the War, the name given to the enemy, and 
gladly accepted by them, was ''Secessionist" or "Rebel." We 
now call them Confederates, and the average Confederate feels 
ofTended if he is spoken of or addressed as a "Rebel." 

Another name that was applied to the Confederate soldier 
during the W^ar seems to have become obsolete, for I do not 
now find it even in the lexicography of slang; that is the name 
"Johnnies." The Southern people, at that time, designated 
the Federal soldiers as "Yankees," and they generally regarded 
it as about the worst epithet they could apply. They now 
speak of us as the Northern soldiers, and we speak of them 
as the Southern soldiers. 

From the 17th of December, 1861. to the 14th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1862, we were encamped at Green River, Kentucky, 
and the time was spent in drilling and in picket duties. The 
sudden and savage attack on the pickets south of the river led 
us to feel that picketing was a more serious and dangerous 
business than it had been at Camps Nevin and Negley. We 
had, by our experience, learned to take care of ourselves better 
but we had now to contend with the cold, the rain, the sleet 
and snow of winter. The wedge tent had been exchanged for 
the larger and much more comfortable Sibley tent, but our 
condition was not favorable to comfort and contentment. 

The pontoon bridge across Green River was the only 
means of communication between our picket line and the Army 
encamped on the northern bank of the river, and it was very 
important that this line should not be broken. When the 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. !. 33 

river was swollen with heavy rains it was always necessary 
to guard the bridge night and day to prevent its being carried 
away by the heavy drift-wood that was constantly lodging 
against it. We have a very vivid recollection of spending one 
of the darkest and most disagreeable nights of the winter cm 
that pontoon bridge. The wind was blowing a hurricane, 
a cold rain was falling, the night was dark, and there was con- 
stant danger that some heavy drift-wood might carry the 
bridge away at any moment. But a squad of fifteen or twenty 
soldiers, who knew more about lumbering than they did about 
military life, succeeded in dislodging all the drift wood, and 
saving the bridge. An officer of the Regiment, speaking of 
how he spent a night on the bridge, declared that, for the 
first time, he contemplated desertion. 

Picket duty at this time was usually performed by regi- 
ments. A regiment would cross the bridge in the morning and 
relieve the pickets on duty, about one-third of the regiment be- 
ing needed for service in the picket line, the remainder occupy- 
ing a strong position in case an attack should be made. 

Two or three things stand out \ery prominently in our 
recollection of the Green River encampment. One of these 
concerns John Morgan. Our picket line was in a semi-circle, 
extending out about a mile from the river. Some distance 
beyond the picket line, on the Louisville and Nashville Rail- 
road, was Rowlet's Station, and one day this station was dis- 
covered to be on fire. When an investigation was made, the 
people at the station reported, that a number of men had come 
and set the station on fire, and that one of them had said, "If 
General ^IcCook asks who did it, tell him that it was the bold 
Morgan." This was our first knowledge of the man who 
afterwards became very famous. Another thing that we re- 
member very distinctly was the quality of our drinkinp- water. 
We were encamped three-fourths of a mile from the river, and 
for a time, filled our canteens from ponds in the neighborhood. 
As w^e think of that water now, we wonder that the whole 
Regiment was not on the sick list. Another thing that made 
an indelible impression on the minds of many soldiers was the 
bugle reveille. Pickets, on duty at six o'clock on a crisp cold 
December morning, heard this bugle blast with varied emo- 
tions. Some, who had read their Bibles more than all other 
books, thought of the bugles of Gideon, the Macabees and 
other heroes of Hebrew historv: others, more familiar with 
the works of Sir Walter Scott, thought of the scene in the 



34 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

Highlands of Scotland, when James Fitz James defied Roder- 
ick Dhu, and at the shrill whistle of Roderick five hundred men 
came forth. Never did bugle calls seem to have more inspira- 
tion in them than when they cleft the frosty atmosphere on 
these winter mornings, and summoned soldiers at Green River 
to the duties of a new day. 

While we were in camp at Green River, General George 
H. Thomas' Division gained a signal victory over the Con- 
federates at Mill Spring, Kentucky, under Gen. George B. 
Crittenden, a brother of our General Thomas L. Crittenden. 
In this battle the enemy lost heavily in killed and wounded. 
General ZollicofTer, of Tennessee, being killed. General 
Thomas' forces captured fourteen pieces of artillery and a 
large amount of camp equipage, but in the dark night that fol- 
lowed the battle the remnant of the enemy's forces escaped into 
Tennessee. This event was deeply impressed on the minds of 
the soldiers at Green River because the body of General Zolli- 
cofifer was carried through our camp under a flag of truce, and 
was given to the Confederates on the 8th day of January, 1862. 



V. 
Onward to Nashville, Tenn. 

On the first of February, 1862, the railroad bridge over 
Green River had been rebuilt, and there was a general expec- 
tation that the Army would soon advance southward. This 
expectation was quickened by the news of General Grant's 
victories in Western Tennessee, and when on the 13th of Feb- 
ruary our Division of the Army received marching orders, we 
felt that the time had come for moving on Nashville. When 
■we marched out of camp, however, on the morning of the 
14th, instead of going in the direction of Nashville, we 
marched some fourteen miles in the direction of Louisville to 
Upton Station. The general impression then was that we 
were to join General Grant's forces on the Cumberland River, 
going by the way of West Point, and the Ohio, etc., and this, 
I believe, was the plan of the commander of the Army. The 
snow was two inches deep and when we encamped for the 
night it was very cold ; the Army, however, was not very large, 
and a few grain and hay stacks afforded suf^cient straw and 
hay for bedding, so that we spent a comfortable night. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 35 

Early in the morning the report of an attack on Fort 
Donelson was confirmed, and the soldiers exhibited great en- 
thusiasm and great anxiety to push forward, but no orders 
came. Later in the day they received marching orders, but 
again they were surprised, for, instead of continuing their 
march they turned their faces toward Green River. This 
gave rise to the report that we were going back to our camp at 
Green River, and there was great dissatisfaction. It turned 
out however, that we were really on our way to Nashville. We 
bivouacked for the night two miles south of Bacon Creek, 
and on the i6th we marched past our old camping ground at 
Green River. The Army was in the best mood. We crossed 
Green River on the newly completed railroad bridge with 
flying colors, while the bands played Dixie Land. We halted 
for the night a mile and a half south of the river. On the 17th 
of February we marched twenty-two miles south, and en- 
camped near Long's Cave, and called our camp "Camp Mam- 
bright." The roads were very bad. and, when we w-ent into 
camp, all were very tired. We remained in Camp Ham- 
bright till the 23rd of February, and during that time many of 
the soldiers visited Long's Cave, which was said to be a branch 
of the Mammoth Cave. Col. Sirwell, Lieut. Col. Blakeley, 
Chaplain Christy, Captain Gillespie and a few others rode 
nine miles to the mouth of the Mammoth Cave, secured a guide 
and explored it to the so-called river, and it being too high 
to cross, returned. 

On the 3rd of February, wath the rest of General Mc- 
Cook's Division, we marched about twenty miles to Bowling 
Green on Barren River, where we encamped for three days. 
On the 27th we crossed Barren River, and passing through 
Bowling Green, marched twenty-two miles southward, biv- 
ouacking for the night one and a half miles south of the 
town of Franklin. The mud was indescribable; it rained most 
•of the day, and when we turned aside into the woods for the 
night, we seemed a spectacle for men and angels. It was 
the hardest day's march so far in the history of the Regiment, 
and when we stopped for the night it was still raining. We 
succeeded, however, in preparing a cup of coffee, and a re- 
freshing sleep on a bed of rails renewed our strength so that 
the next morning life still seemed worth living. By seven 
o'clock on the 28th, we were again on the march, and that 
night bivouacked twenty miles farther south, and having 
crossed the Tennessee line. On the 29th w^e marched fifteen 



36 HISTORY A-ND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

miles and halted for the night only about ten miles north of 
Nashville. The second of March found us encamped on the 
north side of Cumberland River, near Edgefield, where we 
remained until the 7th, when a part of the Regiment became 
provost guards of that suburb of Nashville. 

The march from Green River to the Barren River at Bowl- 
ing Green was beset with a peculiar difficulty. The route crosses 
the Mammoth Cave and the earth rock being cavernous, there 
was said to be no living water on the line of march, people using 
pond water. Ponds exist all over south-western Kentucky and 
consist of a rounded hole in the earth rock in the shape of a 
bowl, said to have been rounded out in that way by the harder 
rocks carried there from the North in the glacial period. 

These ponds fill up with melted snow and rain, and having 
no outlet, furnish water for stock the year round, and the poorer 
families and colored people use it for household purposes. 
When the confederates retreated from their Green River line, 
supposing we would have to rely on the pond water, it is said, 
they drove old mules and worn out horses into these ponds and 
shot them. Dead cats and dogs were also found in them. Our 
wagons laid in a supply of water to enable our troops and 
animals to get through. For some cause the 78th lay at Bell's 
Tavern a few days, and the men in exploring the caves in that 
vicinity, found a small cave in an old abandoned overgrown 
fence row in which there was a spring of excellent water of which 
the oldest citizen seemed to know nothing. As our men will 
remember, there were times when we had to use pond water and 
if the pond had been cleaned and taken care of, the water was 
good, but when mixed with dead dogs, cats, horses and mules, 
we declined and drove the enemy out of southern Kentucky 
notwithstanding their inhuman effort to prevent us 

There was an interesting romance connected with our en- 
campment at Green River. Col. Wood, a wealthy and promi- 
nent Kentuckian, lived on the north side of the river, where he 
owned large tracts of land, had been a member of Congress. He 
was the father of General Thomas J. Wood, who commanded a 
brigade in McCook's Division and was encamped on his father's 
land. The whole camp was named Camp Wood in honor of the 
owner of the land. 

Simon Bolivar Buckner was about the same age as Thomas 
J. Wood. Buckner's house was on the south side of the river 
where his father was also a large land holder. The two boys 
were playmates, fished and swam together. They were both 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 37 

educated at West Point. During our encampment on the north 
of the river, General Wood's old playmate, Simon Bolivar Buck- 
ner, had command of the confederate troops in our immediate 
front and most of them encamped on his father's farm. 

The occupation of Nashville by the Federal troops was a 
great event. General Grant's victory on the Cumberland 
River and the onward movement of General Buell's Army had 
greatly encouraged the Unionists of Tennessee and discour- 
aged those who w'ere in sympathy with the Rebellion. 

As provost guards in Edgefield we had a good oppor- 
tunity of observing the citizens in that town in their own 
homes, and we obtained some insight into the character and 
spirit of the Southern people. Some of the women of the city 
sought to show^ their contempt for the Union soldiers in many 
ways that w ere not creditable to themselves, but we could not 
discriminate between the women who were the true representa- 
tives of Southern w^omanhood and those who were not. We 
are inclined to believe now^ that the insults to the soldiers came 
from the latter class. 

The following incident, related by one of the prominent 
elders in the Second Presbyterian Church of Nashville, one 
of the largest and most prosperous churches in the city, will 
indicate the social, religious and political conditions of the 
city. He says, "Our Church was composed of about an equal 
number of Unionists and Secessionists. Our convictions were 
intense, but each one had a good degree of respect for the con- 
victions of those who differed from him. At the Wednesday 
evening prayer-meeting, preceding the coming of the Union 
Army, one of the brethren led in prayer, and asked the Lord 
to bless and prosper the Southern people and bring confusion 
to their enemies. While he was praying about half the people 
sat down. He was followed by one who prayed for the pros- 
perity of the Union cause and for a blessing on the Union 
Army, asking- that the spirit of rebellion might speedily be sup- 
pressed. While he prayed, about half the people kept their 
seats. The third man to lead in prayer asked the Lord, in 
His infinite wisdom, to do whatsoever would be for the best, 
and to make them willing to submit. They all stood up dur- 
ing that prayer." This incident indicates the intensity of 
feeling and the profound convictions of both sides. Many of 
those w^ho engaged in the War of the Rebellion believed that 
slavery was a Divine institution, and that it should be main- 
tained, that only heretics and infidels condemned it. They 



38 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

were as intense in their convictions as Saul of Tarsus before 
his conversion. 

The Governor of Tennessee and many other citizens of 
Nashville who were disloyal to the United States Govern- 
ment and in sympathy with the Rebellion fled from their 
homes when the Federal Army approached the city, but when 
they discovered that the United States Army was not making 
war on civilians some of them returned to their homes. 

Some of the soldiers on provost duty were quartered in 
residences that had been deserted by their owners, and, for 
the first time in many months, slept in beds instead of sleep- 
ing on the ground. As a result of this pampering, and because 
the Army had been without vegetable diet during the winter, 
a great many soldiers were sick with jaundice while we were 
in Edgefield. 

On the 1 6th of -March we were relieved from provost 
duties in Edgefield and were ferried across the Cumberland 
River to Nashville and marched through the City to Camp 
"Andy Johnson." This camp was beautifully located in the 
suburbs south of Nashville. 



VI. 

The Summer of 1862 

The summer of 1862 was a very eventful and critical per- 
iod in the War. About the middle of March General Buell 
commenced his march through Franklin and Columbia to 
Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River, leaving General 
Negley's Brigade to guard the communications. On the 23rd 
of March the 78th Regiment left Camp Andy Johnson, march- 
ed twenty-two miles southward, and bivouacked a mile south 
of Franklin. On the 25th we marched eighteen miles farther 
south to Camp "Bill Sirwell" on Carter's Creek, not far from 
Columbia. From this time onward the Regiment with Head 
Quarters at Franklin and Columbia guarded the lines of com- 
munication between General Buell's Army and his base of 
supplies on the railroads running southward through Franklin, 
Columbia and Pulaski. If we were to give a complete history 
of the Regiment during this period it would be necessary to 
give a separate sketch of the marches, countermarc'ies, guard 
duties and general experiences of each individual company. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. Z9 

for we guarded Franklin, Columbia, Pulaski, the railroad over 
Carter's Creek and many other important adjacent points. 

About the time we left Nashville Lieutenant Colonel 
Blakeley was detailed by General Buell and made President of 
the General Court Martial and Military Commission, estab- 
lished in Nashville. He served in this capacity during the 
summer and was not with the Regiment. In this service Col- 
onel Blakeley had a position of great responsibility. This 
Court tried by Court Martial, all purely military cases that 
had accumulated in this Department of the Army, and, as 
a Military Commission, passed judgment on the civilians who 
had been arrested by the military authorities. • 

By the first of May General Buell's Army was consider- 
ably separated, one Division being at Corinth, another not far 
from Florence and the third not far from Chattanooga, all 
confronting General Bragg's Army which lay south of the 
Tennessee River. The 78th Regiment guarded especially the 
communications connecting the two western divisions of this 
Army with their base of supplies at Nashville. On the 4th 
of May the Regiment marched to within a few miles of Pu- 
laski and bivouacked for the night. On the 5th of May Camp 
Findley was established, and part of the Regiment became pro- 
vost guards at Pulaski, Captain Gillespie having been ap- 
pointed Provost Marshal. On the nth of May a detachment, 
comprising A., I. and probably other companies under com- 
mand of Captain Cummins, marched to Elkton, where they 
crossed Elk River and marched three miles south, bivouacking 
for the night. On the 12th they crossed the Alabama line at 
Elkton and then countermarched and crossing Elk River, 
rested for the night. On the 13th the expedition, or a part of 
it, returned to Pulaski. On the 12th of May several com- 
panies of the Regiment left Camp Findley and marched to 
Rogersville, Alabama, a distance of thirty-six miles, reaching 
Rogersville on the evening of the 13th. On the i6th and 17th 
they marched to Florence, a distance of twenty-four miles ; on 
the 1 8th they marched to Lawrenceburg. and on the 20th to 
Mount Pleasant, and thence by way of Columbia back to Pulas- 
ki, where they arrived on the 23rd and pitched their tents on 
the old camp ground. 

On the 25th of May the Regiment again marched in the 
direction of Rogersville, arriving on the evening of the 26th 
and encamping in the woods a few miles from the Tennessee 
River. During the first few days of our encampment at Rog- 



40 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

ersville, Confederate sharp shooters, in some houses on the 
other side of the Tennessee River, lired at our soldiers where- 
ever they could get sight of them near the river. This was not 
much more than an annoyance, for the river was nearly a 
mile wide at this point and the bullets of the enemy generally 
fell short or did little damage; but, in order to get rid of them, 
two pieces of artillery were brought down into the woods and 
opened fire when the sharp shooters beat a hasty retreat. To 
pre\ent their return two men from one of the companies of the 
Regiment tied matches in their hair, swam across the river 
and burnt the buildings. 

On the 1 2th of June two or three companies of the Regi- 
ment crossed the Tennessee River on flat l3oats and marched 
a few miles south on a reconnoisance, but did not discover any 
Confederate soldiers. This expedition returned the same even- 
ing and recrossed the river. The Regiment remained near 
Rogersville until the i8th of June, when we again marched 
northward, reaching Pulaski on the evening of the 19th. On 
the 20th we marched in the direction of Columbia, arriving 
at six o'clock on the evening of the 21st. 

From this time until the latter part of August the Regi- 
ment acted as provost guards of Columbia, Pulaski, Elkton 
and other points, sending out expeditions wherever danger 
threatened. During this period we saw a very pleasant side 
of military life. We occasionally had a forced march, and 
were constantly on the alert, but we had only sufficient danger 
to keep up our interest and remind us that we were still in 
the Army. Our camps were usually in very pleasant groves, 
and, in this beautiful and .fertile section of Tennessee, the 
soldiers could buy fruits and vegetables to supplement their 
rations from Uncle Sam. 

We catch a glimpse of the manner of life we lived during 
the months of July and August, when we read the records 
found in the diaries of different soldiers, and the remarks 
found in the morning report books of different companies. 
For example, in the diary of a soldier of Company A, we 
read the following: "July 13th, we marched at five o'clock 
and arrived at Elkton at four P. M., where we bivouacked 
for the night. On the 14th we left Elkton, marched twelve 
miles down the river to Elkton Station, received orders to go 
to Pulaski and arrived at Pulaski at five P. M.'* "On the 
17th we were called into line of battle." "On the 5th of 
August we moved into the courthouse at Pulaski."^ This 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78tli REGIMENT P. V. I. 41 

last record will remind the soldiers that were on provost duty 
about Pulaski, of the cotton-bale fortifications we built around 
the public square. Another record, found in the diary of a 
member of Company I, tells of a detachment of the Regiment 
under Captain Elwood, marching on the 3rd of August to the 
south side of Elk River, where they built a stockade, complet- 
ing it on the 9th. This detachment remained south of Elk 
River until the 28th of August when they constituted the 
rear guard of General Buell's Army (then moving northward) 
and came very near being overlooked in the order to retreat. 



VII. 

BuelFs Army in Kentucky — The 78th Regiment at 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Our readers will remember that in August of 1862, the 
Confederate Army, under General Bragg, attempted a flank 
movement for the purpose of cutting off our communications 
with Louisville and Cincinnati and re-occupying Kentucky. At 
the beginning of this movement our Army held the territory of 
Southen Tennessee, north of the Tennessee River, while the 
Confederate Army held the territory south of the Tennessee 
River. Our communication with our base of supplies at 
Louisville and Cincinnati was by the Southern Kentucky Rail- 
road and the Louisville and Nashville Railroad to Nashville, 
and by the Tennessee and Alabama, south of Nashville. Early 
in August General Bragg suddenly crossed the Tennessee 
River, east of our lines, and marched in the direction of Louis- 
ville and Cincinnati. This movement compelled General Buell 
to fall back along the line of the Louisville and Nashville Rail- 
road. 

When this countermarching began, our Regiment was 
at Elkton, Pulaski and other adjacent points, and was the last 
detachment of troops to pass over the railroad back to Nash- 
ville, a distance of more than a hundred miles. This was 
about as dangerous railroading as we ever did, for we were 
constantly expecting an attack from the enemy and were also 
expecting the railroad track to be torn up. The railroad was 
not in good condition, and the grades at different points were 
so heavy that the locomotive was not able to haul the train over 



42 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

the ridges. On down grades we ran as fast as possible in 
order to accumulate sufficient momentum to carry us over the 
next ridge, provided the train kept on the track. 

A short distance north of Pulaski a bridge had been 
burned by the rebel cavalry. When our trains reached this 
point we could have abandoned them and marched northward 
to Nashville, but, if we had done so, we should have lost a 
large part of our camp equipage, together with four or five 
train loads of cotton. We, therefore, set to work at once to 
rebuild the bridge, using cotton bales in building piers. When 
the bridge was completed, our trains passed over it and we 
reached Columbia August 29, without serious accident. We 
remained in Columbia until the 31st, when we received march- 
ing orders, and, on the 2d of September, arrived at Nashville. 

By the 8th of September, the main body of our Army was 
at Nashville, Tennessee, and moving rapidly northward on the 
line of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad in order to head 
off General Bragg. Our retreat, if it could be called a retreat, 
had been so deliberate and orderly that we saved nearly all our 
army stores besides gathering in large herds of cattle for the 
use of the Army. All of General Buell's troops joined in the 
race northward except the brigades of General John M. Palmer 
and General James S.Negley, which were left to hold the State 
Capital. Andrew Johnson was then the military Governor of 
the State. 

The 78th Pennsylvania, being in General Negley's Brig- 
ade, remained at Nashville, and, during the next two months 
we had no knowledge of what was taking place either in the 
Eastern Army or in Kentucky or anywhere else except in our 
own immediate neighborhood. We were in a state of seige, 
cut off from all communications in every direction. Detach- 
ments of Confederate troops hovered around us and frequently 
attacked us, but their attacks were repelled, and we were com- 
forted with the thought that our Army would give the Con- 
federate Army all it could do in Kentucky so that General 
Bragg would not detach a large body of troops to attack us in 
Nashville. 

From the 8th of September until the 8th of November "ihis 
little section of the United States Army at Nashville had its 
own commissary department and was, to a great extent, a law 
unto itself. Foraging expeditions were sent out every few 
days from ten to fifteen miles into the country in order to 
gather in grain, cattle, hogs and everything else needed for the 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 43 

support of the Army. These things were taken in an orderly 
manner, vouchers being given so that settlement could be made 
w^ith the owners on proof of their loyalty to the Unieted States 
Government. During all this time the most thorough discipline 
was maintained. 

It may not be amiss at this point to turn aside and devote 
a little space to the discussion of a matter that concerns the 
honor of the Army. We have heard a great deal about the 
soldiers stealing from the citizens in the region of the country 
through which the Army passed and in which it encamped. 
These stories may have a little foundation in fact, but they give 
a false impression. No soldiers ever had better opportunity 
for taking what did not belong to them than the soldiers com- 
prising this command had during the time that there was 
wholesale, legal confiscation to provide for the wants of the 
Army. The average soldier believed that the Government 
they served should provide him the food, shelter and comforts 
of army life, and demanded such confiscation as might be 
necessary to furnish these comforts, but did not regard legal 
confiscation as theft. 

We feel confident that it was the rarest exception for any 
soldier of our Regiment to take anything without paying for it 
in a way that was satisfactory to both parties. The soldiers 
carried their consciences with them into the Army, and recog- 
nized the rights of property there just as they did when at 
home. Some of the stories that we hear from the lips of old 
soldiers would lead to the inference that the average soldier 
had no hesitation in taking what did not belong to him. The 
inference would be utterly false. The best soldiers in the 
Army had as great contempt for theft always and everywhere 
as the best citizens at home, and the average officer in the Army 
punished one guilty of theft as severely as he would have been 
punished under civil law. We cannot speak for the whole 
Army, but we can say for the 78th Regiment that nine out of 
every ten would have considered it as disgraceful to steal any- 
thing in the Army as they would have considered it to steal 
anything at home. We believe that what was true of this 
Regiment was true to a very great extent, of the other regi- 
ments comprising the Army of the United States. In sport, 
in order to vary the monotony of life, they might take fruit or 
corn, just as a party of raccoon hunters in Western Pennsyl- 
vania, would take corn from a neighboring com field to fur- 



U HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

nish forth the camp-fire feast, but good soldiers were always 
willing to pay full price for anything that might have been tak- 
•en in any such spirit of merriment. The soldiers of the 78th 
Regiment became quite intimately acquainted with many citi- 
zens of Tennessee during this summer, and we are confident 
that Mr. Henley of Carter's Creek and the other prominent citi- 
zens in all that region would willingly confirm our statements. 

Occasionally, on our foraging expeditions during these 
two months we had skirmishes with the enemy's cavalry, and 
we were always on the qui vive. Occasionally, too, we went 
•on expeditions against the forces of the enemy reported tO' be 
•encamped in the neighboHiood. For example, on the first of 
October we marched out the Gallatin Road and then, leaving 
the pike to the left, surprised a small encampment and cap- 
tured about a dozen rebels. 

One of the most exciting events in connection with our 
stay in Nashville occurred on the first of October, At eight 
o'clock the preceding evening we were ordered under arms, 
but remained in the city until 11 o'clock, when we marched 
out the Nolinsville Road five miles. Then, leaving the main 
Ihighway, we marched over by-roads and across the country, 
arriving on the southeast side of the town of Lavergne, fifteen 
miles distant from Nashville, at five o'clock in the morning. A 
detachment of General Palmer's Brigade, having marched by 
a different route, approached the town of Lavergne from the 
southeast, and opened fire on a Confederate force encamped in 
the neighborhood. The Confederates were taken by surprise, 
and, after a sharp skirmish which lasted probably half an hour, 
part of them escaped, but we captured some three hundred 
prisoners. The 78th captured ninety-four men of the 32d Al- 
abama Regiment. In the remarks found in the Morning Re- 
port Book of Company F for that day, we read the following 
report : "Company F captured eleven prisoners, the total num- 
ber captured by the Regiment being one hundred and eighty, 
including one lieutenant colonel, one captain, five lieutenants 
and several officers." In the diary of W. H. Dickey for that 
day we find the following record : "The rebel cavalry made 
their escape to our left, but the 78th succeeded in capturing 
ninety-four prisoners belonging to the 3 2d Alabama. The 
Federal loss was four killed and fifteen wounded, while the 
Confederate loss was thirty killed, eight wounded and three 
hundred prisoners. The next day a detachment from the Reg- 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 45 

iment escorted part of these prisoners through our Hnes to La- 
vergne, they having been paroled." Prom this time onward 
until the return of the Federal Army from Kentucky, we had 
almost daily rumors of Confederate forces being in the neigh- 
borhood, and we were constantly expecting an attack. On 
the 14th of October an order was issued that the troops at 
Nashville should always be under arms at four o'clock in the 
morning and remain under arms until daylight each day. 

At eleven p. m. on the 19th, we received orders to be 
ready to march at midnight with one day's rations. At one 
o'clock we marched out across the Cumberland River through 
Edgefield. When about five miles from the city, we found 
and attacked a camp of Confederate cavalry or guerillas, num- 
bering about 1,500 men. We drove them some three miles to 
Neeley's Bend, when they crossed the Cumberland River at 
what is known as Hermitage Ford. On the opposite bank of 
the river they formed a line of battle and fired a few volleys, 
killing one member of Company F and wounding several 
members of the advance guards of our Regiment. As soon as 
our forces came up and fired, they retreated and we did not 
pursue them further. The loss of the enemy is not exactly 
known, but one colonel and six men, at least, were killed. 

This brief sketch will give our readers some glimpses of 
our experiences while tlie main Army was in Kentucky. There 
were skirmishes at White's Creek, Charlotteville and Frank- 
lin Pike that will be remembered by soldiers of the Regiment. 
In Bates' History of the 78th Regiment the condition of affairs, 
while we were holding Nashville, is described by a member of 
the command as follows : "Affairs w^ore a gloomy aspect while 
we were in the besieged city. Shut out from the world, with 
no news for months from the Army, or from home, surrounded 
by a vindictive enemy, compelled to fight for every mouthful of 
food we ate, the condition of the garrison became every day 
more critical, yet no one was discouraged, but all were de- 
termined to stand by the city with full faith that under the 
gallant Negley and Palmer it would be successfully held." 

Our experiences during the summer will not he forgotton,. 
and they were, in some respects, unique. We had no great 
sense of danger, for we felt able to defend the city against any 
ordinary force that might be sent against us. but there was 
great anxiety in regard to the outcome of the campaign in 
Kentucky. We knew, too, that the friends at home would be 



46 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

very anxious in regard to our welfare, and, not hearing from 
us for so long, they would be led to the conclusion that we had 
all been captured, if not killed. It is not necessary to say that 
the advance guard of our Army, returning from Kentucky, 
was hailed with delight, and our first letters from home were 
read with intense interest. 

The Morning Report Books of some of the companies 
tell us that the advance of our Army returning from Ken- 
tucky reached Nashville on the 6th of November, but Bates' 
History says that on the morning of the 26th of October we 
saw from our fortifications the victorious legions of General 
Rosecrans approaching the city. It is possible that a 
detachment from General Rosecrans' Army reached the city on 
the 6th of November, and that our first mail was received on 
the 1 2th. 

On the 30th of October, 1862, General W. S. Rosecrans 
succeeded General Buell, and this part of the Army was des- 
ignated the "Department of the Cumberland." On the 7th of 
November, General Rosecrans issued orders assigning to Gen- 
eral George H. Thomas the command of the center of the 
Army. His command included the divisions of Rousseau, 
Negley, Dumont, Frye and Palmer, the 78th Regiment being 
in General John F. IMiller's brigade of Negley's division. 
General McCook was given command of the right wing of the 
Army and General Crittenden commanded the left. 

During the latter part of November and the first half of 
December, General Bragg, commanding the Confederate forc- 
es, took possession of Murfreesboro, Tennessee. The organi- 
zation of General Rosecrans' Army was now permanently 
and definitely fixed, with General Thomas commanding the 
center, General McCook the right and General Crittenden the 
left. General Thomas' command comprised three divisions 
General Rosseau commanding the first, General Negley the 
second and General Palmer the third. 

On the loth of December the 78th Regiment was re- 
leased from provost duty and moved out with the Army to 
Camp Hamilton, six miles south of the city. Here Miller's 
Brigade was assigned to the eigth division, commanded by 
General Negley, and the division was reviewed on the nth by 
General Rosecrans, commander of the Army. Our experience 
as provost guards of the city afforded us an opportunity of see- 
ing the worst part of city life. The Louisville and Nash- 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 47 

ville railroad depots are located in the worst social part of the 
city, and the guards at the station were in demand every night 
to settle brawls in disreputable places in that section of the 
city. During most of this time the Regiment was quartered 
in the court house. 



VIII. 
The Battle of Stone River 

By the middle of December the Louisville and Nashville 
Railroad had been repaired, and by the 20th sulhcienc provi- 
sions had been accumulated to support the Army until naviga- 
tion should be opened on the Cumberland River. The two 
armies were at this time well equipped and nearly equal in num- 
erical strength. The Army of the Cumberland had slight advan- 
tage in numbers, but this was more than counterbalanced by 
the fact that it was to be the attacking army, and would need to 
employ a good many regiments in guarding its supply trains, 
while the Confederate Army would be on the defensive. From 
the 1 2th of December until the 26th the time was devoted to 
drilling and disciplining the troops and perfecting the organ- 
zation of the Army. Foraging expeditions went out nearly 
every day and they generally reported skirmishes with the en- 
emy. Reconnoitering parties also went out on all the prin- 
cipal roads leading in the direction of Murfreesboro in order 
to ascertain the position and the strength of the enemy. 

The 24th of December was a clear, bright day, and the 
78th Regiment spent the day in reconnoitering. The signal 
corps of the Army was not at that time as thoroughly organ- 
ized as afterwards, and sentinels were stationed on the tops of 
the hills in the neighborhood to keep a lookout for the enemy, 
and report to the commanders of the reconnoitering expedi- 
tions. The writer, with a squad of infantry, spent the day on 
the top of a hill overlooking all the roads leading in the di- 
rection of Murfreesboro, while a squad of cavalry remained at 
the foot of the hill to carry messages to the front. From our 
point of observation we could see our reconnoitering parties on 
the different roads to a distance of probably four or five miles, 
and we could also know something of the movements of the en- 
emy by the clouds of dust that were visible in the distance. 



48 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

There were several sharp skirmishes during the day, and we 
could hear the boom of the cannon and see the smoke rising. 

No general advance was made on Christmas Day, but we 
all felt that the close of the old year and the ushering in of the 
new would be memorable in history because it would contain 
the record of a great battle between the Union forces under 
General Rosecrans, and the Confederate forces under General 
Bragg. Our Army was in good spirits and confident of vic- 
tory, but there was unusual thoughtfulness, and the letters 
written home were more serious than usual. 

In this sketch of the battle of Stone River we shall not at- 
tempt to give a scientific description of the battle in military 
terms, although the Compte de Paris says this battle was 
planned and executed in fuller accord with military science 
than any other battle of the War that had been fought up to 
that time. Neither shall we attempt to give a sketch of the bat- 
tle from the standpoint of the commander of the Army, who 
looks upon the whole field from a central position and sees in 
all parts of the field the outworkings or failure of his own 
plans. We shall try to picture the battle as it was seen and 
participated in by the soldiers and line officers of our Regi- 
ment. Nevertheless, it will be necessary to give a complete 
sketch of the battle in order to show the part taken by our own 
Regiment. 

Our brigade was commanded by Colonel John F. Miller 
of the 39th Indiana, and comprised the 78th Pennsylvania, the 
74th Ohio, the 37th Indiana and the 21st Ohio Regiments, 
with Battery G, ist Ohio Volunteer Artillery and the ist Ken- 
tucky Battery. General Stanley commanded the ist brigade 
of General Negley's Division, and ours was designated as the 
2d. In this battle the 77th Pennsylvania fought in the 2d brig- 
ade of the 2d division under General McCook, while the 7Qth 
Pennsylvania was in the 3d brigade, 2nd division, commanded 
by General Rosseau. 

Murfreesboro is situated on high rolling ground on the 
right bank of Stone River about thirty miles from Nashville. 
Previous to the war it claimed a population of five thousand. 
It is the center of a rich agricultural district, and from it di- 
verge many turnpikes and roads communicating with the 
principal places in middle Tennessee. General Polk and Kir- 
by Smith of the Confederate Army were at Murfreesboro, 
while Hardee's corps was on the Shelbvville and Noblensville 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 4* 

turnpike, between Triune and Eaglesville, when the Stone 
River campaign began. 

The morning of December 26th was cloudy and misty, 
but the reveille sounded an hour before day; tents were 
"struck," and at break of day the army moved forward in 
three columns, the right wing under General McCook, advanc- 
ing by the Nolensville Pike to Triune ; the center, under Gen- 
eral Thomas, by the Franklin and Wilson Pikes to Nolensville, 
and the left wing, under General Crittenden, by the Murfrees- 
boro pike to Lavergne. We struck the picket lines and out- 
posts of the enemy very soon after we passed our own lines, 
and brisk skirmishing was kept up during the day. It rained 
almost incessantly, and the roads were very muddy, but the 
enthusiasm of the soldiers was not dampened. 

At early dawn of the morning of the 27th the troops 
were on the march, and there was brisk skirmishing all day 
and frequent artillery duels, with little damage to either side. 
Inasmuch as the enemy destroyed the bridges on their retreat, 
and it was necessary to repair them in some cases, there was 
but little progress made on the 28th. By the evening of the 
29th, however, the main body of the army had reached a posi- 
tion some five or six miles from Murfreesboro, and, so far as 
possible, was formed in line of battle and bivouacked for the 
night. On the 30th of December the* two armies faced each 
other, and, so far as the average soldier or line officer could 
judge, there seemed to be no good reason why the battle should 
not be fought at once. There were rumors that General 
Bragg's Army was retreating, but we did not believe them. 
The two great armies, each numbering nearly fifty thousand 
men, were not more than three or four miles apart, and seemed 
to be in touch with each other all along their advance line. 
During the day, the army under General Rosecrans kept slight- 
ly advancing and taking a more definite position for battle. 
The skirmishers advanced at different points, discovering 
masked batteries and rifle pits which compelled them to re- 
treat. Looking out from our lines, directly in front, we could 
see different points where we supposed there were masked 
batteries of the enemy, and the day was spent trying to make 
discoveries as to the strength of their different positions. 
Companies H and B were deployed as skirmishers, while A 
and F were in reserve of skirmish line. Early in the morning 
James Myers, a private of Co. H. was killed, and it is believed 



50 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 




mRrRCiSBOR&J{ 

uu 



Stone River Battlefield 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 51 

that he was the first man killed in the great battle. Though 
not on the skinnish line, in the afternoon our forces were 
within range of the minie balls of the enemy's sharp-shooters 
and skirmishers, and we felt confident that we were in full 
range of some of their batteries which they were concealing for 
the present. We learned for the first time the real meaning 
of being on the qui vive. In the afternoon we overheard one 
of General Thomas' staff talking to our division commander 
about the possibilities of capturing some rifle pits about a 
thousand yards in our front, where we supposed there were 
masked batteries. General Negley said, in reply, "We can 
take them if you say so." A captain remarked in an under- 
tone, "He might add, 'But we would rather not,' " 

During the day our skirmishers advanced across the open 
fields at different points and were driven back in turn by the 
superior forces of the enemy, a number being killed and 
wounded on the skirmish line and by the enemy's artillery. 

General McCook, with his three divisions, under Generals 
Woods, Johnson and Sheridan, formed the right wing. Gen- 
eral Thomas, the center, with Negley's and Palmer's divis- 
ions in front, and Rousseau's division in reserve, and General 
Crittenden, with Van Cleve's, Woods' and Palmer's divisions 
forming the left wing. The left wing rested on Stone River, 
the right extending southwesterly and resting on a high 
wooded ridge on the Franklin turnpike. The line of battle 
.vas about three or four miles long. 

In the evening of this bleak, cloudy, wet and dreary day 
the wind veered to the north, and, as no camp fires were per- 
mitted, the condition of the soldiers was anything but comfort- 
atble. Early in the night the clouds were swept away and the 
stars peeped out. Everything seemed terribly impressive. 
The deep silence was ominous of the coming storm. Within 
half a league of each other lay two great armies, each ready to 
give battle on the morrow. General Rosecrans having massed 
his army on the left, expecting to attack the enemy's right, and 
the Confederate commander having massed his army on his 
left, to attack our right. 

On the morning of the last day of the old year, at 6 :20, 
ten minutes after dawn, the Confederates made their attack on 
our right, moving forward in four heavy columns with strong 
reserves, and our first great battle was begun. As we heard 
the roar of battle, we had every confidence that McCook's 
troops would be able to hold their position. Very soon it be- 



52 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

came evident to us that our right wing was retreating and the 
enemy advancing. We still felt confident that there was no 
serious disaster ; that the falling back was only the giving way 
of the skirmish line, and that, probably, for a purpose. But, 
as the roar and smoke kept sweeping onward until our whole 
right wing was turned, things began to look very threatening. 
General Negley's division was on the right of center, joining 
General McCook's left, and when General McCook was d^-iven 
backward it left General Negley's division exposed to fire from 
three sides. The two brigades under General Stanley and 
Colonel Miller were formed two columns deep across a corn 
field and peach orchard in front of a cedar woods, facing, at a 
slight angle, the Wilkinson Pike and another cedar woods, on 
the other side of the pike. We had been exposed to a heavy 
artillery fire during the early morning hours, but did not feel 
the real shock of the battle until McCook's entire left wing liad 
been driven to our rear. Then we were attacked on the left, 
in front and on the right. The enemy moved in heavy columns, 
firing deadly volleys of musketry, and also concentrating his 
artillery on this one point. The roar of the artillery with 
the rattle of musketry was deafening, and the scene indescriba- 
bly appalling. While shot and shell and minie balls were fly- 
ing thickest, something occurred that we could not at the time 
understand. We were commanded to fall back; and, after 
retreating in good order for perhaps one hundred yards, we 
were ordered to take the same terrible position we had been 
holding a few minutes before. Colonel Miller, our brigade 
commander, whose official report is found in Volume 20 of 
official records of the War of the Rebellion, explains this as 
follows: "At this junction, the troops on our right retired and 
some unauthorized person ordered Colonel Sirwell to retire his 
regiment. This regiment was fighting gallantly and holding 
position on the crest of the hill, but on receiving the order re- 
tired to the cedars in the rear. Seeing this, I immediately or- 
dered Colonel Sirwell forward to the same position. This order 
was obeyed promptly, and the men took position in admirable 
order." This is the explanation. A mistake had occurred, but 
the troops obeyed orders in the most trying circumstances. The 
strife was terrific ; but, in the very nature of the case could not 
last long. No soldiers ever behaved more courageously, but 
it is probable that these soldiers afterwards did more effective 
work. From my own observation, I am convinced that a 
large part of the firing was too high to do the best execution. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 53 

At this critical moment orders were given to retreat 
through the dense cedar woods, but it was nearly impossible to 
preserve the regimental lines. As we left the open fields, our 
eyes looked on the most terrific scene of slaughter we v^ere ever 
called upon to witness. The artillery of the enemy was doing 
fearful execution. We saw one shell explode exactly in the 
line of the regiment on our left, killing, at least, three men. 
Nearly all our artillery horses had been killed. One of the last 
sights witnessed as we entered the cedar woods in our retreat 
was an artilleryman trying to haul his gun off the field with 
one horse, the other five having been killed. One wheel of the 
gun carriage had become fastened between two rocks, and the 
brave artilleryman was trying with a rail to pry it out. What 
became of him, I know not, but we lost five out of the nine 
pieces of artillery with which we began the battle. When we 
entered the cedar woods, looking backward on the open field,- 
there seemed to be nearly a regiment of our division left on 
the field killed and wounded. 

As we retreated through the woods, we passed through a 
brigade of Western troops in line of battle waiting for us to 
pass to the rear so that they could open fire on the enemy. 
They did not seem alarmed, but confidentially assured us that 
they would be able to stop the enemy; and, no doubt, they 
would have done so had they been attacked only in front ; but 
their confidence and their courage were of no avail. The en- 
emy's artillery opened an enfilading fire that no troops could 
withstand, and, within ten minutes, they were driven to the 
rear in great confusion. 

This was our first great battle. From the first we had not 
the slightest idea of anything but victory, but we certainly be- 
gan to feel about this time that we were not having every- 
thing our own way. We had lost some twenty-seven pieces 
of artillery, and the whole right wing and the right of center 
had been driven back in great confusion. 

The enemy fought with splendid discipline, and with cour- 
age worthy of a better cause. The courage of our soldiers, 
the line officer, regimental brigade and division commanders, 
was probably never excelled, but they fought at very great dis- 
advantage, and it did seem as though the great army under 
General Rosecrans was about to be destroyed. 

As we emerged from the cedar woods. General Rous- 
seau's division and the troops that had been massed on the left 



54 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

were concentrated around the ridges overlooking- the scene of 
the morning's battle. Nearly all the artillery in the army was 
unlimbered around these ridges, and nearly all available forces 
were under the immediate command of General George H. 
Thomas. It was a year after this event that he became known 
as the "Rock of Chickamauga," but he always came to the 
front in the crisis, and was the man for the hour. With a vic- 
torious army sweeping to the rear, it was necessary for him to 
change front in the face of the foe, but he did it with the cool- 
ness and precision of a parade. He quickly posted the troops 
that were not engaged in line of battle to protect the artillery, 
that they might check the enemy and give the retreating regi- 
ments and brigades time to reform their lines in the rear. 
General Rousseau, the commander of General Thomas' first 
division, on his magnificent horse, was a sight to inspire cour- 
age in the hearts of the retreating soldiers. An aidecamp sug- 
gested to General Rousseau to take a position a little to the 
rear, but he swung his sword aloft, saying, "I will stand here, 
right here; I won't budge an inch," 

In our retreat through the cedar woods toward the Nash- 
ville Pike, the Regiment being, to some extent, disorganized, 
many of our men became separated from the command, and for- 
tunately so, as it turned out, for a detachment of the Regiment 
which had so become separated, together with some other reg- 
iments, formed on the right of the pike, at a point where there 
was a gap in our new line, through which the enemy was en- 
deavoring to reach the rear of our line. This detachment of 
the 78th, with other troops who had strayed from 
other regiments, charged the advancing enemy, and drove 
them back into the open held, while our own troops 
took position behind a rail fence and held the enemy in 
check until General Rosecrans had perfected his line in the rear. 
After this was done this detachment rejoined the Regiment on 
the Nashville Pike. 

As soon as the retreating troops had gotten fairly to the 
rear of the artillery and the line of infantry supporting, a most 
terrific cannonade began. Shot and shell and solid cannon 
balls swept trees, fences and columns of men before them like 
leaves in autumn. Fences and cotton fields were set on fire. 
It was at this point an ideal battle. In all our army exper- 
ience we never witnessed anything more terribly grand. The 
very earth seemed to tremble. But the seemingly overwhelm- 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 55 




General J as. S. Negley 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 57 

ing attack of the enemy had spent its force and he was com- 
pelled to fall back. He had failed, for the central position of 
our army was unmoved. As the old year closed, we knew that 
we had suffered very great loss, and that we were on the de- 
fensive, but we were not discouraged. We had defeated the 
enemy. In his official report of the action of this day's fight. 
Colonel Miller says, "During this entire engagement, and in all 
these terribly appalling circumstances, both officers and men 
of my command behaved with admirable coolness and bravery. 
Examples of heroic daring and gallantry were everywhere to 
be seen, but, where all acted so well it is difficult to make spe- 
cial mention without doing injustice." The first name he 
does mention was the name of the,commander of the 78th Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers. He adds, "too much cannot be said in 
praise of both officers and men. The losses in my brigade 
killed and wounded in action, amounted to over 500 men." 
The meaning of these figures is evident when it is known that 
our brigade went into action with only 2,105 rn^n. We were 
glad when the sun went down and darkness put an end to the 
conflict, and the thought of renewing the conflict with the be- 
ginning of another day did not drive away "tired nature's 
sweet restorer." 

New Year's Eve, A. D., 1863, on Stone River battle field, 
was cold and disagreeable, and no words can describe the mor- 
tal agony of that night. Between the picket lines of the two 
armies lay hundreds of wounded men, away from home and 
friends, and with no one to minister to them as they passed 
through the Valley of the Shadow of Death. The last day of 
the old year was to many a brave young soldier the last day 
of mortal life, and, whether we look on the Union soldier or 
on the Confederate, the scene was unspeakably sad. As we 
lay in line of battle we realized as we never had done before 
that war's burdens could not be measured in dollars and 
cents. No man could be hired with money to face the dan- 
gers or endure the hardships of a great battle, and no man 
could be paid in money for such services. If we would know 
the horrors of war we must look on the expiring agony of 
these true and brave young men, and on the broken hearts at 
home. 

During that eventful day our own Army had suffered a 
very heavy loss. Several thousand men had been seriously 
wounded, and probably more than a thousand had been in- 



58 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

stantly killed. The commander of our own brigade, General 
Miller, was wounded in the neck but did not leave the field. 
General Rosecrans, the Commander of the Army, had not 
been wounded, but his military cloak was red with the blood 
of his gallant chief of staff, General Garresche, who had been 
beheaded by a cannon ball when he was only a few feet from 
his Commander. 

During the night General Rosecrans held a Council of 
War in a dismal little log cabin on the battle field. We learned 
afterwards that a majority of the ofifiicers present at this Coun- 
cil favored falling back to a better position, and it is said 
that General Rosecrans was in favor of retreating to Nashville, 
while General Crittenden was opposed to retreating, and Gen- 
eral Thomas only said, "This Army cannot retreat." This 
remark of General Thomas expressed the whole truth most 
tersely. The Army could fight better than it could retreat. 
No camp fires could be lighted, and we need hardly say that 
it was a desperately dismal night for both of^cers and men — 
it was not an ideal New Year's Eve, though it snowed a little 
during the night. 

New Year's Day dawned clear and crisp. We expected 
an attack by the enemy in the early morning; but, as the day 
grew older and only an occasional shot was heard from some 
battery, we began to suspect that General Bragg's Army had 
suffered as severely as our own, and that it was in no condi- 
tion to attack us. This conviction was very satisfactory, and 
the general sentiment of the men seemed to be in favor of 
letting well enough alone. We were not impatient to reach 
Murfreesboro. Had General Rosecrans' Army been in con- 
dition to make an attack we could probably have driven the 
Confederates out from Murfreesboro that day, but neither 
army was prepared to attack the other. 

During the day, stragglers from the ranks came in rapidly, 
and the regiments were filled up. The position of the troops 
was changed somewhat, but each army seemed waiting to see 
what the other was about to do. Rations were distributed as 
far as possible, but in many cases the commissary trains had 
been either delayed or destroyed by the enemy's cavalry. The 
cracker supply having been cut off, it was necessary to dis- 
tribute flour instead of crackers. Each man in the Regiment 
drew a certain quantity of flour, and the facilities for turning 
this into bread or anything edible were exceedingly primitive. 



HISTORY AXD ROSTER TSth REGIMEXT P. V. I. 



59 




HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 61 

On the afternoon of the first and forenoon of the second, go- 
ing through the Hnes of the 7Sth Regiment, you 
might have seen soldiers making dough of llour, water and 
salt, and baking it on a stone laid on hot coals. As the sun 
went down on the evening of the first, the wounded, having 
been cared for as far as possible, the soldiers went to sleep' 
again on the battlefield in comparative comfort and in good, 
spirits. 

The morning of January 2nd found General Xegley's 
division assigned to a position to support the right of General 
McCook's corps. We remained in this position till i P. M., 
but while we were trying to turn flour, water and salt into di- 
gestible food we were ordered to support General Crittenden's 
corps, on the left wing of the Army, and took position in an 
open field to the left and in the rear of batteries on the left of 
the railroad, near the bank of Stone River. On our left the 
river flowed directly northward, but about half a mile in front 
there was a bend so that in our front it flowed directly east- 
ward, and part of General Crittenden's corps had crossed the 
river and were in line of battle extending to the river a little 
north of where the river began to flow northward. The posi- 
tion can be easily understood by reference to the diagram of 
the plan of battle on another page. A bluff overlooking the 
river concealed us from the enemy, and we had an impression 
by this time that General Rosecrans was massing his troops 
on his left in order to attack the right wing of the enemy. It 
was developed afterwards that General Bragg was massing his 
troops on his right to attack our left. The condition, there- 
fore, was in some respects the reverse of what it had been in 
Wednesday's battle; then General Bragg had massed his 
troops against our weakest point and found us unprepared, 
whereas, on Friday, he massed his forces where we were best 
prepared to meet him. 

The private soldier in a volunteer army like our own dif- 
fers in many respects from the private soldier in the armies 
of other nations. By thorough discipline he becomes a part 
of a machine, and he obeys orders, but he does not refrain 
from thinking nor cease to exercise his intelligence, and he 
very frequently is disheartened because the orders are not in 
accord with his judgment. On the other hand, when he 



62 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

thinks his commander is making a wise disposition of his 
forces, his courage is greatly stimulated. We had evidence of 
this in Friday's battle. We had been driveii in great con- 
fusion on Wednesday by the attack of the enemy, but the 
recollection of that day did not in the least interfere with our 
confidence that we should be victorious on Friday, because, 
when the attack was made on Friday, we had evidence, satis- 
factory to us, that the enemy was attacking our strongest 
position. We felt that, however it might issue, no mistake 
had been made by our commander. 

About four o'clock a furious charge was made on Van 
Cleve's division on the south side of the river, not far from 
■where the river turns eastward at nearly a right angle. When 
this attack was made the 78th Regiment was lying back of the 
crest of the hill overlooking Van Cleve's position, and our 
artillery was on our right and in our front a little nearer the 
crest of the hill. When the enemy attacked Van Cleve, their 
batteries opened a ^-ery heavy fire on us to which our batteries 
replied. Shells, solid shot and grape shot were flying thick, 
but we were comparatively safe, being protected by the crest of 
the hill. My personal recollection of this position and of 
what took place is still very distinct. General Negley rode 
along our lines, and being cheered by his troops, said in reply, 
"Boys, you will now have an opportunity to pay them back for 
what they did on Wednesday." These words of the General, in 
whom we all had the greatest confidence, inspired the soldiers 
with courage and enthusiasm in the crisis of the battle. The 
final issue depended on what Negley's command would do 
within the next fifteen minutes. General Van Cleve's divis- 
ion had been driven back into the bend of the river, and some 
had been compelled to retreat across the river, passing through 
our line as we lay behind the crest of the hill. Just at this 
critical moment, another regiment (I believe the 99th Ohio), 
of a different brigade, was ordered forward, marched to the 
■crest of the hill in good order, fired one volley and retired. 
Why the regiment retired we never knew. Just as this mo- 
ment, also, our batteries had exhausted their ammunition and, 
limbering, galloped to the rear. Then our Regiment, being the 
first in General Miller's brigade, was ordered forward. Shot 
and shell and minie balls were flying very thick when we 
reached the crest of the hill, but we opened fire at once and 
were followed by other regiments of our brigade. Only a 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 63 

few moments had elapsed when the shout went up, "They are 
retreating! They are retreating!" Without any command 
from any person, so far as I know, led by the soldierly instinct 
that sometimes sees better than generals can plan, men and 
officers moved forward in double quick, crossed the river and 
drove the enemy before them. Then began what came as near 
being a hand to hand fight as we had ever witnessed up to 
this time. In crossing the river, the lines of the different 
regiments were thrown into great confusion, but General Mil- 
ler, our Brigade Commander, in his official report, says, "A 
tolerable line was kept on the colors of the 78th Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment, etc., the men moved forward with spirit and 
determination." During all this time the enemy's batteries 
were posted on an eminence in a field to our front, but when 
this charge was made their infantry retreated in great disorder 
leaving the ground covered with the dead and wounded. When 
we were about 150 yards from the battery. General Miller or- 
dered the 78th Regiment to charge, and the command was in- 
stantly obeyed, the 19th Illinois, 69th Ohio and other regi- 
ments joining with us. We captured a battery of four guns, 
two of them being secured by our Regiment. We captured, 
also the colors of the 26th Tennessee Infantry. The captured 
flag was seized, I believe, at the same time by Private Davis 
of Company I and Private Hughes of Company B. The 
picture on another page, entitled "The Charge of the 78th 
Regiment." is reproduced and condensed from a picture that 
appeared just after the battle in Frank Leslie's Magazine. The 
boy who is represented astride one of the captured guns was 
James Thorne, a lad about sixteen years old, a member of 
Company A and a native of Tennessee. As he sat on the cap- 
tured cannon and patted it lovingly, he called out to the com- 
mander of his company, "Here it is. Captain." 

Speaking of this charge. Bates' History of the Regiment 
says, "The fury of the conflict now threatened mutual anni- 
hilation, but Stanley and Miller with the 19th Illinois and the 
2ist and 74th Ohio, the 78th Pennsylvania, nth Michigan 
and 37th Indiana, charged simultaneously, and drove the 
enemy rapidly before them, capturing a battery and taking the 
colors of the 26th Tennessee, the color sergeant being killed 
with a bayonet. The banner is the trophy of the 78th Penn- 
sylvania." It is true that this charge was participated in by 
all the regiments of Negley's division, but, it should also be re- 
membered that the charge was led by the 78th Pennsylvania, 



64 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

and that the soldiers of the 78th are entitled to the credit of 
inspiring courage in others as well as acting for themselves. 

When we reached the ridge running parallel with the 
river before it begins to go northward, it was about sunset. 
The whole Confederate line had fallen back, leaving a large 
number of prisoners in our hands. Our lines were greatly 
broken, and although the men were recklessly enthusiastic, we 
were not in good condition to either charge the enemy or resist 
a charge. As darkness settled down on the Army other troops 
were sent to take our places, and we withdrew across the river 
to our former position. We had lost heavily in killed and 
wounded, but not so heavily as on Wednesday, The Confed- 
erates had not only failed in their attack on our left wing but 
had been driven from the field in great confusion and with 
great loss. It is said that General Bragg lost 2,000 men in 
forty minutes that afternoon. 

We were in line of battle all the next day but no attack 
was made by either army. It soon became evident that the 
captured points were the key to the enemy's position, for, on 
the night of the 3rd, he retreated from Murfreesboro, leaving 
many wounded in our hands. 

Thus ended the great battle of Stone River. According 
to the official report of General Rosecrans, we fought the 
battle with 37,977 infantry, 2,223 artillery, 3,200 cavalry, 
making a total of 43,400 men. If we include the forces that 
moved on the enemy, and were detailed to guard wagon-trains 
and hold other points in our rear, we had about 47,000 men. 
We lost in killed 1,533 nien, wounded 8,778, about twenty 
per cent, of the entire forces engaged. This, we believe, is 
the highest percentage of killed and wounded that occurred 
in any battle o^f the war. General Rosecrans estimated the 
enemy's forces at 62,490, and their loss at 14,560. General 
Bragg's official report makes his loss about 11,000. He left 
some 2,000 wounded in our hands. The whole number of 
prisoners captured by us was 3,694, and the whole number 
captured by the enemy was put down at 2,800. According to 
official reports the 78th Pennsylvania Regiment began the 
battle with 540 men. The loss in killed and wounded was 
149, and in prisoners thirty-nine. The loss in killed and 
wounded was twenty-eight per cent, of the number with which 
we went into the battle. 

Through some error Colonel Sirwell's official report of 
this battle was not published in the official records of the War 



HISTORY AND EOSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 65 

of the Rebellion, and we did not have access to it when writing 
this sketch, but it has been discovered since and is published 
in the appendix. Colonel Miller's report of the part taken 
by our brigade mentions the 78th Regiment several times with 
commendation. We have quoted elsewhere his commendation 
of our coolness and courage on Wednesday; and speaking of 
the charge on the right wing of the enemy on Friday evening, 
he says, "The colors of the 78th Pennsylvania, and I think the 
19th Illinois, were the first to cross the river. The men fol- 
lowed in as good order as possible." In another part of the 
report he says, "The colors of the 26th Tennessee at the time 
of the charge were near the battery and were taken by men 
of the 78th Pennsylvania and brought to the rear." 

In this, our first greafbattle. we learned some things that 
we could hardly have learned elsewhere. First, we learned 
to have greater respect for the bravery and courage of our 
enemies. Second, from the commander of the army down 
to the private soldier, there was a complete readjustment of 
our judgments of each other. Many who had up to this time 
been recognized as leaders were now given a lower place while 
many others came to be recognized as the real leaders. We 
discovered that the quiet, thoughtful and conscientious men 
were the men to be depended on in the crisis of a battle, and 
these were the men that came to the front. From this time 
onward General Thomas was the most highly esteemed and 
most thoroughly trusted officer in our Army. It was nearly 
a year after this time that he came to be called the "Rock of 
Chickamauga," but he w^as recognized by the average soldier 
as the rock of Stone River. The night of conflict brought 
out this bright star, and his light has never been dimmed. It 
would not be possible today to convince any old soldier of his 
command that he was not one of the very best generals in our 
Army. 

One needs to witness a great battle in order to form a 
fair estimate of the relative courage of commanding officers 
and their soldiers. Private soldiers, line and field officers have 
to face greater physical dangers than are faced by the com- 
manding- officers of the army, and the courage to perform their 
duty faithfully is of as high an order as the courage of the 
commanding officer. Commanding officers have the conscious- 
ness that the eyes of the nation and of the world are upon 
them, thev know that to falter is to bring disgrace, while to do 
their whole dntv is to write their names high on the scroll of 



66 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

fame. The private soldier rarely has such stimulant to courage. 
He simply does his duty from a conviction of duty; when he 
faces death he knows that, if he escape, his name will not 
become the synonym of bravery, and that, if he be killed, he 
will only be one amongst a thousand, and that he may fill an 
unknown grave. General Porter, in his excellent sketch, en- 
titled "Campaigning with Grant," tells with pardonable pride 
how, on different occasions he received promotion on account 
of special acts of bravery. It was his good fortune to act in 
the presence of the commanding General of the Army. Had 
the commanding general seen as distinctly the acts of each in- 
dividual, private soldier there would have been thousands of 
promotions for just as good reasons; but, when the private 
soldiers and line officers faced the greatest dangers, the}'' were 
not usually under the eye of the commander of the army. 

Our Government can never pay its debt to the soldiers and 
line officers who fought its battles. We hear a great deal 
said about the amount of money it costs the United States 
Government to pay pensions to its soldiers, and we would not 
encourage the giving of pensions to those who have not by 
actual service fairly earned them, but we risk the assertion that 
there is not a man in the United States worth $100,000, Vv'ho, 
if compelled to either make his check for $75,000 for the sup- 
port of the war, or go as a private soldier into a battle like 
the Battle of Stone River, would not promptly make out his 
check. If the matter of honor and consciousness of duty 
could be eliminated, we are confident that most men would give 
all their worldly goods rather than go into a great battle. 
Dollars and cents do not have any value at such a 
time. The average soldier at the Battle of Stone River faced 
death courageously because he was a conscientious, manly 
man. His patriotism had made him a soldier; his sense of 
honor and his conscience constrained him to do his whole duty 
in the crisis of the battle and he faced death courageously, if 
not fearlessly. Every true soldier, whether he serve in the 
regular army or in the volunteer army, deserves the Nation's 
gratitude and is entitled to the esteem of all good men. 

The Battle of Stone River has not been given as promin- 
ent a place in the history of our Civil War as its importance 
merits. Before this battle took place the outlook for our 
country was very dark and threatening. Our armies had 
gained no signal victories for many months, and there was 
very great danger that some of the Nations of Europe would 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 67 

recognize the Southern Confederacy, and that it would be im- 
possible for us to maintain our blockade. Had General Rose- 
crans' Army been defeated at the Battle of Stone River, and 
compelled to retire to Nashville, it would not only have pro- 
longed the War, but would have greatly increased our danger 
of becoming involved in conflicts with foreign countries. 

At a joint meeting of Union and Confederate veterans, 
held in a tent at Chattanooga on the 19th of September, 1889, 
Ex-Governor Marks of Tennessee declared that the general 
results of the summer and fall campaign of 1862 were dis- 
astrous to the Federal armies, and he adds, "The result of ^hose 
campaigns had the effect of bringing more than one of the 
foreign countries to a serious consideration of the question of 
recognizing the Confederacy. It had the further effect of so 
alarming the people of the States of the jMississippi Valley as 
to the final result of the War that they were considering 
whether the time had not come for them to surrender the 

Union and secure the free navigation of the Mississippi 

The Federal Government saw its dangers ; and, to prevent the 
recognition of the Confederacy and the revolting of the States 
of the Mississippi, it determined to press the winter campaign 
from Virginia to Vicksburg. Governor Marks goes on to 
say that on the 30th of December General Rosecrans formed 
his line of battle in front of Murfreesboro, and, he adds, 
"Up to that hour every battle fought in that winter campaign 
to prevent the recognition of the Confederacy and to prevent 
the revolting of the Mississippi Valley had resulted in the 
overwhelming defeat of the Federal Armies. Events had 
made Murfreesboro the hinge upon which the fortunes of the 
Confederacy must turn. That battle, won by the Confeder- 
ates, the paper blockade would be torn to tatters and the in- 
dependence of the Confederates assured." Governor Marks 
goes on to say that the Federal Army at Stone River was de- 
feated until the battle of Friday afternoon, when, he says, "On 
that field the genius of Rosecrans turned the paper blockade 
into one of adamant and doomed the Confederates to fight on 
to the end in hunger and rags, without pay and without the 
appliances of war." 

Making all due allowances for oratorical license and ex- 
aggeration, as well as for the prejudice of the speaker, it must 
be confessed that the Battle of Stone River marked a crisis in 
the history of our Civil War. and was one of the most import- 
ant battles of the War. It is possible that both the Confed- 



C8 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

€rate and Federal Armies have fought with greater despera- 
tion than at Stone River ; it is safe to assert, however, that no 
two armies ever fought better. It was in the crisis of this 
battle that the 78th Pennsylvania Regiment distinguished it- 
self, and it should not be forgotten by the friends and descend- 
ants of this Regiment, that, on Friday afternoon, at a crisis 
in the history of a battle that was fought at a crisis in our Na- 
tional history, the 78th Pennsylvania Regiment led the charge 
that turned the tide of battle and brought victory to the Union 
arms. There should be a monument to the 78th Pennsylvania 
Regiment erected on the bluff overlooking the scene of Fri- 
day evening's battle on the 2nd of January, 1863. 

Saturday, the 3rd of January, was spent on the battle field 
reorganizing the troops and rearranging the lines O'f battle. 
During a rain storm about dusk on Saturday evening the 
■enemy made a last vicious charge on our lines, but were easily 
repulsed, and we discovered afterwards that it was only a feint 
to cover their retreat. General Rosecrans had such regard for 
the Sabbath that he would not attack the enemy on that day, 
and, not being attacked by the enemy, we devoted the day to 
the burial of our dead. 



IX. 
Provost Guards of Murfreesboro 

General Bragg's Army retreated from Murfreesboro on 
the night of the 4th of January, and on the morning of the 
5th the Union Army took possession of the town. By general 
order of General Rosecrans, the 78th Pennsylvania was the 
first infantry regiment to enter the town, and we were made 
provost guards. General Rosecrans and General George H. 
Thomas both established their headquarters in the town. 
The next three and a half months were spent in provost duties 
A\ith occasional foraging expeditions and a march to Nash- 
ville to exchange regimental arms. The soldiers of the 78th 
Pennsylvania have very pleasant recollections of their stay in 
Murfreesboro. General Bragg's hasty retreat showed that he 
-would not be prepared to attack our Army for some time, and 
Ave were comparatively free from any sense of danger from 
tliat source. Our association with the people of Murfreesboro 
was not as free and neighbor-like as they had been during the 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 69 

previous summer when we mingled with the people of Colum- 
bia, Pulaski and other points. The great battle that preceded 
our entrance into the town led the people of the town to stand 
in awe of us. 

While in jMurfreesboro the Army was organized into three 
corps, the 14th, under General Thomas, the 20th, under Mc- 
Cook, and the 21st, under General Crittenden. The 78th 
Pennsylvania was assigned to the 3rd brigade of the 2nd divis- 
ion of the 14th corps with Colonel Miller as brigade com- 
mander, and General Negley as commander of the division. 
The changes made were changes in name rather than in or- 
ganization, but the Army of the Cumberland came to be known 
from this tirne onward as comprising the 14th, 20th and 21st 
Corps. 

General James S. Negley received special commendation 
for the part he had taken in this battle and was commissioned 
a Major General. The soldiers who fought under him in 
this battle regarded this as a well merited honor; and it can 
be said that our experiences and observations in the battle gave 
to the officers and soldiers of the 78th Pennsylvania Regiment 
a greater degree of mutual sympathy and respect than had ex- 
isted up to this time. 

While in Murfreesboro we saw the first specimen of the 
great work that the Christian people of the North were des- 
tined to do for the colored people who were freed by the 
Emancipation Proclamation. We had a young colored man 
named Dudley for our cook. Like many of the young people 
who were throwing off the shackles of slavery, he believed 
that knowledge was power, and that it was necessary for him 
to get an education. He was extremely pious, and believed 
that if he were able to read the Bible he might become a 
preacher. In the evening, sitting beside the camp fire with 
his spelling book and New Testament, he seemed the very per- 
sonification of patience and perseverance, as he struggled with 
this elementary part of his education. He made slow but fair 
progress and was soon able to read. He did not carry out his 
purpose to become a preacher, but he did become one of the 
most prominent colored dentists in the City of Nashville, and 
became thoroughly trusted by all who knew him, whether 
white or black. 

On the 2ist of April the Regiment was relieved from 
provost duty in the town of Murfreesboro by the 37th Michi- 
g"an and removed to Camp Sill in the neighborhood of the 



70 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

town. The weather was very pleasant during this season, and 
the camp was made as neat and comfortable as possible. The 
time for the next two months was devoted to picket duty, regi- 
mental and brigade drill, with occasional expeditions for re- 
connoitering purposes. Our experience during these two 
months were not sufficiently exciting to impress themselves 
very definitely on our memories. We find in different diaries 
and in the Morning Report Books of some of the companies 
such records as the following, "May ist, the brigade was out 
five miles from town on a reconnoisance, returned to camp 
in the evening." The monotony is indicated by such records 
as, "The Regiment on picket duty." "Relieved ^and returned 
to camp." "On brigade drill," or "On division drill," etc. 
We also find special mention of pay day. 

It might not be amiss at this point to make a little record 
showing how the soldiers used their money. The pay of 
private soldiers was only thirteen dollars a month, afterwards 
increased to seventeen dollars, and they were usually paid for 
from two to four months at a time. Arrangements were 
made by which they could send as much of this money as they 
desired home to their friends; and it would be safe to assert 
that a great majority of the private soldiers of the 78th Penn- 
sylvania sent home to their families and friends not less than 
two-thirds of all the money they received each pay day. It 
must be confessed, however, that a few could hardly be re- 
strained from gambling, and some of them succeeded in get- 
ting rid of all the money they received in a few hours at cards 
or in a game called "chuckaluck." Others spent their money 
very freely at the sutler's, paying exorbitant prices for things 
that did them no good. 



X. 

The Tullahoma Campaign 

When General Bragg retreated from Murfreesboro he 
selected a strong position, distributing his infantry from Shel- 
byville to Wartrace. His cavalry was posted at McMinnville, 
on his right, and was thrown out as far as Guy Gap. Tulla- 
homa was his depot of supplies. A glance at the map will 
show that he was directly between our Army and Chattanooga. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 71 

For a year or more some of our ablest generals had re- 
garded Chattanooga as the strategic key to the Southern Con- 
federacy. The theory that Vicksburg was the key to the Con- 
federacy was based on a wrong impression with regard to the 
importance of opening that great waterway, the Mississippi 
River. Before the time of railroads, Vicksburg would prob- 
able have been the key, but it is doubtful whether the sacrifices 
made for the capture of Vicksburg were wisely made, since 
railroads are more important than rivers. If Vicksburg had 
been left in the hands of the Confederates and Chattanooga 
seized, Vicksburg would probably have been evacuated. The 
Confederate Government perceived the strategic importance of 
Chattanooga before the United States Government did, but the 
Confederates felt secure in the possession of that stronghold, 
since its position seemed practically impregnable. 

It was while our Army was in Murfreesboro that the 
Chattanooga campaign was matured by General Rosecrans, 
General Thomas and others. By way of preparation, Mur- 
freesboro was fortified and supplies were accumulated. Gen- 
eral Rosecrans perceived the weak point in his army at this 
time. His cavalry contingent was not strong enough to pro- 
tect his line of communication and harass that of the enemy. 
Had his cavalry force been doubled and his infantry force 
lessened to that extent his army would have been better fitted 
for this great military movement. Very few of the officers 
and soldiers who took part in this campaign had any adequate 
idea of the ultimate scope and aim of the different movements, 
for General Bragg had not yet retreated to Chattanooga, and 
the average soldier thought more of General Bragg's Army 
than of strategic positions. 

Early in June General Rosecrans concentrated the three 
corps of Generals Thomas, McCook and Crittenden on the ene- 
my's right, and, in order to conceal his purpose, made an at- 
tack w'ith his cavalry forces on the enemy's left. He discovered 
however, that he could only succeed by a great sacrifice of life; 
he saw, also, that if the enemy were defeated he would have 
an open way for retreat. He. therefore, determined on a 
flank movement. On the 24tli of Ji-ine McCook advanced 
toward Liberty Gap, where, after some skirmishing, the Con- 
federates, finding themselves fianked, fell back, and our forces 
took possession of the Gap. General Thomas' command, with 
Reynolds' division in advance, followed by Rousseau's and 
Negley's divisions, marched out on the INIanchester Turnpike, 



72 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

where Colonel Wilder's mounted infantry drove the Confed- 
erates from Hoover's Gap, and this Gap was occupied by Gen- 
eral Reynolds' command. General Crittenden moved from 
Murfreesboro to Bradysville and General Granger from Salem 
to Christiana, Generals Stanley, Granger, Mitchell and Negley 
concentrated at Christiana, expecting to move on the enemy's 
right flank. 

On the 2 1 St of June Colonel Sirwell assumed command 
of the third brigade, second division of the 14th Army Corps, 
and the command of the 78th Pennsylvania devolved on Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Archibald Blakeley. On the 24th of June the 
campaign commenced. 

We have very meager information in regard to the move- 
ments of the Regiment in this brief but brilliant campaign. 
On the 24th we marched fifteen miles in the direction of Tulla- 
homa, and bivouacked for the night. On the 25th, a very 
rainy day, we marched four or five miles, bivouacking on a 
farm to the left of the road. During that evening General 
Rousseau's division moved to the front, and there was brisk 
skirmishing to the front and right near Hoover's Gap. On 
the 27th we marched at six o'clock, and, leaving the pike to 
our left, proceeded about two miles when we changed our 
direction to the left and, facing southward, came to the pike 
about four miles from where we had bivouacked the night be- 
fore. After resting a short time we marched to Manchester, 
a distance of eight miles. On the 28th we moved farther to 
the right. Rain continued from day to day, and on the 29th 
there was a thunder storm with very heavy rain. At 12 
o'clock we moved out on the Winchester Road. The rain con- 
tinned all afternoon. The roads were in a terrible condition, 
and we marched through the woods most of the way in order 
to avoid the mud. It was nearly impossible to haul the artil- 
lery on account of the mud, and a new road was cut through 
the woods for nearly every separate gun. Our Regiment was 
on picket duty that night about four miles north of Tulla- 
homa. On the morning of the 30th the Regiment moved for- 
ward and rejoined the division, and rested until 12 o'clock the 
next day. 

At 12 o'clock on the first of July we moved forward. 
Beatty's brigade of Negley's Division formed the advance of 
the column, and was supported by the second brigade, under 
command of Colonel Stoughton. The Third Brigade, com- 
manded bv Colonel Sirwell. was in reserve. When we were 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 73 

about one mile from cam.p, brisk skirmishing began, followed 
by the roar of artillery, when the brigade was ordered for- 
ward through the mud on double quick time. Company A 
was thrown out as skirmishers to guard against flank attack 
by the enemy. We marched in this way about three miles, and 
as we bivouacked for the night, there was heavy skirminshing 
to our right and front. On the second we moved our camp 
one mile, and rested for the day and night within two miles 
of Elk River. On the morning of the third we moved about 
eight o'clock, crossed Elk River, and, forming in double col- 
umn, marched three miles, bivouacking for the night in a 
wheatfield, near a point where the cavalry had fought the day 
before, and where twelve of the enemy had been left dead on 
the field. On the 4th of July we left camp at 11 A. 'M., and 
bivouacked at the foot of a mountain, having marched six 
miles. When the soldiers heard the salute fired for our Na- 
tional Holiday, they thought that the battle w^as on once more. 

All the different records of our movements during these 
ten days tell of the rain and mud with which we had to con- 
tend. The remarks in the Morning Report Books of some of 
the companies read as follows, "Mud! mud! rain! rain! rain! 
rain ! On the 5th of July we pitched our tents in the neigh- 
borhood of Decherd and called it Camp Decherd. 

The sketch of the different parts of the Army, preceding 
this sketch of the movements of our own Regiment will enable 
our readers to understand our part in the Tullahoma Cam- 
paign. It is only necessary to add that General Bragg seemed 
to be under the impression that our Army could only advance 
by Liberty Gap, and made a desperate effort to dislodge Gen- 
eral Johnson, which w^as repulsed when the enemy abandoned 
the field with heavy loss. The movement of our Army put the 
Confederate Commander in such a position that he was com- 
pelled to either fall back on Chattanooga or fight, not in the 
position that he had chosen, but in the position that was chosen 
for him by General Rosecrans. When he discovered the situ- 
ation, he decided to retreat, and it seems probable that only the 
heavy rains which interfered more with the movements of our 
Army than with those of the Confederates, prevented the de- 
struction of General Bragg's Army. 

This Tullahoma Campaign was a great success for the 
Union Army. With a loss of less than one hundred killed 
and less than 500 wounded, the enemy had been dislodged 
from a very strong position, and he left in our hands nearly 



74 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

2,000 prisoners, eight pieces of field artillery and three rifled 
siege guns. He also lost very heavily in the destruction of 
supplies and war materials. At the close of the campaign our 
Army advanced to the northern base of the Cumberland Moun- 
tains and there halted to make further preparations for the 
campaign south of the Tennessee River. We now held pos- 
session of the region extending from Murfreesboro to Bridge- 
port, Alabama, and the next two months were spent in prepar- 
ing for the movement that was to put us in possession of 
Chattanooga, the key to the Confederacy, 

Lieut. Col. Blaiceley says, "The Tullahoma Campaign 
really gave us the hardest marching in our military experience. 
The mud was deep and tough. The transportation could not 
keep up and was left far in the rear. Indeed our losses from 
fatigue, exhaustion and sickness in that campaign cost us more 
men than any battle we had outside of the Stone River. As we 
approached Manchester, we were double quicked and forced 
against all apparent necessity, and coming to an open pasture 
field long after dark we were halted and lay there for the night. 
In the morning the sun rose, beautiful and bright, but the men 
of the 78th lay prone upon the ground as they had dropped upon 
it the evening before. Indeed at the 'halt! rest at will !' all fell to 
the ground together and lay there in deep sleep until morning. 
The early sun shone upon their faces, not a man stirred, all were 
still as death, their upturned faces gave no sign of life. Oh 
what a perfect picture of perfect boyhood and manhood in the 
sweet sleep of exhaustion. But lo, the bugle calls, in an instant 
all are up, the little fires are ablaze, the rails of convenient fences 
furnished the fuel ; the tin cups are on them, and with a tinful 
of softened hard-tack in coffee the brave boys are again on the 
march sipping their coffee, and ready for another days race after 
the retreating enemy. Our corps had the center, fought the 
enemy through and out of Hoovers Gap of the Duck River 
Mountains. McCook carried Belle Buckle on our right and 
Crittenden carried Liberty Gap on our left, and away we went 
after the Johnnies, down the Silver Creek Valley, and over to 
Tullahoma, and as the enemy was scrambling across rivers 
and mountains to get across the Tennessee, on July 4, 1863, our 
batteries saluted them with round after round in honor of the 
victories of Gettysburg and Vicksburg, and our Tullahoma 
Campaign ended in a victory equally glorious for the Army of 
the Cumberland. The 78th crossed and recrossed the Silver 
Creek Valley six times in one day and near the evening when 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 75 

■ordered to cross again Col. Blakeley begged for a modification 
of the order to take three companies to the other side of the 
Valley and give the balance some rest, this was acceded to and 
Capt. Elvvood with three companies crossed to the other side of 
the Valley and next day was personally complimented by 
General Thomas for his selection of position." 

In August, 1863, Captains Hosey, Elwood and McCann 
were detailed for special duty and were ordered to Harrisburg, 
Pa., to organize the men who had been drafted for military 
service. When these three officers arrived at Pittsburg they 
were ordered to report at Camp Copeland, near Pittsburg. 
Captain Elvvood relieved Captain Forney as Captain of Com- 
pany A of the permanent guards, and held that position until 
the muster out of the 78th Regiment. In addition to his 
duties with that company he also escorted troops from camp 
to different departments of the army. In November, 1863, 
he took four hundred men to Charleston. South Carolina, and 
thence to Hilton Head, returning on the Government trans- 
port "Fulton." Captain Elwood was in command of the 
troops on board this ship when, at daybreak, off the coast of 
North Carolina, they discovered a* blockade runner and gave 
chase. About half an hour before sundown they came within 
range of the vessel, and by sending a cannon ball through her 
rigging compelled her to surrender. The name of the vessel 
was the "Margaret and Jessie" of Charleston, South Carolina. 
They took their prize into New York, and were saluted by the 
vessels of the Russian Navy lying in the harbor. The com- 
mander of the Russian fleet visited our transport and heartily 
greeted and congratulated Captain Elwood. 

XL 
Chickamauga Campaign 

It required more than a quarter of a century to enable 
the American people to reach any adequate idea of the import- 
ance of the Chickamauga Campaign in the War of the Rebel- 
lion. It has, however, at last come to be regarded as second 
in importance to no other campaign in our Civil War. It 
seems strange now that its pivotal importance was not at once 
recognized by military men. The military leaders of the 
South and the President of tne Southern Confederacy re- 
garded it as a very important point, but, at the same time, they 



76 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 




The Campaign for Chattanooga 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REXJIMENT P. V. I. 77 

considered it a kind of Gibralter and did not fear its capture. 
In order to give our readers an intelligent view of the part 
taken in this campaign by the 78th Pennsylvania, it will be 
necessary for us to devote considerable space to a description 
of the movements of different parts of the Army. It will be 
necessary, too. to give some description of Chattanooga in its 
relation to Chickamauga battle field, 

Chattanooga, as is well known, is situated on the south- 
eastern plateau of the Tennessee River just where Chicka- 
mauga Creek flows into the Tennessee River, at the 
base of Lookout Mountain. Any attempt to take it by direct 
assault from the opposite side of the river would have been 
reckoned madness. Between it and Rosecrans' Army, lying 
at Tullahoma, Manchester, McMinnville and Winchester, lay 
the plateau of the Cumberland Mountains, 2,200 feet high, 
the Sequatchee Valley and Sequatchee River and Walden's 
Ridge 1,300 feet high. Had General Rosecrans succeeded in 
crossing these mountains directly in front of Chattanooga, it 
would have been impossible for him to have captured the place 
by direct attack so long as it was defended by a strong force 
of the enemy. It was necessary for him, therefore, to move 
either on the right or left flank of the enemy, so as to inter- 
fere with his communications and capture the town by siege. 
To move on the enemy's right flank would have been to cross 
the Cumberland plateau, Walden's Ridge and the Tennessee 
River; while to move on the left flank of the enemy required 
the crossing, at a lower point, of the Cumberland Plateau, the 
Tennessee River, Raccoon Mountains and Lookout Mountain, 
about 2,200 feet high. For General Rosecrans to do either of 
these seemed an impossibility so long as he was confronted by 
the Confederate Army occupying Chattanooga. Any attempt 
to capture Chattanooga at this time, seemed to the Confeder- 
ates madness. General Bragg is reported as grumbling be- 
cause other commanders were permitted to lead their armies 
into the field, where they had opportunites to distinguish them- 
selves, while he was left to occupy an impregnable fortress. 
Jefferson Davis is represented as saying with regard to the 
suggestion that General Rosecrans might attempt to capture 
this stronghold, "Let the fool beat his head against the granite 
rocks of Chattanooga : he will find it quite another thing from 
Duck River." Had General Rosecrans been given as many 
men for this campaign, compared with the forces of General 
Bragg, as were given to Generals Grant and Sherman for the 



78 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

capture of Vicksburg, compared with Pemberton's army, his 
undertaking would not have seemed so tremendous ; but, while 
he knew that his army was larger and stronger than General 
Bragg's army when the campaign began, it still seemed to him 
absolutely necessary, in order to his success, that he should de- 
ceive General Bragg in regard to his movements and do the 
thing that General Bragg least suspected. If he would at- 
tempt to flank, by moving on the left wing of the enemy, it 
would be necessary for him to lead General Bragg to believe 
that he was moving on the right; or if he moved on the right, 
he must lead General Bragg to expect an attack on the left 
I think we shall see, in the progress of this sketch, that he was 
most successful in his attempt to mislead the enemy until the 
campaign was far on the way. 

The Commander of the Union Army wisely concluded to 
not attempt to cross the Cumberland Mountains, the Sequat- 
chee Valley, Walden's Ridge and the Tennessee River above 
Chattanooga. We are confident, now, that if he had done so, 
his undertaking would have proved a failure. He did under- 
take, however, to lead the Confederate Commander to believe 
that this was his purpose, while he moved on the left flank 
of the enemy, crossing the Tennessee River at Bridgeport and 
at Caperton's Ferry, and then crossing Lookout Mountain from 
twenty to forty miles south of Chattanooga over into the Val- 
ley of the Chickamauga. In order to understand these move- 
ments it will be necessary for the reader to look at the map. 
He will see that the Tennessee River flows in a general south- 
westerly direction, while Lookout Mountain extends nearly di- 
rectly north and south, so that, after crossing the Tennessee 
River, it was necessary to cross Raccoon and Lookout Moun- 
tains. 

In the latter part of August the movements to secure 
Chattanooga began. General Crittenden left his camp at Man- 
chester and Hillsboro. and, crossing the Cumberland ]\Ioun- 
tains, occupied the Sequatchee Valley where he built extensive 
camp fires and sought to convey the impression that General 
Rosecran's whole army was moving in that direction. He 
then crossed Walden's Ridge, and Wilder's brigade appeared 
in the valley above Chattanooga, where they began building 
boats as though they were about to cross the river at that 
point. The Confederate Commander made arrangements to 
meet the expected attack, and we have convincing evidence 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 79 

that the Commander of the Union forces had succeeded in 
dehiding him into the behef that the Union Army would cross 
the river above Chattanooga. In the meantime General Mc- 
Cook's corps and General Thomas' corps kept under cover 
as much as possible while they moved in the direction of 
Bridgeport and Caperton's Ferry on the Tennessee River be- 
low Chattanooga. A pontoon and trestle bridge was thrown 
across the Tennessee River at Bridgeport where a part of Gen- 
eral Thomas' corps crossed. The boats for the pontoon 
bridge at Caperton's Ferry were brought with the train and 
were kept concealed while a road was cut for their transpor- 
tation through the woods. About the 29th of August these 
fifty boats, each capable of carrying fifty men, were brought 
out of the woods, carried rapidly across an open field, quickly 
launched and, being filled with men, were towed to the opposite 
side of the river. The Confederate pickts were driven away, 
the bridge rapidly constructed and General McCook's corps 
passed over it to the south side of the Tennessee River. As 
soon as these two corps had crossed the river. General Crit- 
tenden marched rapidly down the Sequatchee Valley to join 
them taking position on the left, and, marching around the 
point of Lookout Mountain, he occupied Chattanooga. 

By the 4th of September General Rosecran's entire army 
was south of the Tennessee River, and two corps were on 
their way across the Raccoon Mountains. On the 7th of Sep- 
tember General Thomas began the ascent of Lookout Moun- 
tain, twenty-six miles south of Chattanooga, and on the same 
day General McCook started across Lookout Mountain about 
forty miles south of Chattanooga. By the 8th General 
Thomas' corps was descending from Steven's and Frick's 
Gap, and General McCook's corps was going down the moun- 
tain toward Alpine, while General Crittenden had pushed part 
of his command along the mountain trails until they were in 
sight of Chattanooga and discovered that General Bragg's 
Army had retreated from the town. 

XIL 
Crossing Lookout Mountain into Chickamauga Valley 

Affairs were now in such a condition as to completely mis- 
lead those who did not thoroughly understand the situation. 
Reports were sent abroad that General Bragg had retreated 



80 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 




jr/tnLCyi CK 



McLemore's Cove 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 81 

from Chattanooga and that our forces were entering the town. 
The impression prevailed that a great victory had been gained, 
whereas it was the most critical time in the history of the 
campaign. Up to this point the Commander of the Confeder- 
ate forces had been outgeneralled, having been deceived in re- 
gard to the real movements of General Rosecrans' Army. The 
strategy which had compelled the evacuation of Chattanooga 
was consummate. The forces, sent by General Rosecrans first 
to Pikeville and afterwards directly towards Chattanooga had 
effectually covered the movement of the Army towards Gen- 
eral Bragg's communication with Georgia, and at the same 
time was threatening his communications with Knoxville and 
the forces holding East Tennessee, so that General Buckner's 
Army had been withdrawn, and General Burnsides had been 
given easy possession of that region. The only effect of this 
strategy which had been unfavorable to the ultimate success 
of General Rosecrans was the re-enforcement of General 
Bragg's Army by the addition of General Buckner's command. 
To gain possession of Chattanooga the strategy was perfect, 
but for immediate offensive operations south from that point 
it was radically defective. 

When General Bragg evacuated Chattanooga and General 
Crittenden moved into the town, it would have been a com- 
paratively easy matter for General Rosecrans to have recalled 
the corps of General Thomas and General McCook. Had they 
marched down Lookout Valley, and joined General Crittenden 
in Chattanooga, there would have been no Chickamauga battle 
at that time, and our Army would have had possession of the 
point for which the campaign had been planned. 

On the morning of the 9th General Rosecrans sent the 
following message to General Thomas : "A dispatch is just 
received from General Wagner, dated 8:30 P. M., yesterday, 
stating that Chattanooga is evacuated by the rebels, and he 
will occupy it in the morning. The general commanding de- 
sires you to call on him at once to consult in regard to ar- 
rangements for the pursuit." It is evident from this dispatch 
that General Rosecrans at this time had no other thought than 
that he should pursue the enemy. He could very easily have 
concentrated his whole army in Chattanooga without a battle, 
but he thought General Bragg was actually retreating, and 
was, therefore, misled by the strategy of the enemy. General 
Thomas urged General Rosecrans to abandon his scheme of 
pursuit and establish his army at Chattanooga and perfect his 



82 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78tli REGIMENT P. V. I. 

communication witii Bridgeport and Nashville. General 
Thomas did not know how far General Bragg intended to re- 
treat, but, independently of the enemy's plans, he felt that what 
had been gained should first of all be made secure. He was 
opposed to any movement that might bring on a battle when 
the Army was not prepared to follow up a victory even if a 
victory were possible. 

After his consultation with General Thomas General 
Rosecrans issued the following order : "The General com- 
manding has ordered a general pursuit of the enemy by the 
whole army. General Crittenden has started to occupy Chat- 
tanooga and pursue the line of General Bragg's retreat. Our 
forces across the river from Chattanooga have been ordered to 
cross and join General Crittenden in the pursuit. General 
McCook has been ordered to move at once on Alpine and Sum- 
merville. The General commanding directs you to move your 
command as rapidly as possible to Lafayette and make every 
exertion to strike the enemy in flank, and, if possible, cut off 
his escape. Colonel Wilder's Brigade has been ordered to 
join you at Lafayette." It is easy to see now that General 
Rosecrans made a serious mistake at this point. Nothing but 
the certainty that the enemy was retreating with scattered 
forces to some remote point could have warranted such a sep- 
aration of the three corps of the Army of the Cumberland as 
resulted from obedience to this order. This was evidently the 
very thing that General Bragg- hoped for. The mere occupa- 
tion of Chattanooga for the time being, was nothing in itself 
unless the Army of the Cumberland could be concentrated 
there so as to defend it from attack. What had been accom- 
plished up to this point was indeed a brilliant strategic suc- 
cess, so far as it had gone, but it came very near being the pre- 
lude to the complete destruction of General Rosecrans' Army. 
Looking from the top of Lookout Mountain, we could see the 
dust rising, indicating the movements of large bodies of troops 
from eight to ten miles distant and concealed from us by 
Pigeon Mountains and other elevations. Every mtelligent 
soldier in the Army of the Cumberland felt a profound anxi- 
ety. We knew something of the situation. With one corp 
in the neighborhood of Chattanooga, another corps twenty 
miles down the valley, another corps twenty-four miles farther 
down the valley, a good opportunity was afforded to the 
Confederate Commander to attack and destroy any one of the 
three before it could be joined by the other two. When we 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 83 

discovered that General Bragg had not really retreated, but 
that he had only withdrawn behind Pigeon Mountains to await 
re-enforcements, and that he was being re-enforced from Vir- 
ginia, from Mobile, from Mississippi and from East Tennes- 
see, anxiety deepened into depression. 

This general description of the campaign up to this point 
will enable our readers to understand the part taken by the 
78th Regiment. After the Tullahoma Campaign the Regi- 
ment remained in Camp Decherd from the 8th of July until the 
1 6th of August, most of the time being devoted to regimental 
and brigade drill, with ordinary picket duties. On the 5th of 
August Captain Cummins, the very popular commander of 
Company A, started for home, having resigned on account of 
ill health. The members of his company greatly regretted 
the necessity for their Captain's resignation. He had won 
their confidence and their affection, but all felt that it was a 
matter of necessity. 

On the 1 6th of August the Regiment left Camp Decherd 
at II A. M. and marched five miles in the direction of the 
mountain and bivouacked for the night. On the 17th we 
crossed Crow Creek and marched about six miles, again bi- 
vouacking for the night. On the i8th we marched sixteen 
miles. On the 19th we marched one mile, encamping in a 
large field in Crow Creek V^alley, naming our camp Cave 
Springs. In our marches during the Tullahoma Campaign 
we had to contend with the mud ; in our marches from Decherd 
to Cave Springs the dust was suffocating. Cave Springs af- 
forded every facility for a pleasant encampment, and the 
soldiers took advantage of it, making their camp look very 
beautiful, as well as comfortable. On the first of September 
we left our encampment at Cave Springs at six o'clock P. M., 
marched to the Tennessee River, crossed the pontoon bridge 
below Stevenson's, and marching two or three miles farther 
south, bivouacked for the night, or a part of it, for it was one 
o'clock of the morning of the second when we arrived. On 
the morning of the second we continued our march in an 
easterly direction until we came within two miles of Bridge- 
port. On the third of August the Regiment marched to the 
summit of Sand Mountain, also called Raccoon Mountain, and 
bivouacked for the night. On the 4th we descended the east- 
ern slope of the mountain and halted for the night at a place 
called Brown's Springs. On the 5th we marched about five 
miles and encamped at a place called Lookout ]\Iills. 



84 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

As may be seen by Colonel Blakeley's Official Report, on 
Raccoon Mountain we found a deep ravine which was impass- 
able, where Company C of the Regiment began work at five 
o'clock in the evening and in ten hours built a bridge i6o feet 
long and thirty-five feet high over which the 14th corps passed 
in safety. Colonel Blakeley's Official Report also tells of this 
mill on Lookout Creek where there was a large supply of 
wheat and corn and rye, and of how Captain Marlin superin- 
ten-'.ed the grinding of this supply of grain, together wit! 
other grain, gathered in from the neighborhood, and turned 
the products over to the Commissionary Department of the 
Army. The Regiment remained at this mill on the 6th and 
until the evening of the 7th when we were relieved, and, at 
ten o'clock on the 8th, moved forward to Lookout Mountains. 
Finding the road blockaded with troops, we bivouacked for 
the night. On the 9th the Regiment crossed the mountain 
and bivouacked for the night in McLemore's Cove, Company 
A, spending the night on picket duty. As we rested on the 
top of the mountain on the 9th we knew that General Bragg 
had retreated from Chattanooga and that our troops had en- 
tered the town. As we looked out across the Chickamauga 
Valley, we could not discern the movements of troops, but we 
could see the dust rising in the distance and were risking con- 
jectures as to General Bragg's purpose, though there seemed 
to be a general impression that he was about to fall back to 
Rome, Georgia. 

On the loth we marched out through ]\IcLemore's Cove 
in the direction of Dug Gap in Pigeon Mountain. When we 
had proceeded about two miles brisk skirmishing began, when 
the Regiment, deployed in close column, moved forward driv- 
ing the skirmishers several miles. Finding the enemy in force 
in our front, we halted, moved a short distance to the left of 
the road, and bivouacked for the night. On the morning of 
the nth we were called up at two o'clock, and took our posi- 
tion on a hill a short distance to the rear. Heavy skirmishing 
commenced early in the morning, the enemy pressing our 
flanks and front. We maintained our ground until about three 
o'clock, when we were forced to fall back in the direction of 
Lookout Mountain. We learned afterwards that during this 
afternoon we had in reality been confronting the whole of 
General Bragg's Army, and, if we had not presented a bold 
front while falling back on our own corps, we would certainly 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 85 

have been captured. We resisted their advance to the utmost 
without bringing on a general engagement. 

Personally I do not recollect the events of any particular 
days more vividly than I recollect what occurred on the loth 
and nth of September in McLemore's Cove. The loth was 
a beautiful September day and our movements through fields 
and woodlands, along pleasant ravines, over brooks and 
ridges, would ordinarily have been very enjoyable, but there 
seemed to be something oppressive in the atmosphere. Soldiers 
remarked the anxious looks on the faces of General Thomas 
and other officers, and, while the officers did not tell the sold- 
iers of their anxiety, there was a kind of language without 
words, so that the feeling of anxiety was very pervasive. 

Having sketched the movements of the 78th Regiment up 
to the evening of the nth of September, we turn again to 
study the movements of the whole Army. 

The morning of the loth of September found a large 
part of General Thomas' corps in Lookout Valley. The even- 
ing of the loth found General Negley's division in front of 
Dug Gap of Pigeon Mountain. By the morning of the nth 
of September General Baird's division had moved forward 
through McLemore's Cove to the support of General Negley's 
division. By the evening of the nth General Negley's divis- 
ion and General Baird's division had withdrawn and were 
in line of battle in front of Steven's Gap in Lookout Mountain 
where they were supported by General Brannon's of the 14th 
Corp. The 78th Pennsylvania had led the movement out to 
Dug Gap and were the rear guards in the retreat or with- 
drawal back to Steven's Gap. 

During the nth of September General Negley's division, 
supported by General Baird's division, confronted two corps 
of Confederate infantry. Hill's and Walker's, and a division of 
Confederate cavalry in the gaps of Pigeon Mountain. There 
seemed to be no good reason why the Confederate forces 
should not have attacked and destroyed these two divisions of 
the 14th corps on that day. It was fortunate for us that they 
did not make the attack promptly. 



86 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

XIII. 

Concentration of Rosecrans' Army 

The night of the nth found General Thomas' corps in 
front of Steven's Gap with General McCook's corps in Look- 
out Valley about twenty miles farther south. General Thomas's 
corps was at this time separated from each of the other two 
corps of our Army by a distance of twenty miles, while nearly 
the whole Confederate Army was in easy striking distance. 
General Bragg's report of this event shows that he was greatly 
disappointed in that he did not succeed in crushing these 
advance divisions, if not the whole of General Thomas' corps, 
that day. 

By the evening of the nth it became evident that General 
Rosecrans must make a desperate effort to concentrate his 
army in order to meet an attack from the enemy. There were 
strong indications that the Army of General Bragg was being 
re-enforced and that he would make every effort to bring on a 
battle before the three corps of the Army of the Cumberland 
could be concentrated. It was discovered, also, that General 
Cheatham, of the Confederate Army, had moved south of Lee 
and Gordon's mill. With the twentieth and twenty-first corps 
of General Rosecrans' Army nearly fifty miles apart and the 
14th corps so near to the Confederate Army that an attack 
might be made at any time, the condition of affairs was most 
critical. The statement of this fact, however, only gives a 
faint idea of the situation. General McCook on the right 
wing could not join General Thomas by passing directly down 
Chickamauga Valley because he would probably strike General 
Polk's corps of the Confederate Army at Dougherty's Gap, 
through which it was necessary for him to pass in order to 
reach General Thomas. The only way open to him was to 
recross Lookout Mountain, march down Lookout Valley and 
cross Lookout Mountain again at the point where General 
Thomas had crossed, but this would require several days. 

About midnight on the 12th of ySeptember General Mc- 
Cook was ordered to march to the assistance of General 
Thomas with all possible dispatch. He at once drew in his 
forces, recrossed Lookout IMountain. marched down Lookout 
Valley to Steven's Gap, where General Thomas had crossed 
and then crossed the mountain for the third time. This 
movement of General McCook required about four days and 



I 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 89 

by the 17th of September he had joined his forces with those 
of General Thomas in front of Steven's Gap in McLamore's 
Cove. For these four days the 14th army corps had con- 
fronted an army of between 60,000 and 70.000 men. General 
Rosecrans' whole Army at this time did not number more than 
50,000 men. If the Confederate Commander could have 
brought on a battle before the 17th, even at a disadvantage 
so far as position was concerned, he should have been able 
to crush and destroy the 14th army corps. General Bragg's 
reports of this event indicate that he blamed his subordinates 
for not promptly executing his commands, but he seems at the 
same time to have maneuvered with the idea of placing his 
army between General Rosecrans' Army and Chattanooga. 
However it is to be accounted for, he missed his opportunity, 
and subsequent events indicate that lie did not quite understand 
the movements of General Rosecrans' Army. 

It must be confessed, too, that General Rosecrans, up to 
the evening of the nth, did not understand the movements of 
General Bragg's Army. On the loth of September, in a dis- 
patch to General Thomas. General Rosecrans. speaking of 
General Bragg, says, "It is important to know whether he re- 
treat on Rome or Cedar Bluffs,'' and lie commands General 
Thomas to open direct communication with General McCook 
and take care to hurt the enemy as much as possible. General 
Bragg had at this time a choice of corps, as each corps of the 
Union Army in its isolation was exposed to attack, and it was 
not in the power of General Thomas, General Crittenden or 
General McCook to give aid to each other except in so far as 
each could hold the enemy to the offensive against himself. 

It is interesting for us to know how the campaign looked 
from the Confederate side at this time, and we have the follow- 
ing dispatch from General Bragg, dated Lafayette. Georgia, 
September loth, 12 P. M., addressed to Major General Hind- 
man: "Crittenden's corps is advancing on us from Chatta- 
nooga. A large force from the South has advanced within 
seven miles of this point. General Polk is left at Anderson 
to cover your rear. General Bragg orders you to attack and 
force your way through the enemy to this point at the earliest 
hour you can see him in the morning. Cleburne will attack in 
front the moment your guns are heard." General Hindman 
had been joined by General Buckner's corps so that Buckner's. 
Polk's and Walker's and one division of Hill's corps and a 
cavalry force, under General Bragg in person, were included 



90 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

in the combination against the two advanced divisions of our 
14th corps. It is evident, therefore, that by skillful maneuvers 
and gallant fighting, Negley's and Baird's divisions had with- 
drawn from the midst of three converging columns when they 
fell back towards Lookout Mountain on the evening of the 
nth. 

From the 13th to the i6th, while General McCook's corps 
was marching to join General Thomas' corps, General 
Thomas' corps had been moving gradually out from Steven's- 
Gap in the direction of Lee and Gordon's Mill to be in readi- 
ness to connect in one direction with General Crittenden and 
in the other with General McCook. On the 17th of Septem- 
ber General Thomas and General McCook moved down Chick- 
amauga Creek toward Gordon's Mill and joined General' 
Crittenden. This was the position of the Union forces on the 
evening of the 17th of September. 

On the 1 8th the enemy's cavalry crossed Chickamauga. 
Creek at Alexander and at Reed's Bridges and drove our cav- 
alry back into the Rossville Road. The nature of the ground 
rendered it very difficult for either army to understand the- 
position of the other, but it was evident to private soldiers, 
as well as to the general officers, that each Army was strug- 
gling for the possession of Chattanooga. General Rosecrans- 
had succeeded in concentrating the three corps of his army 
along the ridges on the west side of Chickamauga Creek and 
was expecting an attack every moment and at almost every 
point. General Bragg's Army seemed also to be moving down 
the Chickamauga evidently with the intention of passing 
around the left flank of General Rosecrans' Army so as to se- 
cure the Lafayette Road and Rossville Gap. By the even- 
ing of the 1 8th General Rosecrans' Army was in front of Lee 
and Gordon's Mill. 

Colonel Blakeley. in his official report, gives a concise 
and definite account of the movements of the Regiment from- 
the lOth to the i8th. Speaking of the moving of the Regi- 
ment at midnight, on the night of the loth, he says, "The 
movement of my Regiment, as well as that of the Avhole bri- 
gade, was so quietly executed that our own pickets did not 
know of it until morning." Speaking of the time spent at the 
foot of Lookout Mountain after we had withdrawn from Dug 
Gap, he says, "I lay at the foot of Lookout Mountain from 
the evening of the nth to the morning of the 17th behind 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 91 

rudely constructed breastworks. On the 17th the march was 
resumed in a northeasterly direction. At evening I halted on 
the ground occupied by a portion of General Crittenden's 
■corps, where I remained until the evening of the i8th, and then 
was moved eastward two miles and halted until midnight, then 
•countermarched one mile, deploying my Regiment as skirm- 
ishers with C and H Companies in reserve, moved south to the 
north bank of the Chickamauga." 

The 78th Regiment spent from midnight of the 18th until 
dawn of the 19th in guarding two fords of the Chickamauga 
to prevent an attack on the flank of General McCook's corps, 
while it was moving into position. In the morning after Gen- 
eral McCook's corps had passed, the Regiment followed and 
rejoined its brigade north of Crawfisli Springs. 

By the morning of the 19th we all felt that another day 
'Could not pass without a terrific struggle. The armies were 
so close together that the battle might commence at any mo- 
ment. All felt, too, that the interests at stake w^ere, not only 
important, but vital to both contestants. Confederate leaders 
knew that the life of the Confederacy depended on their hold- 
ing Chattanooga. General D. H. Hill, of the Confederate 
Army, writing of this battle in the Century Magazine, says, 
"It seemed to me that the Blan of the Southern soldier was 
never seen after Chickamauga — that brilliant dash which had 
distinguished him on a hundred fields was gone forever. He 
was too intelligent not to know that the cutting in two of 
Georgia meant death to all his hopes. He fought stoutly to 
the last, but, after Chickamauga, with the sullenness of despair 
and without the enthusiasm of hope." Intelligent Confeder- 
ates believed that the loss of Chickamauga would seal the 
fate of the Southern Confederacy and hence their Army was 
expected to fight desperately. On the other hand, the Army 
of the Cumberland knew that it must either repulse the enemy 
or be utterly destroyed. It was evident to private soldiers, as 
well as to commanding officers, that it would be impossible to 
retreat either across Lookout Mountain or across the Tennes- 
see River. These two considerations rendered the next two 
days the most important two days in the whole history of the 
War of the Rebellion. Looking backward forty years, we can 
hardly understand with what good cheer and hopeful courage 
the 78th Regiment stopped at the famous Crawfish Springs 
and discussed the beauty and excellence of this magnificent 



92 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

fountain while they rested for a Httle time and quenched their 
thirst. 

XIV. 

Battle of September Nineteenth 

We have spoken of the position of the 78th Regiment on 
the night of the i8th as it guarded the fords near Lee and 
Gordon's Mill, but, in order to understand the battle of the next 
day it will be necessary for us to tell of some of the changes 
that were made in the position of our Army during the night 
of the 18th. 

On the evening of the 18th, General Bragg's Army was 
concentrated in the neighborhood of Lee and Gordon's Mill, 
south of Chickamauga Creek, while the three corps of the 
Union Army were in such a position as to be able to support 
each other in case of attack. General Bragg's plan of battle 
contemplated the crossing of the Chickamauga below Gordon's 
Mill and assailing the left wing of the Union Army so as to 
thrust his army between General Rosecrans' Army and Chatta- 
nooga. When this plan was made, General Crittenden's corps 
formed the left wing of the Union Army, but, during the night 
of the 1 8th, a great transformation took place which discon- 
certed General Bragg and compelled him to change his plans. 
Early in the evening of the i8th General Thomas' corps moved 
closer to General Crittenden's. But, instead of closing up on 
General Crittenden's right, as General Bragg supposed he was 
doing, this corps, with the exception of the part that guarded 
the fords on Chickamauga Creek, marched by the rear of 
General Crittenden's corps, took position on his left, with 
General Brannen on the Kelly farm on the extreme left. 
General McCook took position in the rear of Generals Xegley 
and Crittenden. This inversion of the Union Army, under 
cover of the night, deceived General Bragg and enabled Gen- 
eral Rosecrans to prepare for battle between General Bragg's 
Army and Chattanooga, and in front of the two most im- 
portant passes into Chattanooga. This was a brilliant start- 
egic move both in its plan and execution. 

The early dawn of September 19th, 1863 gave promise of 
a bright, clear autumn day. The name Chickamauga means 
River of Death, but Nature gave no hint that morning as to 
the harvest Death would reap in the valley of Chickamauga on 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



93 



lOSii'lltC 0/1 




Battle of Chickamauga, September 19th 



94 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

that and the following clay. From that time onward the name 
seemed peculiarly appropriate, for, of the 120,000 young, 
strong, brave men under arms that morning, the grim har- 
vester claimed between three or four thousand during the 
next two days, and nearly 25,000 others were included in the 
lists of wounded or missing. 

About 9 o'clock in the morning, while General Bragg was 
preparing to attack General Crittenden's left, supposing it was 
the extreme left wing of our army, and was expecting to out- 
flank General Crittenden, so as to get between General Rose- 
crans and Chattanooga, he heard with surprise General 
Thomas' attack in the vicinity of Reed's Bridge, two miles to 
his right, and three or four miles from where General Thomas 
had been on the evening of the eighteenth. This attack on 
General Bragg's right so alarmed and disconcerted him as to 
prevent his immediate attack on General Crittenden. 

This was the beginning of the great battle of Chicka- 
mauga. It was a surprise to both armies ; for neither ex- 
pected to meet the other in force at this point. As the sound 
indicated a furious battle. General Bragg sent re-enforcements 
from all points. His whole plan of battle was completely 
changed and he found himself compelled to fight with his 
enemy between him and Chattanooga. By eleven o'clock the 
battle was raging fiercely. Generals Baird and Brannen of 
General Thomas' corps would have been driven from the field 
had not Johnson of McCook's corps come to their support 
He was placed on General Baird's right ; then came General 
Palmer from General Crittenden's corps, who saw that he was 
not likely to be attacked at Lee and Gordon's. When Palm- 
er's ammunition began to fail Van Cleve came to his support, 
and, when he was driven back, Reynolds moved forward and 
was in turn overpowered. Then came Davis' division and 
drove the enemy for a time, but was compelled to give way, 
when Wood's division appeared on the scene and again turned 
the tide of battle. As fast as the Union Line was extended 
to the left it was attacked by the Confederates who were well 
massed west of the Chickamauga. In six hours from the time 
General Bragg had ordered the attack on Crittenden at Lee 
and Gordon's Mill only a single brigade was posted there. 
The two armies seemed to an ordinary observer like great 
wheels rolling down the valley and coming in contact at only 
one point. The fighting was terrific. Every division of the 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 97 

Union Army was in line except the reserve under Granger, 
which was some five or six miles on the left, near Rossville. 
General Bragg was making desperate attempts to push his 
right between the Union left and Chattanooga, but was met 
and repulsed at every point. 

By three o'clock the tide of the battle had swept down the 
valley so far that the General Negley's division was no longer 
needed to guard the fords, and it was moved from its position 
near Crawfish Springs to the Widow Glenn's house. On 
this march down the Chickamauga Valley we saw a most mag- 
nificent battle scene — a panorama of war on a grand scale. 
The battle was raging fiercely in the forest along the Chicka- 
mauga; batteries of artillery and brigades of infantry were 
moving on double quick to the support of our forces on the bat- 
tle lines. As we moved along the road leading to the Widow 
Glenn's house, from a ridge, overlooking the valley of the 
Chickamauga, we could see the smoke of battle rising above the 
trees almost shutting out our view of the forest, while the roar 
■of artillery with the rattle of musketry was deafening. We 
-could see part of General McCook's corps, numbering perhaps 
ten or twelve thousand men, including artillery, moving at 
double quick time down into the woods, out of which were 
pouring thousands of wounded soldiers and stragglers. It 
was a sight never to be forgotten. 

Colonel Blakely, in his official report, speaking of the 
movements of the 78th Regiment from the fords near Lee and 
Gordon's mill says, "In moving north to the Brigade we passed 
a part of the line where the division of General Jefferson C. 
Davis was engaged in a sanguinary conflict with the enemy. 
W^e passed under the rebel fire while the roar of the battle and 
the sight of the wounded, bleeding and mangled I feared might 
make even the heroes of Stone River quail. Some were cheer- 
ful and others quiet and meditative, but determination was pic- 
tured on each brow which satisfied me that there would be no 
flinching." 

About half past four o'clock General Negley's division, 
having reached the Widow Glenn's house, was ordered for- 
ward to meet the enemy who seemed to be breaking through 
our center. As we marched down and took our position in the 
edge of the woods, where now stands the monument of the 
78th Pennsylvania Regiment, we seemed to be entering the 
very center of the fiercest conflict, and we fully expected to 



98 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

bear the brunt of the battle that evening. We need hardly say 
that it is a most serious and sublime moment in any man's life 
when he takes his position in line of battle and momentarily 
expects an attack. Speaking of the Regiment at this time^ 
Colonel Blakeley says, "We attained our position under a rak- 
ing fire but found that we could not successfully return the fire, 
as the enemy was in the woods on high ground on our front, 
and, being without sufficient support to charge, I ordered the 
men to lie down until needed." 

Had we been attacked by the enemy at this time we would 
certainly have been crushed, for we did not completely fill the 
gap in our lines and were unsupported on either the right or 
left. Instead of attacking our front, however, as we expected, 
the enemy seemed to fall back. For a little time there was 
comparative quiet all along the line, and by half past five 
o'clock we began to think the battle might be over for the day. 
We thought it possible, however, that the enemy was only mak- 
ing preparations for another desperate charge. Our doubts 
were soon solved. General Cleburne and General Walker had 
been moving to the extreme Confederate right, and about six 
o'clock, with a line about one mile in length, made a most fur- 
ious assault on General Johnson's division of General McCook's 
corps which resulted in the most terrific battle of the day. In 
this battle the 77th Pennsylvania took a very active part and 
lost very heavily. Among the wounded, and left on the field 
to be captured by the enemy, was Captain William A. Robin- 
son of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, afterwards Lieut. Col. and 
Brevet Brig, Gen. Robinson. The Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel 
and a very large section of the 77th Regiment were captured. 

An officer of the 77th Regiment, speaking of this battle, 
says, "The fight on the 19th of September in which the 77th 
was engaged was about one-half mile in front of the Brother- 
ton house, in the woods. We had moved from the Kelly 
field a little to the left of the Snodgrass house in the forenoon. 
We struck the enemy soon after leaving the Kelly house, driv- 
ing them some distance, when we were checked. We held this 
ground until six o'clock p. m. when the enemy moved on our 
line in two columns, Bushrod Johnson's brigade in the front, 
followed closely by General vSmith's brigade. When very 
near to us, Johnson's brigade moved by the right and left 
flanks on both sides of us and to our rear. It was very dark 
and the fighting was desperate. General Smith and two of his 



HISTORY AND ROSTER TSth REGIMENT P. V. I. 99 

Staff were killed, having broken riolit into the the 77th Regi- 
ment's lines. We held the ground f(jr a time, but were great- 
ly outnumbered by the enemy. The darkness, the killed and 
wounded in our midst, the flashes of light, the woods on fire, 
the desperate fighting, the mixture of Confederates with our 
own men, made it a night long to be remembered. Some of 
the 77th Regiment escaped, but the majority were finally taken 
prisoners, including all of the staff and most of the line officers. 

The 78th Regiment did not have any active part in this 
battle, but my comrades in the Regiment will agree with me 
that in all our experiences we never heard more terrific firing 
than we heard during the half hour that evening. The roar of 
small arms sounded like a very heavy rain falling on the roof, 
and we could hardly distinguish when a dozen pieces of ar- 
tillery added their roar to that of the musketry. As night came 
on, and we were not attacked, we spent our time throwing 
r.p small breast works of stones and other materials that might 
suffice to turn a Confederate bullet. Traces of these rude for- 
tifications are still to be seen on this part of the battle field. In 
his official report, General Rosccrans, speaking of the night of 
the 19th, says, "The roar of the battle hushed in the darkness 
of night; and our troops, weary with the night of marching 
and a day of fighting, having everywhere maintained their po- 
sition, developed the enemy and gained the positions command- 
ing the Rossville and ]\IcFar!and's Ciaps, rested on their arms." 

Company A was on the skirmish line that night, 
about one hundred yards in front of the line of battle, 
until midnight when it was relieved by Company B. It was a 
cold night for September. In was one of the most terrible 
nights in all our army experience. The coming on of night 
had brought a cessation of the battle, but it was a most terrific, 
undecided struggle, and we fully expected that it would begin 
again at day break in the morning. The men on our skirmish 
line were not more than ten paces apart, and we believed that 
we were not more than one or two hundred yards from the 
skirmishers and advance line of the enemy. Between cur lines 
and those of the enemy were many dead and many wounded, 
and we could hear the wounded crying for water, but vvere un- 
able to give them any relief. Though there was some moon- 
light, in the dense woods it was quite dark, so that our skirm- 
ishers could not see each other. Once during the night one of 
our skirmishers had cautiously and quietly advanced a few 



100 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

paces to make investigation. He had, indeed, moved so quiet- 
ly that the men on either side of him had not been aware of his 
advance. When he returned to the hne he made more noise 
and, being mistaken for the enemy, soon found himself pinned 
between two bayonets in such a way that he could not move 
without instant death. Explanation followed and he was set 
free. 

No words can adequately describe our condition that 
night. The memories of what had taken place during the day, 
the immediate surroundings and the outlook of the morrow 
were terrible beyond description. When little trifles of daily 
life sometimes threaten to murder sleep by bringing anxiety in 
regard to tomorrow, I think of that night, and I go to sleep 
thanking the Lord that I am not on the battlefield of Chicka- 
mauga as I was on the iQth of Septmber, 1863. 

XV. 
Battle of September Twentieth 

Sabbath morning, September 20th, was cool and clear 
with a heavy fog hanging over the valley of the Chickamauga. 
For several hours after daylight this fog prevented any deci- 
sive military movements, and there were but few indications 
of the terrible battle to be fought on that sacred day. 

During the night both armies had improved their oppor- 
tunities to perfect their lines and strengthen their weak points. 
General Bragg had received heavy re-enforcements and was 
prepared to attack with many brigades that had not yet been 
engaged in the battle. General Longstreet was placed in com- 
mand of the Confederate left wing while General Polk com- 
manded the right wing. General Rosegrans had received no 
re-enforcements, and had scarcely a regiment that had not been 
engaged on the preceding day. The left wing of his army was 
slightly withdrawn from the ground on which it had fought on 
the 19th, and was placed in a strong position on the edge of the 
woods which skirted the Kelley farm. During the night the 
corps commanders were called together at the headquarters of 
the commanding General, and at this conference. General 
Thomas urged that the right center of the Army should be 
withdrawn from Missionary Ridge to the transverse hills to the 
right and rear of center. The Ridge and these hills command- 



HISTORY AND ROSTER TSth REGIMENT P. V. I. 103 

ed Dry Valley Road and much of the ground between that road 
and the one leading to Lafayette by Lee and Gordon's Mill. 
Had this been done our Anny would have been better pre- 
pared for the battle of the 20th. 

In the battle of the 20th General Bragg had forty-two 
brigades, including two hundred and twelve regiments and fifty 
batteries of artillery. General Rosecrans had thirty-three 
brigades, including one hundred and fifty regiments and thirty- 
six batteries. His army was greatly outnumbered by that of 
the enemy, but he had the advantage of position because he was 
enabled to fight largely on the defensive. On Sabbath morn- 
ing the Union line was about two and one-half miles long. 
The shortness of the line compared with the number of troops 
is adapted to suggested the terrific character of the conflict. 

A glance at the map of the second day's battle will enable 
the reader to understand the description given hereafter. It 
will be seen that General Baird was on the extreme left of the 
Union Army ; directly on his right was Johnson ; then Palmer, 
then Reynolds, then Brannen, then Negley, and, on his right 
VanCleve, then Wilder, then Davis, and, on the extreme right 
Sheridan. On the extreme right of the Confederates was 
Breckinridge, and on his left Walker, then Cleburne, with 
Cheatham in reserve ; on the left of Cleburne was Stew'art, and 
on his left Johnson, with Law and Kershaw in reserve ; on 
Johnson's left was Hindman, with Preston on the extreme left, 
facing Sheridan. A glance at the map will show, also, that 
the Union left wing was outflanked by the Confederate right 
wing which extended nearly to the Lafayette Road. 

As the morning wore on towards nine o'clock the soldiers 
began to ask each other whether there would really be a battle 
that day. It was well known that General Rosecrans was op- 
posed to fighting a battle on the Sabbath and it was confident- 
ly believed that he would not make the attack ; it seemed pos- 
sible, therefore, that hostilities might not be renewed until 
Monday. 

About nine o'clock the silence was broken and a fierce bat- 
tle began on our extrem.e left. General Breckenridge with 
three brigades attacked Beatty's brigade of Baird's division, 
making a determined effort to secure a position in Baird's rear. 
The left brigade of Breckenridge's division, however, struck 
Baird's breastworks and was shattered, while their commander, 
General Helm, and two of his colonels were killed. As Gen- 



104 HISTORY AND ROSTER T8th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

eral Baird's brigade was compelled to fall back before super- 
ior forces, Stanley's brigade of Negley's division came to the 
rescue and turned the tide of battle for the present, completely 
repulsing Breckenridge's attack. Cleburne then made an attack 
but it was repulsed with great loss. It is said that our artillery 
in this battle did wonderful execution. The attacks of Breck- 
enridge and Cleburne had hardly been repulsed when Walker 
moved forward, striking Palmer's left. For a time the whole 
Union left seemed to be in great peril, and it began to look as 
if the Confederate Army would succeed in establishing itself 
between the Union Army and Rossville Gap. The two bri- 
gades of Breckenridge's division burst out of the woods on the 
north side of the Kelly field, threw out a heavy skirmish force 
and struck the flank of Reynold's front. General Thomas, 
who had been carefully watching the progress of events, saw 
the danger and asked for re-enforcements, and Brannan's di- 
vision was ordered to go to Thomas, but was prevented by an 
attack on his own front. He used wise discretion, however, 
remained on the line of battle, and in the meantime sent one 
brigade to the assistance of General Thomas. This brigade 
came into the open field in front of Breckenridge, charged the 
Confederate line, driving the two brigades of Breckenridge 
clear beyond the Union left wing, and then fell back to a point 
not far from the Kelly house. 

In the meantime, one of Walker's brigades had secured a 
position on the line which Beatty had held, but a charge of Gen- 
eral Grose's brigade drove the Confederates from this point, 
and the left of the Union Army was strengthened by plac- 
ing Barnes of VanCleve's division on the left of Baird. This 
was the condition of affairs on the left wing of our army 
about twelve o'clock. There had been terrific fighting and 
General Bragg' s Army had sufifered such loss that the Union 
left wing was not attacked for several hours. 

While this conflict was progressing on the left wing of our 
Army, General Negley was ordered to move from the Brother- 
ton woods and take position on General Thomas' left. Gen- 
eral Wood of General McCook,s corps was to take Negley's 
place in the line. The request that General Negley's division 
should be sent to take position on the left of Baird was made 
by General Thomas very early in the morning, as is indicated 
by a message, dated 6 a. m. of the 20th, and addressed to 
Major General Rosecrans, and reading as follows : "Since my 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 105 

return this morning I have found it necessary to concentrate 
my hne more. My left does not now extend to the road that 
branches from McDonald's and Reed's bridge. I earnestly re- 
quest that General Negley's division be placed on my left im- 
mediately, etc." 

In response to this message General Rosecrans at 6 -.35 a. 
m., sent the following message to General McCook : "General 
Negley's division has been ordered to join General Thomas' 
left. The General commanding directs you to fill the space left 
vacant by his removal, if practicable. The enemy appears to 
be moving to our left." 

We have quoted these orders as they are found in the offi- 
cial reports in order that our readers may fully understand 
what took place that morning. General Negley was to be re- 
lieved by General Wood before moving his troops to the left 
wing as requested by General Thomas. General Wood did 
not arrive promptly so that General Negley's division was still 
in its place at the right of Brotherton's at nine o'clock when 
there came urgent calls from General Thomas for General 
Negley to move to the left, and one brigade was sent. Our 
brigade remained in the Brotherton woods until about ten 
o'clock. There were no indications that we were about to be 
attacked, but there was a tremendous roar of battle on our left 
snd some fighting on our right. About ten o'clock General 
Negley, supposing that Wood's division was ready to take its 
position, withdrew from Brotherton's woods and moved back- 
Avard and eastward along the slope of the hill towards the 
Snodgrass House w'here our Regiment took position supporting 
the artillery. When we had moved back probably half a mile 
from the front and passed along the slope leading toward the 
Snodgrass House a desperate charge was made by the enemy 
at the very point we had left unprotected. Before General 
Wood had reached the place and before we had reached our 
position at the Snodgrass House, the Confederates were 
sweeping everything before them, and pouring through the 
gap in our line where we had withdrawn, and where a part of 
Brannan's division had been withdrawn to meet Breckinridge's 
charge on the left. Whether anyone was really to blame for 
this unfortunate weakening of our line we cannot say. Gen- 
eral Wood, wdio was to have filled our place, was attacked in 
front just as the orders came to relieve Negley, and. being 
compelled to defend his own front, did not obey the order 



106 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

promptly. General Thomas knew that the left of the Army- 
was both vulnerable and vital and had sent urgent calls for 
Nesflev's division. General Wood, no doubt felt that it would 
be very perilous to leave a position where he was attacked, 
but the delay in filling the place left vacant by the withdrawal 
of our Brigade came very near being fatal to the Army of 
the Cumberland. 

It has been claimed that General Rosecrans erred in giv- 
ing command at this time ; that General Wood was ordered ta 
close upon Palmer instead of being ordered to close on Bran- 
nan, that our division should not have been removed until 
Wood's division had relieved us. But it should be remem- 
bered, on the other hand, that General Rosecrans could not 
send the troops that were needed by General Thomas to pro- 
tect his position without leaving a weak spot somewhere, and 
the Confederates pressing us at all points were sure to dis- 
cover the weak spot. They did not break through, however, 
even at this point without meeting desperate resistance. We 
cannot show this better than by quoting General Stewart, who 
commanded the Confederate division that broke through our 
lines. He writes as follows, "For several hundred yards, both 
lines pressed on under the most terrific fire that it has ever been 
my fortune to witness. The enemy retired, and our men, 
though mowed down at every step, rushed on at double quick, 
until at last the brigade on the right of Brown broke in confu- 
sion, exposing him to an enfilading fire. He continued on, 
however, some fifty to seventy-five yards further, when twa 
regiments on his right gave way in disorder, and retired to 
their original position. His center and left, however, followed 
by the gallant Clayton and the indomitable Bate, pressed on, 
passing the corn field in front of the burnt house, and to a 
distance of two hundred to three hundred yards beyond the 
Chattanooga Road, driving the enemy within his line of en- 
trenchments, and passing a battery of four guns, which were 
afterwards taken possession of by a regiment from another di- 
vision. Here new batteries being opened by the enemy on 
our front and flank, heavily supported by infantry, it became 
necessary to retire, the command reforming on the ground oc- 
cupied before the advance." 

From this description, we learn how the battle looked 
from the other side. It was a critical moment for the Union 
Army, and yet, in the language of another, "Not a single sol- 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



107 




scalCvilcs. 
I I I I 



Battle of Chickamauga, September 20th 



108 HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 

dier left the line." Standing steadfast, they first resisted, as 
General Stewart describes, and then were incited to still greater 
heroism by the greater achievements of their comrades under 
Van Derveer in their rear. 

Generals Rosecrans, McCook, Negley, Sheridan and Crit- 
tenden have all been severely criticized for their actions at 
this critical time. That there were mistakes on the part of all 
of them, there is scarcely reasonable doubt. Lc)oking at the 
events, however, in the light of subsequent history, and know- 
ing just what was taking place on the left, and knowing the 
absolute necessity for resisting attacks on the left, we can only 
say they probably did not do the best thing, but they did what 
seemed wisest and best at the time, and it is not necessary to 
call hard names. Had General Stewart's command struck this 
point before the removal of the last brigade of General Neg- 
ley's division, it seems quite probable that he would not have 
succeeded in breaking our line, but, on the other hand, it 
might have been impossible to resist the attack of the enemy on 
our left wing. 

The result of this break in our lines cut ofi. Sheridan with 
his two brigades from the army that was fighting under Gen- 
eral Thomas; Van Cleve's two brigades were thrown into great 
confusion, and the three divisions of General Crittenden, com- 
prising his whole command, had been ordered in succession to 
General Thomas, and General Crittenden was left without any 
command. General Rosecrans, the Commander of the Army, 
came near being cut off from the main body of the Army along 
with part of General McCook's corps. Sheridan has been 
blamed for not marching at this time by the most direct route 
to join General Thomas. Had he done so, he could have add- 
ed from seven to ten thousand men to the fighting force in the 
terrible conflict of the afternoon. Generals Rosecrans, Mc- 
Cook and Crittenden all went to Chattanooga, but the courts 
of inquiry afterwards justified Rosecrans and Crittenden and 
excused McCook. 

Six divisions of the Confederate Army under General 
Longstreet had taken part in this charge upon the Union cen- 
ter, sweeping its right wing off the field. They were Stewart, 
Bushrod Johnson, Preston, Hood, McLaws and Hindman. 
Eight brigades poured through the gap left by Wood, and 
Hindman, finding no resistance on the left, moved to the right 
to assist Longstreet' s center and right which had been checked 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. Ill 

by Brannan and Wood. This brought Longstreet's six divi- 
sions together in the vicinity of Horseshoe Ridge. 

About 2 o'clock, General Longstreet ordered a general 
assault with these six divisions, and, to meet this assault, there 
were only Croxton's brigade and part of John Beatty's, Stan- 
ley's, the 2 1st Ohio of Sirwell's, and a few other regiments, 
making probably about 4,000 men. Against this small force, 
without reserves, Longstreet sent forth his solid columns and it 
seems strange that he did not succeed in comlpetely overwhelm- 
ing them. Through some misunderstanding, General Negley 
had ordered artillery off the field that could have been used to 
great advantage at this time. To those who understood the 
situation, it looked as though there was little hope of General 
Thomas being able to hold his ground. 

There never was a time in the history of any battle when 
it required a higher degree of courage to meet attack, and 
probably there never was a time when soldiers displayed more 
undaunted courage. There were stragglers in the rear, but 
there seemed to be no one in the front line who was unwilling 
to do his whole duty. 

Just at this point, when everything looked darkest, a col- 
umn of soldiers appeared moving very rapidly across the 
fields from the direction of the McDonald house. The story 
of these soldiers has often been told, and there is no more mar- 
velous story in the history of any great battle than that which 
accounted for the unexpected appearance of these two brigades 
from Steedman's division of Granger's reserve. Stationed 
four miles from Rossville, General Granger recognized the 
fact that he was more needed where General Thomas was 
fighting this desperate battle than where he was com- 
manded to stay; without waiting for orders he marched 
at once to the field of conflict, and he arrived just 
at the moment when it seemed impossible to have 
saved the Union Army but for his coming. It would be hard 
indeed to convince anyone who believes in the God of battles, 
that there was not something peculiarly providential in this 
matter. It is an extraordinary thing for any subordinate com- 
mander to take upon himself the responsibility of leaving a 
position that he had been appointed to defend and come to 
■another position where he believes that he is more needed. 
General Granger knew that General Rosecrans would be likely 
•to send him an order to come, if he thought it wise that he 



112 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

should come; still, his soldiery instinct was so wrought upon 
that he disobeyed orders to the saving of the Army. We feel 
confident, too, that the hand of an over-ruling Providence will 
be recognized by those who fought on the Confederate, as well 
as by those who fought on the Union side. General Fullerton^ 
the late lamented President of the Chickamauga National 
Park Commission, said to General Stewart one day, as we 
were looking over the battlefield of Chickamauga from one 
of the high towers erected near the Snodgrass House, "How 
can you explain the fact that General Longstreet, with his 
overwhelming forces and his repeated attacks, did not suc- 
ceed in crushing the Union forces in his front?" General 
Stewart said in reply, "I know only one reason, and that is, 
the Lord did not intend that it should be so." We believe that 
is the real explanation of the results in both these cases. The 
God of battles was determining what should be the result of 
this fight that was to decide the fate of the Southern Confed- 
eracy. 

General Steedman advanced in line of battle and delivered 
a volley at short range, charged the enemy's line, drove them 
back on their batteries, pursued both infantry and artillery to 
a point beyond the Union left where Grose's command from the 
rear of Palmer's completed the work. 

The coming of General Steedman inspired the whole 
Army with new courage. He brought not only fresh troops 
but a hundred thousand rounds of cartridges and a quantity of 
artillery ammunition that was of special value as the am- 
munition had, through some mistake, been ordered off the 
field. The battle raged fiercely, right, left and everywhere. 
General Longstreet organized several separate attacks and as- 
saulted different points in rapid succession. It is said that he 
had ten brigades in front of Brannan and Steedman, while 
they had only four organized brigades and a few fragments 
from other brigades. About three o'clock preparations were 
made on the part of the Confederates for a general attack 
on the left wing but it lacked the energy and fierceness of 
former attacks. The Confederate Army had suffered terribly 
in the earlier part of the day, and it would be difficult to say 
which army was the less able to attack the other. A few fresh 
troops on the side of the Union Army at this time would prob- 
ably have swept the Confederate forces from the field; but 
both armies were completely exhausted and the battle, for the 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 113 

<lay at least, was ended. General Thomas' line was unbroken, 
while the Confederate Army had been repulsed at ever}- 
point. But the ammunition of our army was exhausted, and 
a little before six o'clock General Thomas decided to withdraw 
and occupy the passes in his rear at McFarland's and Ross- 
ville Gaps which controlled the roads to Chattanooga. His 
aim was to occupy those positions before they could be seized 
by the Confederate forces. 

Had the battle been fought for the possession of Chick- 
amauga battlefield instead of Chattanooga, it might have 
seemed a defeat for us to fall back to this point ; but, when we 
take into consideration the fact that the possession of Chatta- 
nooga, and not of Chickam.auga, was the great object of the 
campaign, it must be evident that it was, in its final outcome, 
a great victory for the Union Army. Notwithstanding these 
facts that are now evident to every intelligent man, Charles A. 
Dana, who had been appointed by the President as Assistant 
Secretary of War, according to his own confession, tele- 
graphed a cipher dispatch to the War Department at Washing- 
ton, which read, "Chickamauga is as fatal a name in our his- 
tory as Bull Run." He seemed utterly ignorant of the fact 
that, so long as there was possibility of our army holding Chat- 
tanooga, it was a most important victory for the Union cause. 

In this battle the 78th Pennsylvania lost probably as few 
men as any regiment on the field. Three times we seemed to 
be at the very center of the fiercest conflict, but some change 
in our orders in each case relieved us. At one time the 21st 
Ohio, of our brigade, was substituted for our Regiment, and 
they were cut to pieces while we were sent elsewhere. During 
the entire battle the Regiment moved with as much precision as 
on dress parade, and, so far as I know, every man did prompt- 
ly his whole duty. As we marched to the rear in the dusk of 
the evening to take our new position, we had a few prisoners, 
and Colonel Blakeley, who was riding at the head of our col- 
umn, turned to the prisoners and said, "Whose men are you?" 
They said, "We're Longstreet's men." The Colonel said in 
reply, "I guess we all came near being Longstreet's men to- 
day." 

Speaking of our Regiment's movements on the 20th, 
Colonel Blakeley, in his official report, says, "Soon after the 
commencement of the battle of the 20th I discovered the enemy 
was massing his troops in the woods on my front, and, reporting 



114 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

this to the brigade commander, two pieces of artillery were sent 
to my aid and a breastwork of old logs thrown up by my Regi- 
ment. About II a. m. our whole division moved to the left, 
leaving this line unoccupied. Our new positon was on the 
foot hills about one mile from the position we held in the morn- 
ing. As we marched from our first to our second position, I 
saw the enemy break through the line we had held in the 
morning, and this enabled him to cut off the right wing of our 
Army, which produced the great disaster of the day. In our for- 
mation on the foot hills, the 37th Indiana was on my left and 
the 2 1 St Ohio on my right. I was moved forward to support 
Captain Bridges Chicago Battery, then in acton on the crest of 
the hill near a small house used as a hospital. I deployed my 
regiment on the brow of the hill in front of and below the bat- 
tery, the gunners firing over us." 

The responsibility for the outcome of the battle of Chick- 
amauga fell upon General Thomas, and he so distinguished 
himself as to be known ever afterwards as the "Rock of 
Chickamauga." 

We do not undertake to pass judgment on Generals Rose- 
crans, McCook and Crittenden, the Commander of the Army 
and the commanders of the other two corps who went to Chat- 
tanooga on the 20th. That General Rosecrans failed to seize his 
opportunity that afternoon, there can be no doubt, but no man 
is omniscient. In his official report he tells something of the 
circumstances under which he went to Chattanooga, and the 
reasons for his actions, he says, "At the moment of the repulse 
of Davis' division I was standing in the rear of his right wait- 
ing the completion of the close of McCook's corps to the left. 
Seeing confusion among Van Cleve's troops and the distance 
Davis' men were falling back, and the tide of battle surging 
towards us, the urgency for Sheridan's troops to intervene be- 
came imminent and I hastened, in person, to the extreme 
right to direct Sheridan's movements on the flank of the ad- 
vancing rebels. It was too late; the crowd of retreating 
troops rolled back and the enemy advanced. Giving the 
troops directions to rally behind the ridge west of the Dry Val- 
ley Road. I passed down it, accompanied by General Garfield, 
Major McClintock and Major Bond of my staff and a few of 
the escort, under a shower of grape, canister and musketry for 
two or three hundred yards and attempted to rejoin General 
Thomas and the troops sent to his support by passing to the 




C/2 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 117 

rear of the broken position of our lines, but I found the routed 
troops far towards the left and, hearing the enemy's advanc- 
ing musketry cheers, I became doubtful whether the left had 
held its ground, and started for Rossville. On consultation 
and further reflection, however, I determined to send General 
Garfield there while I went to Chattanooga to give orders for 
the security of the pontoon bridges at Battle Creek and Bridge- 
port, and to make preliminary dispositions either to forward 
ammunition and supplies, should we hold our ground, or to 
withdraw the troops in good position," 

Had General Rosecrans joined General Thomas, the de- 
cisive battle of the afternoon of September 20 would have been 
fought under his immediate direction. General Thomas 
received no instructions from the Commanding Gen- 
eral, and was uninformed of the disaster on the right 
until the oncoming left wing of General Bragg's Army 
revealed it. He was commanding a part of the Army 
of the Cumberland as though it were the whole Army in its 
conflict with the vast army that had been arrayed against it — • 
an army superior in numbers and inspired by the hope of win- 
ning a decisive victory. No commanding oflicer was ever put 
in a more trying position than General Thomas occupied that 
afternoon. He had only a section of the Army ; he did not know 
the exact situation; he could not act as independently as he 
could have done had he been commander in chief; he had no 
supporting cavalry, and it may be safely said that no other gen- 
eral in our Army ever displayed greater ability in the crisis 
of a battle than was displayed by General George H. Thomas 
on the 20th of September at Chickamauga. That General 
Rosecrans regarded his Army as defeated and retreating is 
evident from his message, sent to General Garfield, dated Sep- 
tember 20th, which reads as follows, "See General McCook 
and other general officers, ascertain the extent of disaster as 
nearly as you can and report. Tell General Granger to con- 
test the enemy's advance stubbornly, making them advance 
with caution. Should General Thomas be retiring in order 
tell him to resist the enemy's advance and retire on Rossville 
tonight." General Garfield, who received this dispatch, after 
seeing General Thomas, sent a dispatch to General Rosecrans, 
dated five miles south of Rossville, 3 :45 p. m., saying, "Gen- 
eral Thomas has Brannan's, Baird's, Reynolds', Wood's, Palm- 
er's and Johnson's divisions here, still intact, after terrible fight- 



118 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

ing." General Garfield goes on to show that General Thomas, 
instead of retreating,, was heroically holding his ground, that 
the rebel ammunition was probably exhausted as well as that 
of our own Army, and he adds, "If we can hold out an hour 
more it will be all right." It is not necessary to say that Gen- 
eral Thomas was the man for the hour, and that he saved the 
Army of the Cumberland on that battlefield. 

The great battle of Chickamauga ended in the neighbor- 
hood of Snodgrass hill about sundown. Sabbath evening, Sep- 
tember 20th. The fierce and repeated attacks of the enemy 
had been repulsed and General Thomas held his central po- 
sition, standing, immovable, "The Rock of Chickamauga," 
with his headquarters a little to the rear of Snodgrass hill. 
About 5 :30 p. m., he had ordered the withdrawal of the lines 
from the Kelly field, and the general advance of General 
Bragg' s right wing began about sunset, but was checked by the 
retiring Union troops. About eight p. m. Wood's and Bran- 
nan's divisions were withdrawn from Snodgrass hill, passing 
through McFarland's Gap to Rossville. The whole Army, 
with the exception of two divisions that had been sent to Chat- 
tanooga, was placed in position in Ross' Gap and on Mission- 
ary Ridge to the right and left of the gap and across the valley, 
the right wing extending to Lookout Mountain. The with- 
drawal of the Union Army was made in an orderly way, and 
the new position taken was held during the 2ist. At midnight of 
the 2 1 St, the Union Army retired to Chattanooga and occupied 
an extremely strong defensive position. It is somewhat doubt- 
ful whether the Confederates would have dared to attack the 
Union forces had they remained at Snodgrass hill, though it 
seemed quite probable, as they had superior forces and had 
some troops that had not been actively engaged in battle. 

In this way, on the 2ist and 22d of September, the great 
battle of Chickamauga gave place to the siege of Chattanooga. 
The Union Army had secured the position for which the whole 
campaign had been planned and for which the battle was 
fought, and the great question now was, would it be able to de- 
fend itself in that position ? 



HISTORY AND ROSTER T8th REGIMENT P. V. 1. 119 

XVI. 

Observations Concerning the Battle 

It may not be amiss at this point to give the lesuhs of 
most careful investigations in regard to the relative strength 
of the two armies engaged in the battle, and their losses. 

General Rosecrans crossed the Tennessee River with an 
effective force of 60,000 men. Of this number, Wagner's 
brigade of more than 2,000 men held Chattanooga, while Post's 
brigade of Davis' division and three regiments of infantry and 
one battery of artillery were engaged in guarding supply 
trains ; so that General Rosecrans' actual fighting force did not 
exceed 55,000 men. 

General Bragg reported a week after the battle that he 
had 38,846 effective men and that he had lost 18,000, which 
would make his whole strength at the battle 56,846. But, in 
a letter from General Lee to President Davis, dated December 
14th, Lee says, "If the report sent to me by General Cooper, 
since my return from Richmond, is correct. General Bragg 
had, on the 20th of August last, 51,101 effective men; General 
Buckner 16,118. He had received from General Johnson 
9,000. His total force will, therefore, be 76,219, as large as 
I presume he can operate with." This is independent of the 
local troops, which he reported as exceeding his expectations. 
In this estimate of General Lee, General Longstreet's forces, 
which General Bragg reported at 5,000, were not included, so 
that if we add the 5,000 to the figures furnished by General 
Lee, General Bragg had 81,219 men. But, more than this, 
General Johnson sent two brigades to General Bragg after he 
had sent the 9,000 included in General Lee's estimate. Tak- 
ing these figures as we find them, we may conclude that Gener- 
al Bragg did not have less than from 75,000 to 85.000 effec- 
tive troops. 

That there never was more desperate fighting in modern 
warfare than in this battle of Chickamauga is evident from the 
reports of the losses. General Rosecrans lost 16,179, includ- 
ing 4,744 missing, a large number of whom were either killed 
or wounded. General Bragg's losses as compiled and estimat- 
ed at the war records office, were 17,804, making a total loss 
for each Army of about 25 per cent, of the entire force of each, 
and an average of about 33 per cent, of the troops actually en- 
gaged. General Longstreet's wing of the Confederate Army 



120 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

lost 44 per cent., the larger part of these in an hour and a half 
on Sabbath afternoon. General Steedman's division, which 
met General Longstreet's assault, lost 49 per cent, in four 
hours, and these were all killed or wounded with one exception, 
while General Brannan's division lost 38 per cent. Gen- 
eral Vandeveer's brigade lost about 50 percent. On the Con- 
federate side, Bushrod Johnson lost 44 per cent., while Bate's 
brigade of Stewart's division lost 52 per cent., and the brigade 
losses in Cheatham's division ranged from 35 to 50 per cent., 
and in Breckenridge's division from 35 to 43 per cent. Wel- 
lington's losses in the battle of Waterloo fell far below the 
losses on either side in the battle of Chickamauga. At the 
great battle of Wagram, Napoleon lost only about five percent., 
while the percentage of losses at W'urzburg, at Zurich and 
Lodi sink into insignificance in comparison with our losses at 
Chickamauga. At Magenta and Solferino in 1859 the loss of 
both armies was less than nine per cent., and at the great bat- 
tles of Marengo and Austerlitz, Napoleon lost an average of 
less than 14^ per cent. 

The assaults made by the Confederates in this battle were 
without parallel in the war; even Pickett's charge at Gettys- 
burg was only a single assault, while Longstreet's entire wing 
at Chickamauga made three general assaults on far more diffi- 
cult ground than the slopes of Cemetery Hill. During the 
first day's battle neither army had any fortifications, but, on 
the second day, a part of the Union forces had constructed 
such barricades as could be readily made from the material at 
hand. 

Colonel Blakeley's Official Report gives an excellent 
sketch of the movements of the Regiment from the time we 
supported Bridge's battery on Snodgrass hill until we find our- 
selves in line of battle in front of Chattanooga on the 226. of 
September. We quote that sketch as follows : 

"We defended the battery for awhile, when it ceased fir- 
ing and moved to the rear without indicating to me what its 
orders were. Soon after the battery left there was a lull in 
the battle in our immediate neighborhood, but the firing on 
the left was heavy and our right irregular and passing to our 
rear. The position of the battery was an advanced one, and I 
did not connect with other troops by either flank, and, in fact, 
after the battery left, I could see no Union troops anywhere 
•except those of my own Regiment. I directed Major Bonnaf- 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 121 

foil to take command until my return, and I rode back to where 
I had parted company with the 37th Indiana and the 21st Ohio. 
They were gone and, so far as I could see, our whole line was 
gone and the right — McCook and Crittendon — all broken up. 
I returned to the Regiment and found the enemy closing in on 
it. Placing Major Bonnaffon in charge of our skirmishers to 
protect the movement, we marched to the rear, and the enemy, 
although in overwhelming numbers, did not follow but a short 
distance. About 800 to 1,000 paces from our position with 
the battery, we found General Negley alone. He posted us in 
ravine or hollow between two foot hills, running down to- 
wards the Chickamauga, with orders to prevent the enemy at 
all hazards from breaking through a chasm or gap in the hill 
on the south of the ravine. I massed the Regiment in the 
ravine or hollow in front of the gap and Major Bonnaffon de- 
ployed two companies over the hill covering our front. He 
soon called for me, and I rode forward and found that our po- 
sition was concealed from the enemy by underbrush ; but, from 
the foot of the hill to the Chickamauga, a hundred rods or 
more, the land was clear and a column of Rebel troops, at 
least, a division, were moving over the field westwardly across 
our front, evidently unaware of our presence. Major Bon- 
naffon was anxious to charge them. We might have driven 
them for the time being, but we would have been ultimately 
lost as we were without support. Returning to the Regi- 
ment I did not know what to do. We knew, as yet, nothing 
about the lines or the condition of the battle. We knew that 
the right was broken and that was all. To follow the sound 
of the battle on our left would probably lead us into the rear of 
the Rebel Army, where superior numbers would destroy us. 
I was about to go forward again to Major Bonnaffon to 
consider again the proposition to charge on the troops below 
us, when I noticed a mounted officer well up on the hill north of 
us. He approached us cautiously until he recognized us and 
then came down rapidly. He was one of General Thomas' 
Staff Officers. He asked why we were there and who put us 
there. I told him. He communicated the fact of the loss of 
the right wing. He stated that General Thomas had the only 
line unbroken, and he was fighting away for dear life a mile 
and a half northeast of us. 

The only possible way for us to get in was to strike for the 
Dry Valley Road. He gave me the directions and ordered me 



122 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78Ui REGIMENT P. V. I. 

to go, and left to find a way to his chief. We set out on the 
line indicated. Major Bonnaffon covering the movement with 
his skirmishers. The march being difficult and the danger im- 
minent, I have no correct date of the time or distance, but we 
found the Dry Valley Road, and it, and indeed the whole valley 
were filled with a struggling mass of stragglers, batteries, 
wagons, ambulances and troops of all arms, on a stampede for 
Chattanooga and pressed by the enemy's cavalry. Dividing 
my command with Major Bonnaffon, the threw his skirmish 
line to the rear of the broken column, between it and the 
enemy, and I moved rapidly down to near Rossville, and plac- 
ing the Regiment across the valley we passed to Chattanooga 
all ambulances with wounded, all wagons and many wounded 
on foot, with the necessary assistance. We halted all unhurt 
troops and stragglers. We halted batteries and parts of bat- 
teries and ambulances not carrying wounded. I was informed 
that by nightfall we had halted seven batteries and about five 
thousand men which were all reorganized that night and ready 
for action next morning. Colonel Sirwell, commanding the 
brigade, came to us at Rossville an hour later, when I reported 
to him. On Monday, the 21st, I occupied six different posi- 
tions, the last of which was on and across Missionary Ridge on 
the left of your Brigade and uniting with the right of General 
Beatty's Brigade. I was assigned to this position at 12 m., 
and directed to take orders from General Beatty .... The 
night of the 21st I fell back with the general movement of the 
Army to Chattanooga." 



XVII. 
Siege of Chattanooga 

General Rosecrans made no effort to hold Lookout Moun- 
tain or the railroad below Chattanooga, but took a strong 
position with short lines of defense with the Tennessee River 
on the right and left, and his soldiers went to work with a will 
to throw up fortifications. It was the general expectation of 
the Union Army that we would be attacked by the Confederated 
on the afternoon of the 22nd. This expectation continued on 
the 23rd and 24th, but, by the 25th, instead of being a matter 
of apprehension, the average soldier would have been very 
glad to have had the Confederates make an attack, for we felt 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 123 

able to resist successfully any assault that might be made on us. 
The Confederates planted their batteries along the side of 
Lookout Mountain, bringing two heavy guns to the point of 
the mountain. These two "84 pounders," as we called them, 
very soon came to be a matter of curiosity rather than appre- 
hension, for they scarcely interfered with our work as we forti- 
fied the place. The 78th Pennsylvania helped to build, what 
afterwards came to be known as Fort Negley, which soon grew 
to be one of the strongest forts on the right wing of our Army. 

It is said that General Longstreet urged General Bragg to 
make an attack on the Union forces but General Bragg hesi- 
tated until it was too late. Had he made an attack on the 22nd 
there might have been some possibility of success ; had he made 
it afterwards he would only have sacrificed his own army. The 
short line of the Union forces enabled them to concentrate 
their whole strength at any point and no forces that the Con- 
federates could have brought against them would have been 
sufficient to break their lines. We had no fear whatsoever of 
any attack on the part of the enemy after the 25th, but it soon 
became evident that General Bragg had determined to cut off 
the supplies of the army and thus secure by siege what he could 
not take by direct assault; when we made this discovery we 
did not feel exactly comfortable, for we knew that our army 
was unable to keep open its communications. 

It will not be necessary to go into a detailed account of our 
experiences in Chattanooga during the siege which lasted from 
the 25th of September until the arrival of General Hooker and 
the opening of the "cracker line" about the first of N^ovember. 
During all this time the Confederate artillery threw shells into 
our camp but did very little damage, and we came to regard 
their firing on us from the point of Lookout Mountain and 
elsewhere as a matter of interest and amusement rather than 
alarm or danger. We measured our distances by an air line 
from the point of Lookout Mountain every day by counting 
the seconds from the time we saw the smoke rising on the point 
of the mountain indicating the discharge of an "84 pounder" 
until we heard the sound. Knowing that sound travels at the 
rate of about i.ioo feet per second, we could easily measure 
the distance. We also discovered that shells travelled for that 
distance at about the same rate that the sound travelled, for 
simultaneously with the sound of the discharge of the gun on 
the mountain we could see and hear the explosion of the shell 



124 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

in the neighborhood of the camp. There were a few casuahies 
and some narrow escapes, but these only helped to keep up our 
interest. 

The pickets of the two armies along Chickamauga Creek 
were not more than from seventy-five to one hundred feet 
apart, and they were on the best of terms, and conversed fre- 
quently on various subjects. The Confederate pickets had the 
impression that we were pretty hard up for rations, but, in 
answer to their inquiries, they always found the pickets on the 
Union Line ready to fling a cracker across the little stream that 
separated them. The pickets occasionally carried on a little 
commerce in the way of trading coffee for tobacco, and we 
frequently exchanged papers. Official records tell of our be- 
ing on half rations during the time of the siege, but the current 
belief at the time was that our rations were not more than one 
quarter of the ordinary rations issued. At the end of the firs!: 
month the universal topic of conversation seemed to be the 
"cracker line;" when would we be able to draw full rations? 
Most of us never knew before that time, and have never known 
since, what it was to be really hungry. There was, however, 
very little complaint and, while the average soldier hoped that 
he might get a supply of crackers as soon as possible, not one 
of a thousand would have thought of giving up the fight in or- 
der to satisfy the cravings of hunger. The thought of sur- 
render was never discussed. The sentiment of the whole army 
was expressed in General Thomas' telegram to General Grant. 
General Grant had telegraphed General Thomas to hold Chat- 
tanooga at all hazards, and General Thomas instantly tele- 
graphed back, "We will hold the town until we starve." 
Nevertheless no words can adequately describe the suffering 
of the soldiers. The topic of conversation every day and every 
hour during the weeks that preceded the opening of communi- 
cation was the practical question as to when General Hooker 
would arrive with commissary stores. When the horses were 
eating their corn it was necessary to guard them to prevent the 
soldiers from appropriating the corn to their own use. Soldiers 
often paid twenty-five cents an ear for corn, parched it, ground 
it and made gruel of it in order to satisfy their hunger. The 
coarsest food was relished as we never had relished the choicest 
and daintiest morsels provided by the most skillful cooks. 
During all this time a great majority of the soldiers did not 
grumble nor complain ; they only compared notes and kept up 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 12S 

the conversation in order to keep their courage up, and stimu- 
late their hopes. It may be confessed, however, tliat the aver- 
age soldier of the 78th Pennsylvania had a great deal of sym- 
pathy with the Children of Israel who, when in the Wilderness, 
remembered the flesh pots of Egypt. 

On the nth of October Major General James S. Negley 
made a farewell address to the Regiment, having been super- 
seded. The soldiers of the 78th Regiment did not feel that 
they were in a position to judge of the merits of the circum- 
stances that led to General Negley's being relieved, but we all 
felt sorry to part with him. 

On the 19th of October General Thomas reluctantly ac- 
cepted the command of the Army of the Cumberland, super- 
seding General Rosecrans. His reluctance did not result from 
any lack of confidence in himself, nor from any distrust as to 
the condition of the Army, but from a strong aversion to the 
acceptance of a position that would involve political compli- 
cations, and from his sensitiveness about occupying any posi- 
tion that would involve the humiliation of another command- 
ing officer. General Rosecrans recognized and appreciated 
the kind sentiments of General Thomas in this matter, and was 
gratified that General Thomas rather than any other general 
should be his successor. 

The Department of the Army of the Cumberland at that 
time comprised the following commands: 4th and 14th Army 
corps, at Chattanooga, three divisions of cavalry, the local gar- 
risons of middle Tennessee, the eleventh and twelfth Army 
corps under command of Major General Hooker who had just 
arrived from the East whence he had been dispatched to re- 
enforce the Army at Chattanooga. General Hooker's forces 
were at this time guarding the railroad from Bridgeport to 
Nashville. 

On the 19th of October General Rosecrans. having issued 
orders to General Hooker to be ready to move from Bridge- 
port, by way of Whitesides and Wauhatchie. to Brown's Ferry, 
rode as far as the ferry with General W. F. Smith, his cliief 
engineer, and General Reynolds, his chief of staff, for the pur- 
pose of selecting a point below Lookout Alountain, for throw- 
ing a bridge across the Tennessee River. After a careful 
study of the topography Brown's Ferry was the point selected. 

A glance at the map will help the reader to understand the 
situation. If he will remember that Bridgeport lies down the 



126 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

river from Brown's Ferry, it will be seen that it is only a 
short distance across Moccasin Point from Chattanooga to 
Brown's Ferry. 

When General Rosecrans returned to Chattanooga in the 
evening he found an order from the War Department directing 
him to turn over the command of the Army to General Thomas. 
He did so promptly, and left Chattanooga before daylight the 
next morning for Nashville by way of Bridgeport. 

General Thomas was too good and great a soldier to em- 
barrass the Government by finally refusing to take the com- 
mand. Had any other general than Thomas been put in 
General Rosecrans' place the Army would probably have been 
displeased, but General Thomas was held in such high esteem 
that all were satisfied. The soldiers of the 78th Pennsylvania, 
having been with General Thomas at Stone River, as well as 
at Chickamauga, were delighted, for they regarded him as 
one of the greatest commanders in the Union Army. 



xvni. 

Coming of General Hooker and Opening of Cracker 

Line 

On the 19th of October General Thomas issued his first 
order as Commander of the Department of the Cumberland, 
and proceeded to carry out the plans devised by General Rose- 
crans for opening what the soldiers called the "cracker line." 
According to this plan, General Hooker moved from Bridge- 
port to Rankin's Ford and afterwards to Brown's Ferry, while 
General Turchin marched across the peninsula to Brown's 
Ferry, General Plooker moved from Bridgeport on the morn- 
ing of the 26th and General Hazen, witli about 1,800 men, 
floated down the river from Chattanooga on the 27th, while 
Turchin with his brigade of artillery, accompanied by General 
Smith, marched across to Brown's Ferry. To General Hazen 
belongs the honor of doing the most delicate work connected 
with this undertaking. The men under his command floated 
sixty pontoons down the river, past the watch fires of the 
Confederate picket line, steering close in the shadow of the op- 
posite bank of the river, and succeeded in what seemed to be 
almost an impossible undertaking. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 127 

Up to this time the Confederate picket hues had extended 
from Chickamauga Creek along the river around the point of 
Lookout Mountain to Raccoon Mountain, a distance of about 
seven miles, fronting the left wing of the Confederate Army. 
\\'hen General Longstreet reported to General Bragg the ad- 
vance of General Hooker, it is said that General Bragg did not 
credit the report ; but, while he and General Longstreet were 
standing on Sunset Rock, during the afternoon of the 28th, 
studying the position of the Union forces at Brown.'s Ferry, 
General Hooker came in view beyond Wauhatchie. Seeing 
from their lofty point of observation that General Geary's 
division had encamped some distance from the main column the 
Confederate Commanders planned a night attack. Three bri- 
gades of Confederates marched around the point of Lookout 
Mountain under cover of the night, and made a fierce attack 
of Geary's division shortly after midnight. The fighting lasted 
some three hours, and General Geary's loss was thirty killed 
and 174 wounded. The loss of the Confederates in this at- 
tack was thirty-one killed, 286 wounded and thirty-nine miss- 
ing. Four Regiments of Pennsylvania Infantry and Knapp's 
battery of artillery, participated in this engagement, which 
came to be known as the Battle of Wauhatchie. As a result 
of these operations the Confederates abandoned Lookout Val- 
lev west of the creek, allowing uninterrupted communication 
by way of Brown's Ferry to Bridgeport and Stevenson. 

During the first half o-*^ November the commanders of 
the Union forces were very busy in making preparations for 
raising the siege. Supplies of all kinds, clothing, heavy guns, 
etc.. were rapidly brought forward so that the Army might 
be ready for an aggressive movement as soon as General Sher- 
man should arrive with re-enforcements from the x\rmy of the 
Tennessee. The return to full rations had been gradual and 
the health of the Army was never better than during the lat- 
ter part of November. 

On the 22nd of November Colonel William Sirwell left 
for his home, having resigned, as Colonel of the Regiment, on 
the 17th, leaving Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Blakeley in 
command. The soldiers of the 78th Pennsylvania had a high 
regard for Colonel Sirwell's soldierly qualities, and had great 
confidence in him as their commander. They greatly regretted 
his leaving the Regiment. 

General Grant's order for attack was sent to General 
Thomas on the iSth of November and it was expected that the 



128 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

movements would begin on Saturday the 19th, but, on account 
of General Sherman's not arriving as soon as was expected, the 
battle was delayed from day to day until Wednesday after- 
noon, November the 23rd, when it began with a movement of 
General Thomas against Orchard Knob. At the opening of 
this engagement the Union forces were arranged as follows : 
Wood's, Baird's and Johnson's divisions of the Army of the 
Cumberland held the fortifications at Chattanooga, while Jef- 
ferson C. Davis' division had been sent over the river to cover 
the crossing for General Sherman's army above Chattanooga. 
The eleventh corps of General Hooker's command encamped 
on the right of Fort Wood, and three divisions of General 
Sherman's troops, having marched from Bridgeport, cross- 
ing the river at Brown's Ferry, were encamped on the North 
Chickamauga, ready to fioat down to the mouth of that stream 
and cross the Tennessee River. General Hooker, in Lookout 
Valley, had Geary's division of the Twelfth corps, Cruft's di- 
vision of the Fourth corps, and Ousterhaus' division of Sher- 
man's Army, that had been unable to join Sherman on account 
of the breaking of the bridge at Brown's Ferry. Forty guns 
had been placed in position on the north bank to cover General 
Sherman's crossing, and Long's brigade of cavalry was sent to 
protect his left flank and to co-operate with him after crossing 
the river. 

The Confederate forces were disposed as follows : Three 
divisions of Hardee's corps held Lookout Mountain and the 
works from its eastern base to Chickamauga Creek. Three 
divisions of Breckinridge's corps held the line of breastworks 
from Chattanooga Creek to a point near General Bragg's head- 
quarters on Missionary Ridge. General Longstreet's corps 
had been sent to Knoxville. 

On the night of the 22nd, while waiting for General Sher- 
man's forces to come up, a Confederate deserter came in with 
the information that the Confederates were withdrawing. In 
order to test this report General Thomas made a reconnois- 
sance on the 23rd and ascertained that the Confederates were 
not withdrawing. This reconnoissance brought on the battle 
of Orchard Knob, which resulted in driving the Confederates 
from that strong point and compelling them to fall back to the 
outpost along Missionary Ridge. This action seemed to bring 
the Confederate leaders to a sense of their danger, and General 
Cleburne, who was at Chickamauga Station, and all the other 
troops in reach were brought to the front. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 129 




Chattanooga— Lookout Mountain— Missionary Ridge 



130 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

XIX. 

Battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge 

By the evening of the 23rd General Sherman, with three 
divisions, was ready to cross the Tennessee River, and orders 
were issued for General Hooker to attack Lookout Mountain. 
In this action General Hooker had about 10,000 troops. The 
Confederate forces opposed to him consisted of Walthall's, 
Jackson's and Moore's brigades of Cheatham's division, and 
Pettus,' Brown's and Cummings' of Stevenson's division. At 
this time the 78th Pennsylvania Regiment was in Fort Negley, 
and had an excellent view of the point of Lookout Mountain 
and the whole of Missionary Ridge. Generals Grant and 
Thomas had headquarters on Orchard Knob, about two miles 
east from Fort Negley, so that we had about as good a view of 
the battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge as had 
the commanding officers. 

General Hooker's movements began at daylight Novem- 
ber 24th, General Geary's division leading, followed by Whita- 
ker's brigade, crossing Lookout Creek without opposition at 
Light's Mills. Cobham's brigade, followed by Ireland's, 
marched by flank up the mountain to the palisades and then 
faced North. Canby's brigade formed to the rear of Cobham's 
and Whitaker's was in reserve. After marching more than a 
mile, Geary became engaged with Walthall's troops in their 
fortifications. The Union forces moved on, checked only for 
a little time at any point, driving the Confederates around 
the point of the mountain. Our batteries on Moccasin Point 
taking an active part, firing on the retreating Confederates 
whenever there was an opportunity. The heavy guns of the 
Confederates on the summit of the mountain could not take 
part in the fight, but the Confederate forces on the mountain 
did some execution as sharpshooters and by rolling rocks down 
the mountain side. The contending forces did not come in full 
view from our position until the Confederates were driven back 
almost to the Craven house, on the eastern slope of Lookout 
Mountain, but we could very easily judge as to how the battle 
was going, for the Confederates were slowly but steadily re- 
treating, while our troops were advancing. 

While this battle was going on around the point of Look- 
out Mountain, and the batteries at Moccasin Point were tak- 
ing an active part in the conflict, the two lines of pickets along 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 131 

Chattanooga Creek were not more than lOO feet apart; but, up 
to this time, they seemed only interested spectators and took no 
part in the battle. Our pickets called over to the Confederate 
pickets and asked them how they thought the battle was going, 
but did not have very cheerful replies. After the Confederates 
had been driven past the Craven house, our pickets were told 
to be ready to commence firing at any time, and they gave 
this information to the Confederate pickets, but the Confeder- 
ates said they had no orders to do anything and would not do 
anything until they had orders. Later in the evening clouds 
settled down on the point of the mountain, and we had the uni- 
que and awe-inspiring experience of hearing the noise of a 
battle in the clouds when \yq could not see the movements of the 
troops. 

About dusk a company of sappers and miners threw a 
bridge over Chattanooga Creek, and the Confederate pickets 
in the immediate vicinity surrendered. During the night fir- 
ing continued on the mountain side and we could see flashes 
and hear the discharges, but no special damage was done on 
either side. Thus ended Hooker's famous battle above the 
clouds. 

While all this was taking place on our right. General 
Sherman's forces were crossing the Tennessee River at the 
mouth of North Chickamauga Creek six miles above Chatta- 
nooga. Up to the night of the 23rd Sherman's Army had been 
concealed as much as possible, but at midnight of the 23rd 
Smith's brigade in more than 100 boats floated out of North 
Chickamauga, where they effected a landing and captured the 
enemy's pickets. By daylight John E. Smith's division, com- 
prising about 8,000 men, had crossed the river and were in 
line of battle facing Tunnel Hill. The other divisions of Sher- 
man's Army followed. General J. D. Thomas, of the Army of 
the Cumberland, crossing last. About one o'clock Sherman's 
forces advanced toward Missionary Ridge, expecting to carry 
the north end of the ridge before the enemy could concentrate 
his forces for defense. The topography of the country, how- 
ever, w^as to some extent misunderstood by the commanding 
officers, and it was discovered afterwards that the position 
aimed at by General Sherman was not the north end of Mis- 
sionary Ridge but a range of hills north and west of the ridge, 
and that the nearest force of the enemy was Walker's com- 
mand, resting on the ridge, a mile and a quarter south of the 



132 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78tli REGIMENT P. V. I. 

northern extremity. The detached hills aimed at by Sher- 
man's forces were captured without difficulty, and if they had 
not been seized then they would have been occupied within half 
an hour by one of the Cleburne's brigades. When General 
Cleburne found that he could not secure these hills he stationed 
his forces along the line of Missionary Ridge, near its north 
end. From our position in Chattanooga we could very dis- 
tinctly hear the artillery and see the smoke of these conflicts 
during the evening. 

General Hooker's capture of the lower elevation at the 
point of Lookout Mountain and General Sherman's securing 
possession of the hills near Missionary Ridge led General 
Bragg, on the night of the 24th, to abandon Lookout Moun- 
tain and his lines in the valley in front of Chattanooga, and to 
take position on Missionary Ridge. Up to this time his line of 
battle on Missionary Ridge was comparatively weak, but it was 
strengthened by Stevenson's division taking position on the 
left of Cleburne about nine o'clock on the 25th, and Cheatham's 
division taking position on the left of Walker's division, while 
Stewart's division fell back to the crest and occupied the ridge 
from Ross' Gap to Bragg's headquarters. Bates' division was 
north of Stewart's with Anderson's adjoining Cleburne's left, 
leaving a gap on Bate's right. 

At the close of the battle November 25th, General Sher- 
man was near Tunnel Hill. Soon after sunrise on the morn- 
ing of the 25th a movement began on the left and the northern 
extremities of Missionary Ridge. General Howard's troops 
were ordered to join Sherman's as was also Baird's division of 
the fourteenth corps, but when the latter reached Tunnel Hill 
he was informed that there was no room for his command 
there and he returned to the center. While General Sherman's 
attacks on the left were repulsed by the enemy. General Hooker 
had been moving across Lookout Valley to Rossville Gap and 
marched toward the crest of Missionary Ridge, thus endanger- 
ing the enemy's left. Up to this time probably General Bragg 
had little anxiety about his center on Missionary Ridge. He 
must have begun to realize the peril from the movements of 
Sherman on the right and Hooker on the left, but he had been 
able to frustrate the efforts of Sherman to accomplish anything 
in the way of turning his right. The plan of battle so far 
as General Grant had indicated it in his general order did not 
for a moment contemplate anything like the storming of Mis- 
sionary Ridge from the front. 




'^ 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 135 

The advance on Orchard Knob, the attack on Lookout 
Mountain and Hooker's movements on Rossville Gap were no 
part of General Grant's plan. His aim was to assault and cap- 
ture the northeastern end of Missionary Ridge. By three 
o'clock on the afternoon of the ■25th this part of his plan had 
failed, and General Grant began to feel that it was necessary 
that there should be a movement against the enemy's works on 
Missionary Ridge in order to prevent his concentrating on 
his right and overwhelming Sherman. Orders were issued 
to General Thomas, commanding the Army of the Cumber- 
land, and he moved out with Johnson's, Sheridan's, Woods and 
Baird's divisions, comprising eighty infantry regiments and 
four field batteries. The Confederate line in his front on Mis- 
sionary Ridge comprised the divisions of Stewart, Breckin- 
ridge, Hindman and Cheatham, with about fifteen batteries, 
and two siege guns at General Bragg's headquarters. The 
distance of the Union line from the top of the ridge was more 
than a mile, and the slope about 2,000 feet, with an average 
height of about 400 feet. There were good rifle-pits at the 
foot of the ridge, and others on the slope and rude breast- 
works on the crest. The slopes, as may be gathered from the 
figures given, were rather steep and difficult of ascent. The 
orders given to the troops in the center were to take the rifle- 
pits at the foot of the ridge and then stop. Our troops ad- 
vanced in magnificent order, and it must have been an impres- 
sive but ominous scene as viewed by the Confederate soldiers 
on Missionary Ridge. The flashing of the guns in the bright 
sunlight of a November afternoon, and the precise military 
evolutions of 30,000 men formed an imposing spectacle. 
Nevertheless, it seemed an impossibility for our Army to climb 
that ridge under the fire of one hundred pieces of artillery, and 
drive the infantry of the enemy out of their fortifications. The 
Army of the Cumberland advanced rapidly, captured the rifle- 
pits at the foot of the ridge, but, with the instinct of good sold- 
iers, recognized the impossibility of remaining in that position. 
They must either go forward or backward and, like true sold- 
iers, they went forward. When General Grant saw them pur- 
sue the enemy up the slope he made inquiry as to who had 
given the command. No one was found to take the responsi- 
bility. It was an anxious quarter of an hour for onlookers of 
every class. The banners of the different regiments seemed 
to be keeping pace with each other, and the lines, wavering and 
broken at different points, moved steadily onward. At one 



136 HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. 1. 

time they seemed to halt. Instantly the orders were given for 
the troops in Fort Negley and in the earthworks to form in 
line of battle in front of the fort, so as to be ready to advance 
rapidly and cover a retreat if it should become necessary. But 
it was not necessary. The line moved onward, and the top of 
the ridge was reached at a number of different points almost 
simultaneously. Within fifteen minutes the whole ridge was 
occupied by the Union Army and more than half a hundred 
pieces of artillery and several thousand prisoners had been cap- 
tured. General Starkweather, commanding our brigade, was 
handed a dispatch, which he read in so loud a voice that the 
whole brigade could hear, "The battery at Brag-g's headquar- 
ters is captured and the whole ridge will be ours in fifteen min- 
utes." Then came such a shout as is seldom heard, and the en- 
thusiasm was unbounded. 

The matter had been taken out of the hands of the com- 
manding generals, and a most signal victory had been won by 
disobeying orders. The enemy was driven in the utmost con- 
fusion, and it was the work of the line officers and soldiers 
rather than of the commanding generals. In brief, the whole 
battle was fought, so far as it was a victory, contrary to the 
original plan found in General Grant's first order for battle. 
He did not contemplate the capture of Orchard Knob or Look- 
out Mountain, or the ever-memorable charge of Missionary 
Ridge, but he did exepect to have Sherman fight the battle on 
the left wing by attacking the right wing of the enemy. All 
due honor to General Grant, whose military genius was ex- 
hibited on many battle-fields, but let it also be remembered that 
this signal victory was won by soldierly instinct and indi\'idual 
courage of privates, line and field officers. 

When, on the morning of the 25th of November, the 
Union troops saw the National Flag proudly floating on the 
point of Lookout Mountain there was great rejoicing, but 
there \vas still a feeling of uncertainty. The power of the 
enemy had not been broken. His outposts had been captured, 
but his real line of battle was only shortened and strengthened. 
We all expected that there would be a great battle on the 25th, 
but no one seemed to even hope that a single day would com- 
pletely break the enemy's lines and drive him in headlong 
flight from Missionary Ridge. At four o'clock on the 25th all 
the strong points of the enemy's line seemed secure, yet, two 
hours later. General Bragg's great army had been thoroughly 
routed; and, if the commanding general of the Union Army 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 137 

had made his plans with the hope of such a victory the greater 
part of the Confederate Army might have been captured. 

Before leaving this theme it may not be amiss to revert 
again to the statement that General Grant's plan of battle dif- 
fered from the battle as it was fought. 

It was rather natural for General Grant to have special 
confidence in General Sherman and the troops under his com- 
mand, as he liad been more intimately associated with them 
than with the Army of the Cumberland. It is possible, too, 
that he felt a special desire to see them take a leading part in 
the battle. Whatever may have been his reasons, he seemed to 
underestimate the skill and power of the re-enforcements that 
had come from the Eastern Army under General Hooker, and 
they were given no prominent part in his first plan of battle. 
General Sherman, in his memoirs, volume i, page 361, ex- 
plains General Grant's great error in regard to the Army of the 
Cumberland. He says, General Grant pointed out the house 
on Missionary Ridge where General Bragg's headquarters v^-ere 
known to be, and explained that the mules and horses of 
Thomas' Army were so starved that they could not haul his 
guns, that the men of Thomas' Army had been so demoralized 
by the battle of Chickamauga that he feared they would not 
get out of their trenches to assume the offensive, that he 
wanted General Sherman's troops to hurry up and take the of- 
fensive first. This statement of General Sherman reveals the 
errors of General Grant in his first plan of battle. His plan 
was to have Sherman's troops take the leading part, and the 
Army of the Cumberland and Hooker's command to act as sup- 
ports. At the earnest suggestion of General Thomas, he per- 
mitted Hooker to make the attack on the left wing of the Con- 
federate Army, on Lookout Mountain, and Hooker's troops 
captured the mountain. At Hooker's request he was permitted 
to cross Lookout Valley and threaten the enemy's left wing 
on Missionary Ridge on the 25th. General Sherman, on the 
left, having been misled by the errors in topographical maps, 
had not. up to this time, accomplished anything, although he 
was assisted by one division of the Army of the Cumberland. 
It is evident now to every one who knows anything of these 
military movements that it was a great error to expect the prin- 
cipal fighting to be done at Sherman's end of the line. When 
the soldiers of the Army of the Cumberland were given an 
opportunity to move out of the trenches and attack the enemy 



138 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

in front, though many batteries were suddenly unmasked along 
the crest of the Ridge, they fought the battle, accomplishing 
what seemed to General Grant impossible, and won a most 
signal victory. 

Had General Grant sent General Jefferson C. Davis' di- 
vision to strengthen General Hooker, instead of haying sent 
it to General Sherman, when the enemy was driven by the 
Army of the Cumberland off the crest of Missionary Ridge, 
General Hooker's Army would have been in position to strike 
and capture a much larger number of the fugatives. This part 
of the battle was badly planned because General Grant's topo- 
graphical maps misrepresented the north end of Missionary 
Ridge, and because any one would regard the capture of Mis- 
sionary Ridge, by direct assault from the front, an impossibil- 
ity. 

It was reported at the time of the battle, and has been re- 
peated since, that the successful storming of Missionary Ridge 
was made possible because General Sherman's attack on the 
right wing had drawn large forces from Thomas' front. We 
have excellent authority for saying that not a soldier left the 
Confederate center to go to the Confederate right after Sher- 
man's assault began. The troops that went to the right were 
the troops that had abandoned Lookout Mountain. Soon after 
General Thomas' movements began against the Confederate 
center, Brown's, Cumming's and Manning's brigades were 
dispatched to the assistance of the Confederate forces on Mis- 
sionary Ridge, General Cleburne accompanying them. 
Browns brigade reached Cheatham's line and participated in 
the effort to check Baird's movement along the crest of the 
Ridge. 

The decisive battle was fought and the victory won by 
the Army of the Cumberland in its charge on Msisionary 
Ridge. The battle of Lookout Mountain was a brilliant vic- 
tory, but it was only the capture of an outpost. Sherman's 
fighting on the left occupied a large part of two days, while 
the charge on Missionary Ridge only required less than an 
hour's time. The difference between the achievements in these 
movements, however, is indicated in the simple record of the 
loss of the Union Army and the rout of the Confederate .-Xrmy. 
General Hooker, in his operations at Lookout Mountain, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, and Ringgold, all told, lost eighty-one killed 
and 390 wounded, a total of 471. General Sherman, with 
Jefferson C. Davis' division of the Army of the Cumberland, in 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 139 

his two days fighting at the northern end of Missionary Ridge, 
lost in killed 209, wounded 1,141. The Army of the Cumber- 
land, in the storming of Missionary Ridge, within an hour, lost 
403 killed, 2,807 ^vounded. Driving the enemy out of their 
rifle-pits, they captured 51 pieces of artillery and several thou- 
sand prisoners. Let it ever be remembered that this was the 
work of soldiers that General Grant thought so demoralized by 
the battle of Chickamauga that they would not go out of their 
trenches to assume the offensive. We do not attach any spe- 
cial blame to General Grant for this false estimate. He did not 
know the Army of the Cumberland. It was his first observa- 
tion and experience with it. He knew better afterwards. He 
found that they were, not only courageous enough to obey or- 
ders, but that they were brave enough to disobey orders and 
win a great victory that they could not have won had they 
simply obeyed his commands. 

This was the end of the campaign for the possession of 
Chattanooga. It required three months' time, intense suffer- 
ing and the lives of many brave men. but it was a complete vic- 
tory — the greatest victory for the Union arms up to this time. 
Jefferson Davis. President of the Southern Confederacy, said. 
"Chattanooga was the key to the situation, and its loss was ter- 
rible; our only comfort was that the people at Washington did 
not know what to do with it." 



XX. 

On Lookout Mountain 

On the 28th of November we left Fort Negley and re- 
turned to our encampment; and, on the 29th of November, at 
4 o'clock, we left our encampment and marched to the summit 
of Lookout Mountain. On the first of December we marched 
ten miles southward, countermarched some distance and en- 
camped within nine miles of Summerville. On the second we 
marched about two miles south and halted in a place where 
there had been a Confederate encampment. On the third we 
marched back to Summerville and went into camp, where we 
remained until about the first of May. During the next five 
months, in our camp on Lookout Mountain, we had our most 
delightful armv experiences. During the months of December 
and January it was sometimes very cold, especially when we 



140 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

were on picket duty at night. The summit of Lookout Moun- 
tain is the highest point of land within a radius of many miles, 
and the wind blew frequently at the rate of from twenty to 
fifty miles an hour. It is hardly necessary to say that we 
dreaded picket duty on a windy night. 

Col. Blakeley speaking of a storm that occured on the last 
night of December, says, "In the afternoon of that day Major 
Bonnaffon was exercising the Regiment in skirmish drill, and it 
was so warm that the men had to take their coats oflf. By mid- 
night there was a howling storm raging over the mountain and 
in fact over the whole country, but it pelted us awfully on the 
mountain. Guns dropped from the hands of pickets and camp 
guards. Many of the pickets became so benumbed they had to 
be brought to camp. 

The storm soon passed away and next morning the sun 
came up bright and clear. In the evening preceeding the freeze, 
there was as usual, a heavy fog in the Tennessee Valley and the 
sudden cold had frozen the moisture on the trees, and when the 
sun rose next morning the limbs of the immense forests on the 
Georgia and North Carolina Mountains, on Waldens Ridge and 
the Racoon Mountain dazzled and swayed like pearls on webs 
of gauze, a sight never to be forgotten by those who saw it. It 
was a sea, an ocean of transcendant beauty. Our sufferings 
were such that night that Father Christy, our chaplain, wanted 
to open the hotel to let the men in it, where, tis true, they coidd 
have been comfortable. The storm left many frozen feet, hands 
and fingers and rheumatic cases were multiplied. We had, in- 
deed, hard work and scant rations, but the men bore up bravely 
and all was done to make life agreeable." 

During the winter we were in daily expectation of being 
called to East Tennessee to assist the Union forces that were 
threatened by General Longstreet's corps of the Confederate 
Army. As the winter gave place to the spring of 1864 there 
was intense activity on the part of the Army of the Cumber- 
land in the way of collecting supplies and making preparations 
for advancing farther southward. Our Army was never in 
better condition, and it is doubtful whether any military com- 
mander was ever more thoroughly trusted by his soldiers than 
was General Thomas at this time. 

After the defeat of General Bragg at Chattanooga the 
Confederate Army went into camp at Dalton, forty miles south 
of Chattanooga, on the railroad leading to Atlanta. Soon 
after this General Bragg was succeeded by General Joseph E. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78tli REGIMENT P. V. I. 141 

Johnston, one of the ablest commanders in the Confederate 
Army. General Johnston's position at Dalton was one of 
great strength. Rocky Face Ridge, with its deep slopes, rug- 
ged sides and palisades, formed a natural fortification so that 
it was only approachable from the front through a pass called 
Buzzard Roost Pass. It would have been possible for a very 
small force to defend this position from any attack in front by 
a very large force and the Confederates, holding this position, 
numbered about 30,000 men. 

On the 19th of January General Thomas made a reconnois- 
ance in force against General Johnston's position at Dalton 
with four divisions of infantry : Cruft's, Baird's, Johnson's and 
Davis'. He carried Tunnel Hill and forced the head of his 
column into Buzzard Roost ; and, after a most thorough exam- 
ination, pronounced the place impregnable, reporting to Gen- 
eral Grant that it was not possible to carry it by any attack 
from the front. He also made reconnoisance farther down 
the ridge and discovered that Snake Creek Gap, which pene- 
trated the ridge south of Dalton, afforded an easy and com- 
pletely hidden way to the enemy's rear and that it was un- 
guarded at that time. Having made and reported these dis- 
coveries he withdrew to Ringgold. 

Up to this time General Grant had planned to break 
through to the Gulf at Mobile, with Atlanta and Montgomery 
as intermediate points. His main object in ordering the move- 
ment on Dalton was to prevent General Johnston from detach- 
ing forces against General Sherman who was then starting 
from Vicksburg towards Selma as a preparation for a cam- 
paign to Mobile. The demonstration against Dalton detained 
Johnston's force, as was intended, but General Sherman, hav- 
ing penetrated to Meridian, turned back without attempting to 
move on Selma, or toward Mobile. 



XXI. 

The Atlanta Campaign 

On the 28th of February General Thomas telegraphed a 
proposition to General Grant to enter upon a campaign for 
Atlanta with the Army of the Cumberland. In the meantime 
General Grant had been appointed Lieutenant-General in com- 
mand of all the United States' forces : General Thomas was 



142 HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 

General Sherman's senior, and General Grant, instead of ap- 
pointing General Thomas as commander to take charge of this 
proposed campaign, appointed General Sherman to take com- 
mand of the military division of the Mississippi which included 
the Army of the Cumberland. The troops who fought under 
General Thomas will always believe that this campaign for the 
capture of Atlanta, planned by General Thomas, would have 
been conducted more satisfactorily by the "Rock of Chicka- 
mauga," and they will always feel, too. that General Thomas 
should have been in the place occupied by General Sherman. 

When General Thomas' plan for the campaign was sum- 
mitted to General Grant his Army was well supplied, and he 
had, in round numbers, 60,000 men, while the Confederate 
forces in his front numbered about 40,000. Seven weeks after 
General Sherman assumed command, he had an army equipped 
for this campaign aggregating 88,188 infantry, 5,149 cavalry,. 
4,460 artillery, with 254 guns. The Army of the Cumberland 
comprised about two-thirds of the whole number ; the Army 
of the Tennessee about 24,400, and the Army of the Ohio 
about 13,600. General Thomas commanded the Army of the 
Cumberland, General Schofield the Army of the Ohio, and 
General McPherson the Army of the Tennessee. 

On the 8th of April, 1864, Lieutenant Colonel Archibald 
Blakeley resigned, and the command of our Regiment de- 
volved again upon Colonel Sirwell, who had been recommis- 
sioned and was now remustered. At a meeting of the officers 
of the Regiment, held on Lookout Mountain, with Major Bon- 
naffon presiding, the following resolutions were adopted, 
signed and presented to Colonel Blakeley, "Whereas, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Archibald Blakeley of the 78th Pennsylvania 
Volunteers has resigned his position in our Regiment, there- 
fore, resolved; first, we, the commissioned officers of the 78th 
Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, in parting with Lieutenant 
Colonel Blakeley, do cheerfully offer our testimonials to his 
gentlemanly deportment during the two and one-half years 
that he has been our officer; second, during the nine months 
that he has been our regimental commandant, we found him a 
strict disciplinarian, a business-like officer, brave and generous, 
just and firm, true and courteous, governing without tyranny 
or partiality or love of favor or fear of frown ; third, in the 
camp, on the march, in the bivouack and on the field of battle, 
amid the realities of war, we have witnessed his actions and 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 113 

without one stain on his escutcheon to tarnish his name, we 
have found him to be a true and noble man : fourth, in the res- 
ignation of Colonel Blakeley the service loses one of its purest 
and most efficient officers, one of its brightest lights, one of its 
most deserving men, and we. as a regiment, our best adviser 
and safest counselor, a kind friend, a noble fellow and a gal- 
lant hero; fifth, though w^e submit to fate, yet not without sor- 
row, in taking your hand, l)eloved Colonel and saying good by, 
remember that the friendships formed amid the trying vicissi- 
tudes of war have not been broken and shall ever live in our 
hearts as the most glorious oases of the great Rebellion. May 
God bless you and farewell." 

These resolutions were signed by Major A. B. Bonnaffon, 
chairman, and Captain Charles B. Gillespie as secretary. 

On the first day of May the Army of the Cumberland was 
on the move. On the second of May the 78th Pennsylvania 
left their pleasant camping ground on Lookout Mountain, and 
marched w^ith the Army southward. The weather was fine; 
the soldiers were in good spirits ; the Army was well equipped, 
and we were cheered by the thought that we could see the be- 
ginning of the end of the great War of the Rebellion. Never- 
theless, the first part of the campaign was a disappointment, 
if not a failure. General Thomas understood the situation 
much better than General Sherman. His reconnoisance against 
Dalton in January had convinced him that to attack Dalton 
from the front w^ould be to invite defeat. General Sherman, 
however, moved the great body of his army directly against 
Bald Face Ridge, attempting to force a passage through Buz- 
zard Roost Gap. At this later day it requires no great military 
knowdedge to know that if he had sent a small force to Buz- 
zard Roost Gap, and had marched the great body of his army 
at once through Snake Creek Gap farther south, he would have 
reached General Johnston's rear and would have compelled 
him to evacuate. General Johnston did not. at this time, have 
more than 43,000 available troops, while General Sherman 
had 100,000. Several days were spent in verifying what Gen- 
eral Thomas had already reported, viz.. that it would be impos- 
sible to force an entrance through Buzzard Roost Gap. From 
the 7th of May the Armies of the Cumberland and the Ohio 
were on the sides of Rocky Face Ridge, near Buzzard Roost 
Gap, and, on the evening of the 9th. General Sherman tele- 
graphed to Nashville that he had been fighting all day against 
rocks and defiles. Had he sent his force through Snake Creek 



144 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

Gap on the 8th instead of waiting until the i ith, I2th and 13th, 
the history of the whole campaign would have been very dif- 
ferent; for, when General Johnston discovered that our troops 
were at last coming through Snake Creek, he abandoned his 
position at Dalton. 

The movements of the 78th Regiment during this time 
were interwoven with the movements of the whole Army. We 
left Lookout Mountain at six o'clock on the second, arriving at 
Graysville, Georgia, at four p. m. On the 3rd we came to 
Ringgold where we remained for three days. On the 6th we 
marched to Tunnel Hill, and on the 7th pushed on towards 
Buzzard Roost Gap. None of the soldiers of the 78th Regi- 
ment are likely to forget their experiences on the side of Bald 
Face Ridge. If my personal recollections of one night spent 
there are correct, it was about the wettest night since Noah's 
Flood. On the afternoon of a clear day, during which our 
brigade had marched under cover of the woods to within per- 
haps three-quarters of a mile of the base of the ridge, where 
our knapsacks and all baggage except ammunition and rations 
were left under guard, we charged across open fields and up 
the sides of the ridge so as to be ready for any emergency. The 
open fields, lying between the woods in which we left our bag- 
gage and the ridge, were probably 200 yards in width. The 
instant we made our appearance in line of battle, ready to start 
across these fields, the enemy's artillery was unmasked all along 
the crest of the Ridge, while their infantry began to pour down 
upon us a shower of minie balls. The 78th Regiment was the 
first to cross the fields, and we suffered very little because it 
required some time for the Confederates to get the exact range, 
especially on account of the necessity for depression. The 
other columns that followed ours suffered much greater loss. 
After we had reached the foot of the steep ridge we were com- 
paratively safe, and moved half way up the sides in line of 
battle without losing a man. The 79th Pennsylvania, having 
just returned from veteran furlough, took position on our 
left. Amongst the killed in that regiment was one recruit, 
a bright, intelligent young man who had joined his regiment 
but a day or two before. He had been in the service only a 
week when he was numbered with the dead. 

In the evening of that bright day and at night we had a 
succession of most terrific thunder storms with very heavy 
rains. Our rubber blankets had been left with our baggage. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 145 

and we had no protection except very light blouses and under- 
wear. Toward midnight, when we were all thoroughly 
drenched and shivering with cold, I proposed to Captain Mar- 
lin that I should go back and find our baggage and get our rub- 
ber blankets. It was so dark as to give some hint as to what is 
meant by the "darkness that could be felt." Having crossed 
the fields, directed by flashes of lightening, and, having found 
a foot log, I crossed the stream by taking two or three steps at 
a time by the aid of the lightening, and I finally reached our 
company's baggage, selected our own rubber blankets and re- 
turned to my place in the line. It was the first time that I 
had ever used electric light. 

After spending three days in the neighborhood of Buz- 
zard Roost Gap, on the 12th and 13th the Army of the Cum- 
berland marched rapidly down the west side of the ridge to 
Snake Creek Gap, passed through the gap in the direction of 
Resaca. By the delay at Buzzard Roost Gap General John- 
ston was enabled to withdraw from Dalton and place himself 
between the Union Army and Dalton and give battle at Re- 
saca. Any one who reads the official reports of these move- 
ments will be convinced that General Sherman greatly erred 
when he failed to follow the advice of General Thomas at this 
point, and that this error necessitated the long and costly cam- 
paign for the capture of Atlanta. Had the Army of the Cum- 
berland pushed through Snake Creek Gap on the 9th and loth. 
so as to prevent General Johnston from concentrating at Re- 
saca the campaign would have resulted in the complete demor- 
alization of the Confederate Army. 

The battle of Resaca was a very complicated affair, and 
cannot be described in detail. The Union Army had been 
skirmishing every day for more than two weeks, and. at some 
points, the skirminshing had developed into pitched battles. 
There was no one day in the month of May that was to be 
compared with the 19th and 20th of September at the battle of 
Chickamauga, or to the great charge on Missionary Ridge at 
Chattanooga, yet there was some desperate fighting. The loss 
of the Union Army for the month of May amounted to 9,290 
men. nearly ten per cent, of the entire Army. 



146 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

XXII. 
Resaca 

On the 14th of May the Army of the Cumberland ad- 
vanced in line of battle till within a mile of the fortifications of 
the enemy while the other corps of the Union Army were try- 
ing to press to the rear of the enemy. Speaking of the 14th, 
the Morning Report Book of Company F says, "There was 
heavy fighting all day along our entire line just in front of 
Resaca, Georgia." On the night of the 14th our brigade threw 
up rude fortifications within about 800 to 1,200 yards of the 
fortifications of the enemy. Companies A and F were on the 
skirmish line in the woods in front of these fortifications, with 
the exceptions of some recruits who had just joined the com- 
pany and were kept within the fortifications. During the en- 
tire day the artillery stationed along the line of fortifications 
kept up a continuous fire on the Confederate fortifications in 
our front. We also poured into their fortifications a leaden 
hail from our rifles. A regiment would march into our 
breastworks, each man having sixty cartridges, and would 
continue to load and fire into the fortifications of the enemy 
until their ammunition was exhausted, when another regi- 
ment, with a new supply, would take their places. A constant 
fire of musketry and artillery was in this way kept up nearly 
the entire day, so that the Confederates did not dare to raise 
their heads above their fortifications. Several times during 
the day the Confederates attempted to plant a battery in posi- 
tion to defend their lines, but each time the guns were dis- 
mounted by our artillery before they succeeded in firing more 
than two or three shots. 

Our line of battle that day was in an oak and hickory 
woods, and, during the day. squirrels could be seen skipping 
about over the boughs of the trees above the fortifications. 
They probably thought the neighborhood had gone on a hunt- 
ing expedition. As night came on, the firing ceased and the 
troops in the fortifications went to sleep while the skirmishers 
acted as pickets. Sometime in the night an alarm was given 
and the enemy was supposed to be advancing. Suddenly 
everybody was moving, and a most terrific cannonading began. 
The gun supported by Company A, of the 78th Pennsylvania, 
was the first to open fire that night, but in ten seconds a hun- 
dred guns were firing, and in less than five minutes it was all 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 781h REGIMENT P. V. I. 147 

over. It was a false alarm, and the next morning we dis- 
covered that the enemy had slipped out of his entrenchments 
and escaped. 

The Confederate Army retreated from Resaca to Cass- 
ville, nearly thirty miles south, and took a strong position 
north of the Etowah River, where he prepared for battle ; but 
when he found that General Thomas was rapidly concentrating 
his forces, he retreated to Alatoona Mountains, south of the 
river. 



XXIII. 
Battle of New Hope Church 

The movements of the 78th Regiment for the next five 
days did not bring us in direct conflict with the enemy. On 
the 1 8th we marched to Calhoun, Georgia, and bivouacked two 
miles south of the town. On the 19th we marched to Kings- 
ton and threw up fortifications, where we remained until the 
23rd. On the 23rd the advance column of the Union Army 
left the railroad and marched directly westward for the pur- 
pose of turning the left flank of the enemy at Dallas instead of 
making a direct attack on him in the mountain passes. This 
movement was anticipated by the Confederate commander, and 
his troops were found in force in the neighborhood of Dallas. 
The battle lines at this time were nearly ten miles long, and 
there was nearly always brisk skirmishing at different points. 
At an intermediate point, known as New Hope Church, on the 
27th of May, the Union lines were advanced more than a mile, 
breaking through the Confederate lines, and bringing on a 
pitched battle. In this advance, the 78th Pennsylvania, lead- 
ing our brigade, moved forward in battle line across wooded 
ravines and ridges to the edge of the open fields advancing 
under a very heavy musketry and artillery fire of the enemy. 

Before we reached the open fields a number of men were 
killed and wounded. The first man of Company A that I saw 
fall was James Little. I was but a few feet from him, and 
thought that he was instantly killed, but Captain Ayres. of 
Company H, told me afterwards that he had raised him up 
when he said to him, "Tell mother I am in the front ranks yet," 
and, repeating the words three times, he expired a few mo- 
ments afterwards in the arms of Chaplain Christy. 



148 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

This seems to be a fitting place to say that Chaplain 
Christy had wonderful facility for being present on the battle 
field in the thickest of the fight, and seemed always at hand 
to relieve the wounded. He greatly endeared himself to the 
soldiers of the Regiment by his actions on the battle field. 

Having reached the edge of the woods we halted in a ra- 
vine, and the line of battle was somewhat protected, though 
the officers, being a few paces in the rear of the line, were pe- 
culiarly exposed. In a very few minutes the enemy made a 
desperate charge across the open fields to drive us from our 
position. They did not have any very definite line of battle, 
but they seemed to be in countless numbers, and they did not 
waver until, at some points, in front of the 78th Regiment they 
were not ten paces from our line. As they approached, and 
as they retreated, our soldiers loaded and fired with deliberate 
aim and fatal effect. The number of killed and wounded on 
the part of the enemy must have been very great, for in all my 
experience and observation of the 78th Pennsylvania Regiment 
never had an opportunity for doing such deadly work, and 
never did their duty more courageously. This particular 
charge lasted only a few minutes, and our Regiment lost that 
evening in killed and wounded more than half a hundred men. 
The number of killed as compared with the wounded was much 
larger than in any other battle in which we were engaged. 
Three men in Company A were instantly killed ; two others 
were wounded, one of whom died, and the one who recovered 
was seven months in the hospital before he was able to be taken 
to his home. 

This was my last sight of the Regiment as a part of the 
Army in the field; for, as the enemy retreated. I had the mis- 
fortune to stop a minie ball of fifty-nine calibre, which shat- 
tered the bone of my left arm and lodged in my shoulder, where 
it remained for three years. There was a terrific roar of mus- 
ketry and artillery at the time, but, when I was struck, a sold- 
ier in the ranks turned around and said to me, "You are shot, 
are you not?" He afterwards told me that he heard the ball 
strike me. When I replied that I was shot, he asked me 
whether he should help me off the field. I told him to come 
with me a short distance to find a surgeon, after which he re- 
turned to the company. As I walked back through the woods, 
and glanced at the 78th Regiment, I am glad to be able to say, 
every man seemed to be doing his whole duty amid the greatest 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 149 

dangers. I felt, then, and I feel now, that it was an honor to 
be associated with so brave and so patriotic a body of men in 
defense of our Country's Flag, standing between our Country 
and its deadly enemies. In one sense I had the worst of that 
fight, for, with my clothing saturated with blood, I did not look 
very presentable, but I never felt less like blushing. I had 
fought and was suffering for a great and good cause. T had 
not, at that time, read Horace, and could not say, 

"Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori," 

but I could better understand the poet's meaning by what I 
saw and experienced that day. 

I have not, up to this time, tried to record the experiences 
of our soldiers who, either on account of wounds or disease, 
were compelled to spend a large part of their time as sufferers 
in our military hospitals. My experiences and observations, 
from this time onward, enabled me to form a fair estimate 
of the sacrifices made by the men who served their country by 
suffering as sick or wounded soldiers. This was, after all, 
the hardest kind of service. I may be pardoned for giving a 
brief sketch of personal experiences, since it will enable the 
reader to better understand the experiences of other wounded 
soldiers in our Army hospitals. 

On the night of the 27th of May. I was conveyed some 
four or five miles in an ambulance to the field hospital, and 
early the next morning had my w'ounds dressed. The 2Sth 
and 29th were very hot days even for Georgia; and, on these 
two days, I, with many other wounded soldiers, was transport- 
ed in an ambulance forty miles. The night of the 28th was a 
hard night. We had been hauled twenty miles through the 
dust and heat and w^ere looking forward to another twenty 
miles of hard journeying next day. JMy wound was very pain- 
ful, and I shall never forget the scene in the field hospital 
where we tried to sleep. On the 30th we were brought by rail- 
road in a hospital car to Chattanooga. Some two weeks after- 
wards I was transported to Sherman General Hospital, Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, where I spent the summer, not being able to 
be sent home. About the first of September, I, together with 
many other wounded soldiers, was removed to Louisville. Ken- 
tucky. The day I was wounded I had served in the field thirty- 
three months without being a day off duty, and this was fol- 
lowed by seven months in the hospital, so that I had fair oppor- 
tunities for comparing experiences in the field with experiences 



160 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

in the hospital. While in active service in the field, there were 
times when we had great exposure with intense suffering and 
fatigue, but our average experiences were very enjoyable, and 
I never knew what real sacrifice was until I was wounded and 
sent to the hospital. I should say, also, that it seemed to me, 
everything was done that could be done by physicians and 
nurses to make the wounded as comfortable as possible. Only 
once, during my hospital experience, did I ever come in contact 
with a surgeon that was utterly unfit for his position. This 
one was a brutal, drunken wretch, whose name, I am glad to 
say, I do not recollect. 

Up to this point the writer has tried to give pen pictures 
from his own personal experiences and observations, his mem- 
ory being assisted by historical data. From this time onward, 
it will be necessary to give the history of the movements of the 
Regiment as he finds them reported by other observers. 

After the fierce battle of the afternoon and night of the 
27th of May, the Regiment participated in the movements of 
our Army in front of Atlanta until the 22nd of June. The 
28 and 29th of May the Regiment lay in reserve on Pumpkin 
Vine Creek, listening to the heavy skirminshing and to the ar- 
tillery duels all along our line of battle. From the 29th until 
the 6th of June the Regiment took part in the skirmishes in the 
Alatoona Mountain region, but did not have any pitched bat- 
tles. On the 6th of June the enemy evacuated their position 
in our front, and at ten o'clock the Regiment marched to the 
left. On the 7th our brigade bivouacked near Big Shanty, 
Georgia, where it remained in comparativ^e quiet until the nth, 
when the brigade marched in the direction of Meridian, 
Georgia. On the 13th there was heavy cannonading all day, 
and on the i8th our lines were advanced two miles and breast- 
works were thrown up. On the 20th the Regiment bivouacked 
in front of Kenesaw Mountains, and, on the 21st. was on the 
skirmish line in front of Kenesaw. On the 22nd of June the 
Regiment left the line of battle at the front at six o'clock, a. m., 
and took the cars for Chattanooga, arriving at Chattanooga 
at twelve o'clock on the 23rd, going into camp near Fort Neg- 
lev. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 151 

XXIV. 
The Regiment Ordered to Chattanooga 

From the 23rd of June to the 25th of September the head- 
quarters and the encampment of the Regiment were at Chatta- 
nooga, but detachments of this Regiment and of the io8th 
Ohio served as train guards from Chattanooga to the front. 
Both regiments were under command of Colonel Sirwell. The 
guarding of these trains was reckoned a most precarious and 
responsible duty; for, up to this time, it is said, that the Con- 
federates had captured and burned nearly half of the trains 
going to the front. While the 78th Regiment guarded these 
trains not a single train was lost, though they were often at- 
tacked. On the 27th of June the guard was fired upon, and 
one of the train guards, George Adams, of Company A, was 
severely wounded. A detailed account of the experiences of 
the different detachments, as they went from day to day as 
train guards, would be very interesting to the friends of those 
who participated, but it would be impossible to give more than 
an outline as we find only brief references in the report books 
of the different companies. On the 14th of August a detach- 
ment from the Regiment, under General Steedman. assisted in 
driving the Confederates, under Wheeler, from Dalton. On 
the morning of the 15th. shortly after daylight, skirmishing 
began, and the Confederates were driven three miles, being 
scattered in all directions. Only a few men of the 78th were 
slightly wounded, but, it is said, that the Confederates lost 
from one hundred and twenty to one hundred and fifty. 

On the 24th of September the 78th Regiment struck tents 
and marched to the railroad station with a view of taking the 
cars to Tullahoma. but. while waiting for the train, the Regi- 
ment with other troops, to the number of 1.200. under com- 
mand of Colonel Sirwell. was ordered to Athens. Alabama. 
This sudden change of orders had been brought about by the 
appearance of the Confederates, under command of General 
Forrest, at Athens. Alabama. Taking the train at eleven 
o'clock a. m.. of the 25th. the Regiment arrived at Decatur at 
seven p. m.. when the whole command was ordered to report 
to Major General Rousseau at X'aslnille. Tennessee. In obedi- 
ence to this command the Regiment arrived at Stevenson on the 
morning of the 26th, and reported at Nashville the same day, 
when the command was ordered to Pulaski. Tennessee, where 



152 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

it arrived about noon on the 27th. The records of this event 
the Morning Report Book of Company F say, "Arrived at Pu- 
laski at 10 a.m., lay near the station, shelled by rebel artillery." 
When the rebel force at this point was dispersed the regiment 
hastened back to Nashville, arriving at ten o'clock on the 
morning of the loth, when it was ordered to proceed immedi- 
ately to Tullahoma and protect that place from a threatened 
attack by General Forrest's cavalry. On the way to Tulla- 
homa the Regiment stopped for a time at Murfreesboro and 
then proceeded to Wartrace, where it arrived at eight o'clock 
in the evening and bivouacked for the night. On the 30th the 
regiment proceeded to Tullahoma, but on the first of October 
was again ordered to Nashville, arriving in the afternoon and 
encamping three miles south of the city. At two o'clock on 
the morning of the 2nd the Regiment was ordered into line, and 
at seven o'clock started for Franklin, Tennessee. It is not 
necessary to say that these days were full of excitement and 
that the air was full of rumors. 

About this time General Rousseau fitted up an expedition 
for the purpose of driving General Forrest's cavalry force 
across the Tennessee River, and the 78th Pennsylvania, as 
mounted infantry, became a part of this expedition. This was 
a new experience for the Regiment, but not an unpleasant one. 
We have no sketch of the movements of the Regiment or dif- 
ferent parts of it during this expedition, but we know that the 
expedition lasted about ten days, and that it w^as successful. 

This expedition as mounted infantry was the last active 
service of the Regiment, and it arrived at Nashville on the 17th 
of October, six days after its term of service had expired. On 
the 1 8th of October the Regiment, by order of General George 
H. Thomas, was relieved from duty in the Department of the 
Army of the Cumberland and was ordered to Pennsylvania to 
be mustered out of the service. 



XXV. 

Return of the Regiment to Pennsylvania to be Mus- 
tered Out of the Service 

It seems a great .pity that we could not have an adequate 
pen picture of the return of this Regiment by some one who 
had served during the three years and then entered fully into 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 153 

the happy experiences of this occasion. The writer of this 
history was still in the hospital, unable to return with the Regi- 
ment, and cannot do justice to this part of the history. We 
can easily imagine, however, that the joy of the return was 
mingled with sadness. Every soldier and officer of the Regi- 
ment carried back memories of the brave comrades who had 
gone with him to the front three years before and were not 
with him on its return. When these soldiers met old friends 
there was always a vein of profound sadness in their happiness 
as the sight of each familiar face reminded them of the faces of 
comrades who had given their lives for their country. Many 
of the friends who came to greet these returning veterans wel- 
comed them with tears and sobs while ihey thought of their 
own dear ones that would never return. Nevertheless, this was 
a time every soldier had looked forward to with hope and had 
dreamed of for months and years. It was a homecoming never 
to be forgotten by those who participated. 

The Regiment embarked at Nashville on the evening of 
the 1 8th and came by way of the Cumberland and Ohio Rivers 
to Pittsburg. Every scene on the Ohio, above Louisville, re- 
minded the members of the Regiment of their experiences, their 
hopes and their fears when, three years before, with two other 
regiments of Xegley's brigade, they had gone down the Ohio 
River as far as Louisville. These three years had been spent 
in campaigning through Kentucky, Tennessee and Alabama. 
Three years before, these soldiers knew nothing of real war- 
fare; now they were regarded, and deserved to be regarded, as 
real veterans. They had participated in great battles and knew 
what war meant. 

The citizens of Pittsburg had not forgotten the Regiment, 
and they gave to the returning veterans a very cordial recep- 
tion, while the villages and hamlets from Pittsburg to Kit- 
tanning vied with each other in their efforts to show their ap- 
preciation for their soldier friends. A member of the Regiment 
who participated in the return said, "The memory of the hearty 
welcome and the kind greetings received, from the time we first 
set foot on the soil of our native State, will ever remain a 
bright spot in the mind of every member of the /Sth Regiment. 



154 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

XXVI. ! 

Review and Remarks 

We have tried to take our readers with us as we sketched 
the experiences of this Regiment from the first of September, 
1 86 1 until the 4th of November, 1864. During these three 
eventful years the soldiers and officers performed their duties 
faithfully and courageously, in camp, on picket, and in many 
hard-fought battles. When these soldiers returned to be mus- 
tered out of the service and go to their homes, they had been 
tried and not found wanting. They were men of conscience 
and brain as well as of brawn. For three years they had been 
away from the restraints of home life, but the great majority 
of them had carried their intelligent consciences with them, 
and could look their friends in the face without feeling 
ashamed of their record. Most of them were men of deep re- 
ligious convictions. Soldiers, as a rule, did not say much about 
their religion, but they often thought deeply. These men be- 
lieved in God as the moral Governor of the universe, and, 
when they faced death, they had little fear of physical suffer- 
ing. They believed that after death would come the judg- 
ment, when they would receive their rewards for the deeds 
done in the body, and their thought of death included in it 
the thought of this judgment. In some tents of the Regiment, 
morning and evening worship and Bible reading were kept up 
according to the custom in their old homes. 

As an indication of the kind of men that composed this 
Regiment, and the character of the homes from which they 
came, we publish an extract from an article by Joshiah Copley, 
a well known contributor to religious journals, whose home 
A\-as in Allegheny City. Mr. Copley had four sons in the 
United States Service during the War of the Rebellion. 
Speaking of John S. Copley, his oldest son, who was killed in 
the Battle of South Mountain in Maryland, on the 14th of 
v^eptember, 1862, the father says: 

"He was a member of Company A Ninth Pennsylvania 
Reserves, a good man and sincere Christian." He goes on to 
say, "The next in age was Albert, a member of the 78th Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers. In character he was like his brother. 
At the Battle of Stone River in Tennessee he was wounded 
by an exploded shell, and captured. He and his fellow pris- 
oners were put on board a train and carried southward near to 



HISTORY AND ROSTER TStli REGIMENT P. V. I. 155 

the border of Florida. There they turned back to be taken 
to Richmond, because some Union forces had in the meantime 
come near to that part of the Gulf States. 

Although not mortally wounded, 1,200 miles of continu- 
ous travelling was more than he was able to bear. When 
the returning train got as far as Knoxville, Tenn., he was 
taken off and put into a hospital. There he wrote me a 
short letter, giving me the above facts. He spoke hopefully 
of his recovery; but very soon afterward another letter from 
some one there informed me of his death. But that was all. 
I wrote to his captain, and to Gen. Jas. S. Negley, then in 
command of his division. Both returned kind replies, but 
could give me no information subsequent to his capture. 

During that war, as many people will remember, a band 
of generous men and women organized for the purpose of 
giving a good meal to every regiment which passed through 
Pittsburg, no matter what the hour might be. A few weeks 
after Albert's death I learned that a regiment in transit from 
west to east would be at the City Hall about midnight that 
night. I lived in Allegheny City at the time, and had no ac- 
tive part in that good work. But still I felt that I must go 
over that night and see "the boys." 

When I entered the hall I found them around the long 
tables to the number of ten or twelve hundred, all highly 
pleased, as if they enjoyed their bountiful warm supper. I 
stood near the entrance and looked on until they were through 
and had begun to gather into groups. Then I walked <iown 
among them, but spoke to none until I noticed a good-looking 
young man standing alone. I went to him and entered into 
con^•ersation. He told me that he was a member of an Ohio 
Regiment, giving its number, and that he belonged to what 
was known as the Army of the Cumberland. "Did you ever 
meet any of the men of the 78th Pennsylvania?" I asked. 

"Yes," he replied ; "we lay for sometime alongside of that 
regiment, and I got acquainted with a good many of the boys." 
"Did you know a man named Albert Copley?" He started at 
the question, and exclaimed, "Albert Copley ! Why T was 
lying beside him in the hospital when lie died." He then told 
me that he was captured at the same time — that they traveled 
all that round in the same car — that he dressed Albert's wound 
daily as well as he could — that before reaching Knoxville he 
himself took sick — that both were put into the same hospital, 



156 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

and occupied couches side by side. He said Albert was in a 
fair way of recovery until erysipelas set in, which soon ter- 
minated in death. He spoke of his resignation, cheerfulness, 
and hopefulness, and of his gratitude to his nurse, who had 
been very kind to him. I inquired of him if he knew any- 
thing of his grave; but he did not, for he was too sick to at- 
tend his funeral. He told me that Albert gave that nurse 
what little he had in return for his unwearying kindness." 

The opinion prevails in some places that the average sold- 
ier is reckless, profane, and less careful of the rights of his 
fellowmen than the average citizen at home. It has been my 
privilege to be intimately associated with soldiers, with busi- 
ness men, and with men in all the various professions and avo- 
cations of life, and I wish to bear this testimony : The aver- 
age soldier of the 78th Regiment did not have as much culture 
as the average professional or business man with whom I 
have come in contact ; he did not say as much about religion as 
the average man with whom I have been most intimately as- 
sociated ; he could not boast of his bank account, but he had as 
much real manhood as any one whose friendship I have ever 
enjoyed. There is something about ordinary business — there 
is something about all the contentions of commercial, social 
and political life that has a great tendency to make a man sel- 
fish, not to say mean and unmanly. One business man feels 
perfectly free to let another take the worst of the bargain, and 
bear more than his share of the burdens of any business enter- 
prise, while he gets more than his own share of the benefits. 
One Christian is often found very willing that other Christians 
should bear all the burdens, reproach and self-sacrifice of carry- 
ing on Christian work and of contending against wrong doing, 
while he is willing to take all the honors, whether deserved or 
undeserved. I have even found ministers of the Gospel who did 
not think it necessary to bear one another's burdens. In con- 
trast with this, it may be truthfully said, that the soldiers of 
the 78th Regiment generally moved on a higher plane and 
maintained a higher code of morals. No good soldier would 
ask or expect his comrade to face dangers or endure hardships 
or bear burdens that he was unwilling to accept for himself. 
The officer or soldier who was unwilling to take his full share 
of the dangers and burdens soon came to be reckoned unmanly 
and cowardly. Soldiers had the highest regard for their ene- 
mies whom they met on the battle field, but they had the great- 



1 

r 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 157 

est possible contempt for shirkers and cowards and traitors 
in their own ranks. I have known men in social, business, and 
even in church enterprises, to encourage their fellow-men to 
go forward in arduous and dangerous undertakings, and, when 
their representatives were bearing the brunt of the battle, they 
would begin to fire on them from the rear. I never saw any- 
thing of this kind on the part of any soldier in the 78th Regi- 
ment. At the end of three years' service we knew each other 
better, and we could depend on each other more confidently 
than we could when we first entered the army. While we sin- 
cerely hope that the time may soon come when there will be 
no bloody battle fields and no need of soldiers, it must be con- 
fessed that military life, in active service, has a great tendency 
to develop in most men a very high type of real manhood. 

The Regiment was mustered out of the United States ser- 
vice at Kittanning by Lieutenant Ward of the U. S. Army on 
the 4th day of November, and was paid on the 5th of Novem- 
ber. The soldiers and officers of the Regiment then returned to 
their respective homes and took up at once the active duties 
of home life. It is not necessary to say that they were still 
deeply interested in everything that concerned the progress of 
the Army in conquering the Rebellion. Most of them ex- 
pected to enter again into service for their country if they 
should be needed, and some of them did re-enlist. 

XXVII. 

Organization of Veterans into Two Companies 

The recruits whose time had not expired and veteran 
volunteers remained at Nashville under command of Major 
Bonnaffon and Lieutenants Torl)ctt and Smith. They were or- 
ganized into two companies, and afterwards became companies 
A and B at the new organization of the Regiment. Sergeant 
Rankin of Company A was promoted to 2nd Lieutenant of 
Company A December 3, 1864, William B. McCue was pro- 
moted from Sergeant to ist Lieutenant, December 2, 1864. 
Lieutenant Smith of Company K was promoted to Captain of 
Company B December 3, 1864. Seargeant Andrew Brown 
was promoted from Sergeant to ist Lieutenant of Company B, 
December 3rd, 1864. Bernard Keigan was promoted from 
Sergeant to 2nd Lieutenant of Company B December 4th, 
1864. 



158 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

XXVIII. 

Second Regimental Organization 

The two companies of veterans and recruits were organ- 
ized in this way until February or March of 1865, when the 
Governor of Pennsylvania assigned eight new companies to 
the organization, bringing the new organization up to the min- 
imum regimental strength. When this organization took 
place Major Bonnaffon was commissioned as Colonel of the 
Regiment, Henry W. Torbett as Lieutenant Colonel, Robert 
M. Smith as Major, the other commissioned officers being ad- 
vanced in rank so that David A. Rankin became Captain of 
Company A, and Andrew Brown Captain of Company B. 

Company C of the new organization was recruited at 
Lewistown, Mifflin County, Pa., in February, 1865, with A. B. 
Selheimer as Captain, John S. McEwen as ist Lieutenant and 
Samuel Eisenbise as 2nd Lieutenant. Company D of the new 
organization was recruited in Cumberland County, with John 
A. Swartz as Captain, Washington L. Stoey as ist Lieutenant 
and Samuel M. Mitchell as 2nd Lieutenant. Company E was 
recruited in Butler County, with Robert L Boggs as Captain, 
Alexander Gillespie as ist Lieutenant and Lewis Gantz as 2nd 
Lieutenant. Company H was recruited in Allegheny County, 
with Jas. L. Graham as Captain, Thomas Nelson as ist Lieu- 
tenant and Walter Reynolds as 2nd Lieutenant. Company G 
was recruited in Beaver County, with David S. Cook as Cap- 
tain, Isaac Reno as ist Lieutenant and Jas. R. Cowden as 2nd 
Lieutenant. Company H was recruited in Allegheny County, 
with Paul Crawford as Captain, Jas. B. Brown as ist Lieuten- 
ant and Jos. H. Rubican as 2n(l Lieutenant. Company I was 
recruited in Allegheny County, with Chas. D. Wiley as Cap- 
tain, John McRoberts as ist Lieutenant and George N. Mc- 
Nulty as 2nd Lieutenant. Company K was recruited in Hunt- 
ingdon County, with John Brewster as Captain, David G. En- 
yeart as ist Lieutenant and Milton H. Sangree as 2nd Lieuten- 
ant. 

In order to give an intelligent sketch of the part taken by 
the second organization of the 78th Recriment in the prosecu- 
tion of the War of the Rebellion, it will be necessary for us to 
go back a little in the history and brief! v sketch the movements 
of our Army during September. October and November. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 159 

After the capture of Atlanta, when General Hood had 
succeeded General Jos. E. Johnston in command of the Confed- 
erate Army, General Thomas proposed to General Sherman to 
take the troops under his direct command and march to the 
sea coast, leaving General Sherman at Atlanta. General Sher- 
man seemed favorable to this proposition, but General Grant 
ojjjected. In the meantime JetTerson Davis, President of the 
Confederacy, and his advisers formed a plan for sending Gen- 
eral Hood's force to the rear of General Sherman, and cutting 
otf his communications, thinking that this move would compel 
General Sherman to retreat. This created new military con- 
ditions, and led to General Sherman's final determination to 
march across the Confederacy to the sea coast, and, as he ex- 
pressed it, cut the Confederacy in two. General Sherman con- 
fessed that this w'as not a mere matter of military strategy, but 
that such a course would convince the world that what General 
Grant had said was true, that the Confederacy was only a hol- 
low shell. 

When General Grant gave his consent to this movement, it 
\\as wath the expressed condition that a sufficient force should 
be left to hold Chattanooga, and to guard the communications 
against any force that the Confederates might send. It was 
expected that General Hood's Army would follow General 
Sherman, and General Sherman's forces were large enough to 
have risked a battle with General Hood at any time. But the 
plan of the Confederates was entirely different, and the result 
of it all was that General Sherman took the larger part of the 
Army to march through a territory where he had no military 
forces to contend with of any importance, while General 
Thomas was left with a very inadequate force to meet the 
whole Confederate Army under General Hood. In Septem- 
ber, October and November General Thomas gradually and 
skillfully concentrated all his available forces in front of Nash- 
ville, and General Hood proceeded by way of Corinth to re- 
occupy middle Tennessee, taking possession of Pulaski and 
Columbia, louring all this time. General Thomas' forces were 
far inferior in inunbers to those of General Hood, though the 
authorities at Washington w^ere urging General Thomas to 
attack and destroy General Hood's Army. 



160 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

XXIX. 
Battle of Nashville 

By the lirst of December General Thomas had concen- 
trated at Nashville all the troops available for battle, except 
a part of his cavalry which had been sent North to be re- 
mounted. He then felt secure against attack, but was not yet 
prepared for offensive operations. His purpose was to com- 
pletely crush the enemy, and this purpose caused him to delay 
for a few days, and explains his refusal to yield to the pressure 
of positive orders to fight the enemy regardless of conse- 
quences. He preferred to lose his command rather than fight 
before he had made thorough preparations to crush General 
Hood's Army. He had at this time three corps of infantry, 
from as many different military departments, together with 
mounted and dismounted cavalry, a large element of raw 
troops, convalescents from Sherman's 4th corps, and six regi- 
ments of Negro troops. It required time to bring together 
this heterogeneous mass and provide transportation for the 
pursuit of the enemy. in the event of victory. General Thomas 
did not have any such army as the Army of the Cumberland 
was when the battle of Stone River was fought, or when the 
battle of Chickamauga was fought. 

The dispatches of Secretary Stanton and of General Grant 
during the early part of December indicated the growing impa- 
tience at Washington, D. C. On the 5th of December General 
Grant urged with great emphasis that General Thomas should 
at once attack General Hood's Army. In answer. General 
Thomas stated that he hoped in three days to be able to make 
the attack. December 6th General Thomas was ordered per- 
emptorily to ^vait no longer for his cavalry. General Thomas 
replied, "I will make the necessary disposition and attack at 
once, agreeable to your orders, although I believe it will be haz- 
ardous with the small force of cavalry now at my service." 
In his effort to fulfill this promise he met with obstacles which 
convinced him that he could not then fight a battle with such 
results as he desired, and he concluded to wait until the 9th 
or loth. On the 9th, General Grant directed that General 
Thomas should be ordered to turn over his command to Gen- 
eral Schofield ; but the same day he suspended the order. Gen- 
eral Thomas did not know of this order until years afterwards. 
General Thomas fully expected to make the attack on the loth, 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 161 

but found it impossible because the hills were covered with ice. 
This condition continued through the nth and 12th. On the 
13th General Grant ordered IMajor General John A. Logan to 
proceed to Nashville and take command of the Army provided 
that, on his arrival, General Thomas had still made no ad- 
vance. Speaking of his action at this point, General Thomas 
expressed his view of the case as follows, "I thought, after 
what I had done in the War, I ought to be trusted to decide 
when the battle should be fought. I thought I knew better 
when it should be fought than any one could know as far off 
as City Point, Virginia." 

It is not necessary, at this late day, to say that General 
Thomas' action was more than vindicated. Had he been a 
weaker man, and made the attack when he was ordered to do 
so, it is very doubtful whether the results would have been at 
all favorable to the Union cause. The official reports of Gen- 
eral Hood say that he had. when at Florence, an Army 
of 57,560 men. When General Thomas had concentrated all 
his forces at Nashville, he had about 50,000 men for offensive 
operations. These two facts show that it would have been a 
very perilous thing for General Thomas to have brought on a 
battle before he had concentrated his whole Army at Nash- 
ville. With inferior numbers and many undisciplined troops, 
he could not risk a battle up to this time. It is not necessary 
for us to attempt to give any sketch of this great battle that 
resulted in the crushing and scattering of the Confederate 
forces in Tennessee. The hero of Stone River, "The Rock of 
Chickamauga" again proved himself our wisest and most skill- 
ful military leader. 

As we have already seen the 78th Pennsylvania Regiment 
had an important part in all the movements connected with the 
concentration of General Thomas' Army at Nashville up to the 
17th of October, wdien the Regiment was ordered home to be 
mustered out. The soldiers of the old Regiment who had re- 
enlisted, and the recruits that had entered the Regiment after 
its organization, and whose term of service had not expired, 
were now organized into two companies. These two com- 
panies could not have as definite and prominent a part in the 
great battle that destroyed General Hood's Army as they 
would have had if their regimental organization had been com- 
pleted. The writer has not been able to get a detailed account 
of the movements of these two companies for the months of 
December and January. We only know that they performed 



162 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

general scout and guard duties wherever there was need and 
opportunity. 

The Battle of Nashville was fought on the 15th and i6th 
of December, and it is said that no other battle of the war was 
fought from start to finish so completely according to the pre- 
pared plan of the commanding General. By the evening of 
the 1 6th General Hood's Army was completely routed at all 
points. General Thomas blamed himself for not having so 
disposed his forces on the evening of the 15th as to have cap- 
tured the whole Confederate Army. 

As this was the first pitched battle in which Negro troops 
took an active and prominent part we should not fail to notice 
General Thomas' estimate of their conduct. When riding over 
the battle field he saw their dead mingled with the bodies of 
white soldiers he said, "This proves the manhood of the Ne- 
gro." Speaking of them afterwards he said, "It will take time 
for the regeneration of the Negro, and he will come out puri- 
fied by the terrible ordeal by which he has been subjected. He 
will assume an honorable position in the ranks of humanity. 
That which is too weak to stand the protracted trial will per- 
ish; that which is too thoroughly infected with the poisonous 
infection of slavery will slough off; but the remnant will be 
found to be men and will discharge their duties as citizens in 
our midst." 

By the time the 78th Regiment had completed its second 
organization General Hood's Army had been driven from 
Tennessee, and the new Regiment did not have any opportunity 
for engaging in any great battle, but, under the leadership of 
that brave and brilliant veteran. Colonel Bonnaffon. the Regi- 
ment performed its duty faithfully until the close of the War, 
and was mustered out of the service, September 11, 1865. at 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 



XXX. 
Conclusion 

The writer of history only records surface indications. 
The real spirit of history lies deeper and each reader must 
look beneath the surface in order to find the great truths to 
which the words of the historian are only index fingers. Every 
reader of our Regimental History can fill out this word pic- 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. 1. 165 

ture for himself, and, as he does so, from out the dim vista of 
the past, he may catch glimpses of waving banners, flashing 
bayonets, serried columns, charging battalions, smoking artil- 
lery and galloping squadrons, and he may hear again the 
echoes of the songs we used to sing on the march, in the bi- 
vouack and by the camp fire. As he dreams of the past and 
listens to these echoes he may hear again the inspiring words, 
"My Country,' 'tis of Thee, Sweet Land of Liberty;" ''Rally 
round the Flag, Boys ;" "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp the Boys are 
Marching;" "John Brown's Body lies mouldering in the Dust." 
Perhaps, too, he may hear some faint echoes of the song, sa 
popular then but almost forgotten now, "Well Hang Jeff Davis 
on a Sour Apple Tree." This brief sketch contains only a few 
prominent facts in our Regimental History, but we believe that 
the reading of it w'ill strengthen the bond of friendship that 
bound the comrades together during these years of trials and 
dangers and will kindle anew our patriotic enthusiasm. 

And now, brave comrades of the 78th Pennsylvania, fare- 
well. I have appreciated the honor conferred upon mc and 
have performed, to the best of my ability, the work assigned me 
by your historical committee. We together have joined hands 
with the heroes of the War of the Revolution ; they built and 
launched our great Ship of State, and we have helped to de- 
fend and preserve her in her hour of greatest peril. They, 
under the leadership of Washington, the Father of our Coun- 
try, wrought the ribs of steel and made each rope and sail, 
while we, under the leadership of Abraham Lincoln, the Sav- 
ior of our Country, kept her from being wrecked by the winds 
and waves of the great Rebellion. We can appropriate the 
words of our greatest American poet and sing, 

"Thou, too, sail on, O Ship of State ! 
Sail on, O Union, strong and great ! 
Humanity with all its fears, 
With all the hopes of future years, 
Is hanging breathless on thy fate! 
We know what Master laid thy keel, 
What Workman wrought thy ribs of steel. 
Who made each mast, and sail, and rope. 
What anvils rang, what hammers beat. 
In what a forge and what a heat 
\\'ere shaped the anchors of thy hope! 



166 HISTORY AND ROSTER TSUi REGIMENT P. V. I. 

Fear not each sudden sound and shock, 

'Tis of the wa\e and not the rock ; 

'Tis but the flapping of the sail. 

And not a rent made by the gale ! 

In spite of false lights on the shore, 

Sail on. nor fear to breast the sea! 

Our hearts, our hopes, are all with thee. 

Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tears, 

Our faith triumphant o'er our fears. 

Are all with thee — are all with thee!" 

Nearly forty years have come and gone since our Regi- 
ment was mustered out of the United States' service. A ma- 
jority of the comrades have answered the last great roll call, 
and each succeeding year a goodly company will join the ma- 
jority until not one will be left. As we look backward over the 
past, and out into the future, we could wish that we might 
have some record of each comrade that would bring out in 
bold relief each distinct personality; but, after all, this is not 
important; each biography is well known to the King of 
kings to whom we are all to give our final account, and, from 
whom, each one will in the end receive his just reward. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 167 



Appendix 



I. 

Chickamauga — Chattanooga National Military Park 

Commission 

Under date of December 20, 1893, General J. S. Fuller- 
ton, chairman of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National 
Military Commission, addressed a communication to the Chief 
Executives of such states as were represented by military or- 
ganizations in the battle of Chickamauga and the various other 
engagements in the vicinity of Chattanooga, Tennessee, ask- 
ing their co-operation in the work of correctly locating the 
positions of the organizations so engaged. In response to this 
request, Governor Robert E. Pattison, of Pennsylvania, on the 
30th day of April, 1894, appointed a Commission from the 
survivors of these Regiments and Batteries to aid in this work 
on behalf of the State of Pennsylvania. The members of the 
78th Regiment who served on this Commission were Archi- 
bald Blakeley, R. D. Elwood, Chas. B. Gillespie, Fred F. 
Wiehl, A. B. Hay, Geo. Schaffner and J. T. Gibson. Under 
the call set forth in the Commission the delegates convened 
May 15th, 1894, in the Supreme Court Room of the Capitol 
Building at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, when Colonel Archi- 
bald Blakeley of the 78th Pennsylvania Regiment was elected 
chairman. 

The majority of the members of this Commission met by 
appointment at Chattanooga during the month of the follow- 
ing September, and, after spending several days in going care- 
fully over the various battle fields, accompanied by members 
of the National Commission, succeeded in satisfactorily locat- 
ing the more important positions occupied by the different or- 
ganizations as well as in determining where monuments and 
markers might be appropriately erected. The results of their 
labors were reported by Governor Hastings to the Legislature, 
and that body, at its next session, on recommendation of Gov- 



168 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

ernor Hastings, passed an act providing an appropriation for 
the payment of expenses of the Chickamauga, Chattanooga 
Battlefields' Commissions, and the Executive Committee there- 
of, and also passed an act providing for the erection of monu- 
ments for the Pennsylvania organizations engaged in the 
battles of Chickamauga, Wauhatchie, Brown's Ferry, Orchard 
Knob, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge and Ringgold. 
An act was afterwards passed providing free transportation to 
and from Chattanooga, Tennessee, at the time of the dedica- 
tion of the monuments for the Pennsylvania regiments and 
batteries, for all surviving soldiers of the organizations that 
participated in the battles of Chickamauga, Wauhatchie, 
Brown's Ferry, Orchard Knob, Lookout Mountain, Mission- 
ary Ridge and Ringgold. 



n. 

Dedication of the Monument 

Friday, Saturday, Sabbath and Monday, November 12th, 
13th, 14th and 15th, was fixed as the time for appropriate cere- 
monies in dedicating the regimental monuments. The gen- 
eral dedicatory services took place at Orchard Knob on the 
15th of November, 1897. General William A. Robinson, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel of the 77th Pennsylvania Volunteers, presid- 
ing. Prayer was offered by Rev. Thomas H. Robinson, D. D., 
of Pittsburg. Patriotic airs were played by the Fifth Regi- 
ment Infantry Band, U. S. A. The formal transfer of the 
monuments to the Governor of Pennsylvania was made by 
Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Blakeley of the 78th Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, President of the State Commission; and 
they were accepted, on behalf of the Commonwealth by Gov- 
ernor Daniel H. Hastings, and, on behalf of the National 
Government, by Honorable John Tweedale. An address was 
made by General Henry D. Boynton, President of Chicka- 
mauga, Chattanooga National Park Commission, and the 
services closed with the benediction by Rev. J. T. Gibson, 
D. D., of the 78th Pennsylvania. 

The dedication of the monument of the 78th Pennsylvania 
Regiment in Brotherton's woods, Chickamauga Park took 
place on Sabbath afternoon, November 14th, 1897. The com- 
rades and friends assembled were led in prayer by the Rev. J. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 169 

T. Gibson, D. D., as follows : "O Lord, we adore Thee as the 
King, eternal, immortal, invisible; the only wise God. We 
worship Thee as our Creator, Preserver and Bountiful Bene- 
factor. We thank Thee that in Thy gracious providence we 
have been given a home in this great and good land, where 
we have civil and religious liberty; where the civil govern- 
ment is the ordinance of God for justice; where our religious, 
civil and social institutions are leavened and moulded by the 
gospel of Christ. We confess before Thee our unworthiness, 
our selfishness and our failure to use the high privileges and 
opportunities as we should have done. We confess that as a 
nation we sinned against Thee, the King of kings and Lord 
of lords ; that as a nation we degraded the ordinance of God 
for justice and made it a means of enslaving and oppressing 
our fellow-men. We recognize Thy mighty hand and out- 
stretched arm in the deliverance wrought for the enslaved peo- 
ple by the blood shed on this and other consecrated battle- 
fields. We recognize Thy hand in controlling and bringing 
to a right issue the great war in which it was our lot to take 
part. We thank Thee for the courage, patriotism and devotion 
to right principles that characterized the lives of the brave 
men who fell on this field for the preservation of our govern- 
ment and the interests of human liberty. We pray Thee to 
forgive all the wrong that has been done by the nation, and 
help us as a nation in the future to do justly, love mercy, and 
walk humbly with Thee. 

"We pray for a blessing upon the families and friends of 
those who fell on this field. We pray for a blessing upon those 
who are suffering while they still live from the wounds re- 
ceived here. We pray for a special blessing upon the nation 
that has been preserved through this sacrifice of blood and 
treasure. 

"In Thy presence and on this Thy holy day, we set apart 
and dedicate to the memory of those who died, this goodly 
monument. May it stand for centuries to testify to the courage 
and devotion of those who died here for a great cause ! Alay it 
ever be to all beholders an inspiration to noble deeds of sacri- 
fice for the preservation of all our national blessings and for 
the establishment of whatever will tend to the greater liberty 
and the nobler development of our fellow-men! 

"Enable those of us who are assembled here today to re- 
consecrate ourselves to Thy service. Make us all true, faith- 
ful, courageous soldiers of the Lord Jesus Christ ; and. under 



170 HISTORY AND ROSTER TSth REGIMENT P. V. I. 

the leadership of the great Captain of our salvation, help us 
ever to do our duty on the side of right and truth and jus- 
tice. And now, may the God of peace who brought again 
from the dead our Lord Jesus Christ, that Shepherd of the 
sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant, make us 
all perfect to do his will, working in us, that which is well 
pleasing in his sight through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory 
forever and ever. Amen." 

Comrade R. P. Scott then delivered the dedicatory ad- 
dress, in which, after briefly sketching the history of the Regi- 
ment, he said, "Comrades, more than a third of a century has 
passed since last we stood on this line. Then dark, angry 
clouds hung over us. This ground was convulsed with the 
mad rush of contending armies and the terrible shock of bat- 
tle. But today how different ! All is changed ; the heavy 
tread of hostile armies is no longer heard in the valleys; the 
sound of war has ceased to reverberate among these moun- 
tain ranges ; the sword has been sheathed, and all nature is en- 
joying the sweet repose of this holy day. Yes, thank God, 
the angel of peace has spread her white wings over our blessed 
land and we now know but one flag — the stars and stripes — 
emblematic of the unity of a great nation. 

"Since the day you stood here in the full flush, strength 
and pride of young manhood, touching elbow to elbow, waiting 
with bated breath, beating heart, and strong steady nerve the 
onslaught of the enemy, many of our comrades, high as well 
as humble in rank, have lain down and fallen into that dream- 
less sleep which knows no waking in this world, and, though 
they have put on the garb of immortality, and returned to the 
dust, their faces are to us unchanged, and may it not be pos- 
sible that they are with us. in spirit, today and know what we 
do and say here. 

"Looking into your faces today, perhaps for the last time 
in this world, I am sensibly reminded that time is slowly but 
surely laying his hand heavily upon us, and that we, too, shall 
soon join our departed comrades in a fairer clime, where gen- 
erous fruits on trees immortal grow." 

Comrade Scott then showed how that in all ages great 
military achievements had been the glory of the people, and 
how all nations had fondly cherished the memories of their 
patriot dead, and sought to perpetuate these memories by the 
erection of pyramids, tombs, monuments and triumphal 
arches. He spoke of the monuments our nation had erected at 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 171 

Arlington, Gettysburg, Nashville, Alurfrcesboro. Chattanooga, 
Atlanta, Vicksburg and elsewhere, and declared that it was 
not strange, but eminently proper, that the survivors of the old 
78th Pennsylvania Regiment should meet, thirty-two years 
after the War, to dedicate a monument as a memorial of the 
patriotism and gallantry of the men who served their country 
in its hour of peril and distress. He said, "This monument, 
erected, and now being dedicated, as a tribute of loving affec- 
tion, by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, to her soldiers of 
the old 78th Pennsylvania Infantry, not only recalls to memory 
their sacrifices, loyalty and unselfish devotion, which many of 
them sealed with their lives, but reminds us that they gave 
their services and lives on the field of honor in defense of the 

Constitution, the chart of liberty, justice and humanity 

Therefore, comrades and friends, standing within the shadow 
of this monument, let us this day resolve to more highly value 
and more fully appreciate the great privileges and blessings 
that we, as American citizens, enjoy. These ceremonies will 
not be in vain, if we lay to heart their true meaning and 
have a deeper reverence for our flag, knowing that beneath its 
starry folds are protection and safety for the humblest citizen. 

''Then, my comrades and friends, with feelings of deep- 
est gratitude, which are the noblest impulses of the human 
heart, we make this offering, dedicate this monument to the 
brave, loyal patriotic men who served their country in the old 
Seventy-eight Pennsylvania, in the dark days of 1861-1S65, 
and consecrate it to the hallowed memory of those who died 
in defense of the Union and Constitution, and who, their life's 
work done, lie calmly, sweetly sleeping in their silent graves 
waiting and watching with the Christian's hope for the dawn 
of resurrection morn' and the coming of Him who hath said, 
"I am the Resurrection and the T^ife." 

"And, though this granite may crumble, and their memor- 
ies be forgotten of men, their heroism, their noble deeds, the 
great work which they did for the elevation of mankind, the 
glory of their country and its free institutions, will shine and 
grow brighter as the ages pass, and their names will stand for 
all time in bold relief, in letters of unchanging lustre, upon the 
scroll of fame in the long roll of patriots who have died in de- 
fense of their country." 

Mr. Scott's address was followed by an address by Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Archibald Blakeky. Colonel Blakeley referred 



172 HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 

to the question whether the dedicatory services should have 
taken place on the Sabbath as follows : 

"What could be more conducive to high, holy and deeply 
spiritual consecration of ourselves to our duties to Almighty 
God, man, family, country and home than this meeting on this 
day and at this place? Our memories run back in hallowed 
thoughts to Sunday morning of September 20, 1863, when 
we stood upon this ground, the central point in one of the 
greatest battles of our Civil War. Can any one of us ever 
forget the awe inspiring stillness that held us spell bound from 
dawn to the first gun that awakened the opposing armies to 
action ? 

"There was silence deep as death ; 
And the boldest held his breath." 

"Can any of us fail to reflect here and now that over half 
of those who stood with us here and then, have passed from 
time to eternity? 

"Can any of us turn from the thought that we, too, will 
soon tread in their paths and vanish from the scenes of this 
life? 

"When I remember all 

The friends so linked together, 
I've seen around me fall. 

Like leaves in wintry weather; 
I feel like one who treads alone 

Some banquet hall deserted. 
Whose lights are fled, whose garlands dead, 

And all, but he, departed." 

"Comrade Scott has eloquently referred to the possible, in- 
visible presence of the spirits of our departed comrades. 

"Methinks I see Sirwell, Bonnafi^on. Jordan, Torbett, Dave 
Brinker and hosts of others, rank and file, here then, now dead, 
but we see them, greet them in this moment as of the living. 
Aye, and who of us dare hide the unbidden tears which fall 
from all eyes as we look on the sweet face of the great hearted 
and great souled. Father Christy, now, too, resting in the 
bosom of the Great Father of All. This day, this place, this 
service, and these memories, are more to me and to you than 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT F. V. I 173 




No 20 






HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 175 

the eloquence of the preacher or statehest service in vaulted 
church or towered cathedral. And how blessed we are to have 
with us in this presence, Comrades Gibson and Lusher, now 
giants in the ministry of God's Heavenly mysteries, as they 
were brave and strong in earthly battle. 

"The members of the /Sth Regiment were men of muscle, 
brain, brawn and heart. That you hewed your way through 
battle to victory is now common history. In the over three 
years you marched, camped and fought in the States of Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia, your intelligence, hu- 
manity, and gentlemanly conduct, commanded the respect of 
all citizens of these states with w^hom you became acquainted. 
The prayers of the people, black and white, followed you from 
camp to camp in all your wanderings for the help you unstint- 
edly gave to a helpless and impoverished people. If any sur- 
\-ivor or descendant or a member of the 78th will start in at 
Louisville and follow our long trail through all these states, 
he will find the latch string out and all homes open for his en- 
tertainment. 

"The monument to the 78th Regiment should have been 
on the battle field of Stone River, for there your prowess, at 
an opportune moment, turned the tide of battle and won the 
victory. 

"No state or other provision being made for the erection 
of monuments there, we seized the opportunity presented for 
the erection of the present one now being dedicated. Under 
the laws and regulations of the Chickamauga-Chattanooga Na- 
tional Military Park inscriptions on monuments erected here 
are limited to the Chickamauga-Chattanooga campaign and 
battles. 

"Therefore we have said nothing in inscription not au- 
thorized by the law under which we have our existence." 

Colonel Blakeley then proceeded to give a concise and 
comprehensive account of the part the 78th Regiment had in 
this battle, but. as this part of his address is contained in the 
official report and in other parts of this history, it is not nec- 
essary for us to quote it here. 



176 HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 

III. 

Regimental Association 

When the 78th Regiment was mustered out of the United 
States' service and the War was brought to a close, the return- 
ing soldiers were so intent on taking up their work as good cit- 
izens that they did not take into consideration the propriety 
of forming a regimental organization. As the years went by, 
it is not strange that men who had been comrades, sharing 
dangers and hardships with each other for three years, should 
begin to feel a strong and ever increasing desire to look into 
each other's faces and rehearse the past. This feeling became 
so strong and so general that in the year 1882 a number of old 
soldiers, after consultation with Colonel Sirwell, called the first 
reunion at Butler, Pa., in August of that year. 

This was the largest reunion ever held by the Regimental 
Association, Three hundred and twenty of the survivors an- 
swered to the roll call. A committee of one hundred of But- 
ler's loyal women provided an excellent dinner at Boyd's 
Grove, and eloquent addresses were made by General Negley 
and others. This reunion was very greatly enjoyed by all who 
were present. A regimental organization was effected by the 
election of Colonel Sirw^ell, president, Captain John M. 
Brinker, Robert D. Ehvood. vice-presidents, Captain C. B. 
Gillespie, treasurer, and H. H. Bengough as secretary. The 
regimental organization did not at this time adopt any formal 
constitution or by-law's. The second reunion took place at Kit- 
tanning; the third was held in Leechburg, and the fourth at 
Kittanning. 

The fifth reunion was held at Freeport, October 19th. 
1886. Extensive preparations had been made by the citizens 
of the town ; the streets were handsomely decorated with flags, 
wreaths and triumphal arches, and business was for the most 
part suspended. When this reunion took place, letters were 
read from Generals W. T. Sherman, W. S. Rosecrans, Alex- 
ander McDowell McCook and General Starkweather. The 
day was very pleasantly spent in listening to addresses and rem- 
iniscences by comrades and by friends of the Regiment. 

The sixth reunion was held in Indiana. October 4th, 1888 ; 
the seventh at Punxsutawney, October 4th. i88q; the eighth 
at Kittanning. Octol)er 30th, 1890; tlie ninth at Butler, August 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 177 

26th, 1891 ; the tenth at Verona, August 25th, 1893; the 
eleventh in Pittsburg, September I2tli, 1894. 

In 1895 the annual convention of the Grand Army of the 
Republic was held in Louisville, Kentucky, and the twelfth re- 
union of the 78th Regiment was held in Louisville, September 
1 2th, 1895. The thirteenth reunion was held on Lookout 
Alountain, Tennessee, November 13th, 1897. It seemed ap- 
propriate that the survivors of the Regiment when visiting 
Chattanooga and Chickamauga to dedicate the Regimental 
monument in Chickamauga Park should hold a reunion on the 
top of this mountain where the Regiment had encamped for 
several months. The occasion will be long remembered by 
those who participated in it. The fourteenth reunion was 
held in Punxsutawney, October 12th, 1899; the fifteenth at 
Kittanning. October 12th, 1900; the sixteenth at Kittanning 
October i8th, 1901 ; the seventeenth in Xew Bethlehem, Sep- 
tember 19th, 1902. 

L^p to this time the Regimental Association had not 
adopted any constitution or by-laws but a committee was ap- 
pointed at the meeting in New Bethlehem to draft a const iui- 
tion and by-laws. 

The minutes of a number of these meetings have been 
lost and we are not able to give a complete list of the officers 
elected at different times. Colonel William »Sirwell was the 
first president of the Association and at his death Colonel 
Archibald Blakeley was elected. Captain R. D. Elwood was 
elected to succeed Colonel Blakeley and was re-elected for sev- 
eral successive years. 

The eighteenth reunion was held in Pittsburgh in Veteran 
Legion Hall. September 17th, 1903. The Committee on Ci>n- 
stitution and by-laws reported and their report was unruii- 
mously adopted. A resolution was passed at this meeting to 
proceed at once with a preparation of the history of the Regi- 
ment as provided for by an act of the Pennsylvania Legislature, 
and a historical committee was appointed consisting of Col- 
onel Archibald Blakeley. Captain R. D. Elwood, Henry A. 
Miller, J. M. Lowry and J. T. Gibson. The nineteenth re- 
union was held in Pittsburgh in Veteran Legion Hall. Pitts- 
burg, September 24. 1904. At this meeting this Historical 
Committee reported progress, and the committee was in- 
structed to send out letters asking each comrade to advance 
two dollars in order to provide a fund to meet the expense of 
preparing the history. The committee was directed to go for- 



178 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

ward with the work at once in order to have the history com- 
pleted before the hmit fixed by the Legislature which was the 
first of June, 1905. Acting under these instructions the His- 
torical Committee decided to advance money to bear the ex- 
pense of gathering information and for stenographic services 
without sending out solicitations to the comrades of the Regi- 
ment. J. M. Lowry was asked to correspond with comrades 
and from all sources collect information necessary to write the 
history of the Regiment, and J- T- Gibson was elected his- 
torian. Soon after Comrade Lowry had entered upon his 
work, he died suddenly at his home in Allegheny City. The 
work was then taken up by the Historian, and the history has 
been prepared according to the direction of the Regimental 
Association, and has been approved by the Committee. 

IV. 

Col. Sirwell's Official Report of the Battle 
of Stone River 

Headquarters 78TH Reg. Penna. Voes., 

MUREREESBORO, JaN. 12, 1 863. 

To Lieut. Henry M. Cist, 

A. A. A. G. 3RD Brigade, 2d Division. 
Sir:— 

I have the honor of submitting the following report 
of the part taken by my Regiment m the late battles before 
Murfreesboro. Tenn. 

On the evening of December 25th, 1862, I received orders 
to have my Command in line for marching at 6 o'clock a. m., 
on the morning of the 26th inst. My Regiment was then on 
picket duty; by some mistake I was not relieved until after the 
troops of the Divisions had taken up the line of march, which 
necessarily threw me as the rear guard of a large train of 150 
wagons. We took up the line of march about 9 o'clock a. m. 
on the 26th and marched down the Franklin Pike to a given 
point, where we left the road abruptly and took a rough, coun- 
try, dirt road (which was rendered almost impassable by the 
heavy rains of the day) by way of Nolensville, for the purpose 
of striking the Murfreesboro Pike. After a tedious and toil- 
some march which was rendered so by the condition of the 
roads, we encamped about five miles from Nolensville in the 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 179 

woods. On the morning of December 27th we again took up 
the line of march by same roads and soon came to a creek or 
ravine where we w^ere detained for considerable time, on ac- 
count of the difficulty of getting the trains through. Some 
wagons had to be unloaded to render our movements as rapid 
as possible. Having got the train in line, we again started 
and marched one mile east of Nolens ville, where we encamped 
for the night, it having rained more or less all day. On the 
morning of December 28th, we again took up the line of 
march with more favorable weather and better roads. We 
marched until w^e came to wdiere our troops w^ere encamped, 
where, by your order, we bivouacked for the night on the right 
of the road, having turned over all the wagons safe to the 
proper officer, having been three days on the march from the 
time we took up the line of march until we rejoined the Com- 
mand; during our march heavy cannonading was heard on 
our right. McCook w^as engaging the enemy at Triune; on 
the morning of December 29th, we again took up the line of 
march. We proceeded some distance down the Murfreesboro 
Pike, when we turned to the right and proceeded along a 
country road for about three miles, when a sharp skirmish 
ensued between our forces and those of the enemy. We press- 
ed on. The fighting was continued between the enemy's pick- 
ets and our advance. We proceeded on for considerable dis- 
tance until w^e struck the Murfreesboro Pike near a bridge, 
w'here we met the Anderson troops. We continued on our 
march until within ten miles of Murfreesboro, where we en- 
camped for the night near a dense cedar grove on the right of 
said road. 

December 30th. The ball opened this morning. We com- 
menced shelling the enemy ; the fight of the day was principally 
with artillery; the enemy failed for a while to reply. We now 
advanced and took a position, the right of my Regiment rest- 
ing on General Palmer's left, and proceeded through the 
cedars. (Here I deployed Cos. H. and B. as skirmishers and 
A. and F. as support from my Regiment.) Our skirmishers 
were soon withdrawn to make room for Colonel Roberts' 
Command; we lay here for a while when I was ordered to 
advance and remain a picket near the edge of dense woods, 
in which position I remained until 12 p. m.. when I was re- 
lieved by 2 1 St Ohio. On the morning of December 31st, I 
advanced in my position on the right to a knoll where we lay 
down to escape the enemies' fire. The engagement commenced 



180 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

at first with skirmishing, when it increased until one deafening- 
roar of artillery and musketry was lieard on our right. The 
fighting now became desperate and lasted for considerable 
time until our right was driven back. The enemy now turned 
his attention to the center, which he had completely enfiladed. 
The engagement here was fierce and bloody. During this part 
of the engagement I received an order from some one, who,. 
I supposed, was clothed with authority, to fall back, which I 
commenced doing until otherwise ordered by Colonel Miller, 
when I resumed my first position ; here the enemy made a flank 
movement, charging up the hills. I poured a terrific volley 
into their ranks, but as soon as one man was killed, another 
took his place. The enemy made a desperate charge, with 
heads down and bayonets glistening, to the front; in falling 
back for the third time, the right of Colonel Moody's Regi- 
ment swung against my left, throwing my Regiment in con- 
fusion. I made a desperate effort to rally my men and partial- 
ly succeeded in getting the Regiment formed;. here some of 
the men, detailed from my Regiment to man a battery, cap- 
tured by the 78th at Lavergne. came and gave me information 
that the piece was captured ; I immediately sent Co. G, 78th 
Pennsylvania, to fetch the piece off the field, which they did in 
safety. At this time we received an order from Colonel Miller 
to fall back (in doing of which Captain Jack, Co. H., was 
wounded, at the head of his Command. Also Lieutenant 
Anchors, Co. E., who was taken prisoner ; we also lost 12 killed 
and many wounded), which we did fighting in retreat. We 
now retired to a hill where we reformed and received a supply 
of ammunition and then advanced to the left of the Murfrees- 
boro Pike, where we stacked arms and rested for awhile. I 
soon, however, received an order to advance again and occupy 
a position on the right of the pike as a reserve for General 
Hascall's Brigade (McCook's Corps). We lay near the knoll 
of a hill until about ten at night, when we were withdrawn 
to the foot of the hill for the purpose of kindling fires, where 
we stayed till morning. 

On the morning of January 2d, we again took our posi- 
tion as reserve to General Hascall, where we remained until 
12 m., when we were ordered to the left as a support for 
General Crittenden ; after an hour's march we took our posi- 
tion in the rear of a battery in a cornfield ; about 3 p. m. the 
enemy made his appearance and commenced a furious attack 
on General Van Cleve's division, and after a desperate strug- 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 181 

gle drove Van Cleve over the river; we now advanced in line 
until we reached a rail fence, where we gave the enemv a 
deadly volley, completely checking his advances. I now Or- 
dered my men to advance at a charge bayonet, which they 
did; some other regiment (I think the 19th Illinois), follow- 
ing after and for awhile obeying my commands. Here ihe 
78th captured a stand of colors belonging to the 20th Tenn. 
(Rebels), and three pieces of artillery which were brought off 
the field in safety. Aly Regiment was the first to cross the 
river and pursue the retreating enemy, not, however, with. nit 
being considerably scattered. We were now ordered back. 
I rallied my men on the side of the river with me, while the 
balance formed on the hill lately occupied by the enemy. I 
soon rejoined my Command and reformed my Regiment. In 
the engagement Lieutenant Halstead, Co.'K., and four privates 
were killed. We soon bivouacked for the night in the position 
where we reformed. On the morning of January 3rd, I was 
ordered to detail men to throw u]) breast-works, which was 
speedily done, and cannon planted behind them. The balance 
of the day was spent in getting ammunition and rations. We 
remained all night in the same position. About dusk, the 
enemy commenced a furious attack on our center; after a while 
the struggle was desperate. The artillery we were guarding 
sent missies of death among the enemy. I formed my Regi- 
ment in line of battle, awaiting orders, but the enemy were 
beaten and we rested on our arms. On the morning of the 
4th we took up the line of march and proceeded down the 
Murfreesboro Pike in strong force until we came to the en- 
trenchment lately occupied by the enemy, which we foimd 
deserted. Here my Regiment formed on the top of a hill out- 
side his entrenchment and rested for the night. On the morn- 
ing of January 5th, we again took up the line of march for 
Murfreesboro, which had been deserted in the evening previ- 
ous by the enemy, which we entered in triumph. And by order 
of General Negley I was appointed Provost Marshal, the 
duties of which I performed until I assumed the command of 
31st Brigade, 2d Division. 

I cannot speak too highly of the bravery of the officers 
and men of the 78th Penna. Vols., who were ready at any 
moment to obey any order. 

I would respectfully mention and call attention to the 
bravery of the following officers and men of my Regiment : 
Captain William Cummins, Co. A., whose bravery and dis- 



182 HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 

regard for his personal safety could not be excelled by any 
officer in any of the battles before Murfreesboro. Not only 
on this occasion, but Captain Cummins has discharged his 
duties as a true soldier on all occasions. He is an officer and 
gentleman in every sense of the word, and I would recom- 
mend him for promotion. Captain William S. Jack, of Co. 
H., was wounded in the thigh on Wednesday, the 31st inst., 
in the leg while leading his company. After receiving his 
wound he was carried to the rear where he obtained a horse 
and returned to his command, and took his position at the 
head of his Company, but his wound w^as so severe he had to 
retire from the field, leaving the command of his Company to 
Sergant McBride; Lieutenant William R. Maize, of Co. A., 
commanding Co. G., w^as wounded early in the fight, on Wed- 
nesday, 31st inst., and was compelled to leave the field. Of 
Captain Jack and Lieutenant Maize I cannot speak too highly. 
First Lieutenant Martin McCanna, commanding Co. B., 
was the officer in charge of the skirmishers that dealt such de- 
struction on the "Rock City Guards" — on my left the destruc- 
tive fires poured into their ranks by the skirmishers, nearly 
annihilated that regiment ; (these Rocky City Guards were 
from Nashville and have been in the Rebel service since the 
war commenced and are said to be the best troops in the 
Rebel Army.) The bravery of Lieutenant McCanna cannot 
be too highly spoken of and I would recommend him for pro- 
motion. Lieutenant Samuel N. Lee, Co. B., is a brave officer 
and did his duty well. Captain Elwood, Co. L, is a brave offi- 
cer and discharged the duties assigned him. He was seen at 
all times at the head of his Command encouraging and cheer- 
ing them on. It will be seen by the list of killed and wounded 
in his Company, that his men fell thick and fast, but still he 
exhibited that bravery becoming a soldier. 

Lieutenant Marlin, Co. A., was struck in the shoulder 
by a piece of shell; he still discharged his duties. Sergeant 
Weaver, Co. F., Acting Lieutenant, and in command of the 
Company, is a brave young officer, always at the head of his 
Company, discharging his duties until severely wounded in 
the engagement of December 31st, 1863, and was carried off 
the field. I would respectfully recommend him for promo- 
tion. Of the following named sergeants, I would respectfully 
speak: ist Sergeant Miller, Co. A. ; 2nd Sergeant John Keifer, 
Co. F.; 2nd Sergeant T. M. Bell, Co. D. ; 3rd Sergeant 
Mtu-phy, Co. L He was wounded in the Wednesday fight and 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 183 

taken prisoner, but not parolled, and is now in the hospital; 
2nd Sergeant Robert W. Smith, Co. K. ; 4th Sergeant W'il- 
ham W. Smith, Co. K., (who is now in the hospital) ; Serge- 
ant Robert W. Dinsmore, Co. K. I would respectfully recom- 
mend for promotion Sergeant Samuel Croyle, Co. G., of him I 
cannot speak too highly ; after Lieutenant Maize was wounded 
he assumed command of Co. G., and bravely led them on to 
battle. I respectfully recommend him for promotion. Ser- 
geant Hamm, of Co. C, the Color Bearer, who stoutly and 
bravely carried the Stars and Stripes to the front of his Regi- 
ment through all our trials and difficulities, as the llag will 
testify by the number of bullet holes in it; this flag was also 
torn by a piece of shell. I respectfully recommend Sergeant 
Hamm for promotion. 

1st Sergeant Samuel J. McBride, Co. H., who assumed 
command of Co. H. after Captain Jack was w^ounded, is a 
brave man and I would respectfully recommend him for pro- 
motion. 3rd Sergeant Henry A. Miller, of Co. H., of this 
young man I cannot say too much ; he is a good disciplinarian, 
kind and afifable — he is the idol of his Company, brave to a 
fault, always meets his companions in arms with a smile, al- 
ways respectful and pleasant to his superiors — never disobeys 
an order, always at his post — never absent from his Com- 
mand. In the late battles of Stone River he was always found 
in the front ranks dealing death and destruction to the enemy. 
I will not recommend him for promotion — promotion already 
awaits him. Of the privates of my Regiment who have all 
done their duty with a few^ slight exceptions, I would men- 
tion Private Hughes, Co. B., and Private Davis, of Co. I. To 
these two privates we owe the capture of the Stand of Colors 
belonging to the 26tli Tennessee (Rebel) Regiment. Private 
Davis came so close on the Color Bearer that he could not 
make his escape ; in his efforts to escape Davis shot him. At 
this time Davis and Hughes advanced together. Davis seizing 
the flag staff and Hughes the colors, attempting to tear the 
flag from the staff; in this he was prevented by some mem- 
bers of the Regiment and turned the flag over to Davis. I 
ordered the flag to the rear; this took place under my own 
eyes, and for the brave act I have appointed Hughes, Co. B.. 
and Davis, Co. I., as Sergeants. 

Of my Secretary, Alfred L. Weir, Co. F., I must not pass 
by without notice. He is an industrious young man. as all 
who have had dealings with the Regiment can testify. The 



184 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

only time he would leave his desk was when the Regiment 
was likely to have a fight. At the battles of Stone River, he 
was always by my side ready for any emergency. I bespeak 
for him higher honors than he now enjoys. 

Of Lieutenant Henry \V. Torbett, my Adjutant, a braver 
man never wore the straps of a First Lieutenant. I would re- 
spectfully recommend him for promotion. 

Of my Sergeant, Major Franklin Mechling, whom I 
have mentioned in the Reports of the Fights of Lavergne, and 
Neely's Bend, behaved himself gallantly in the battle of 
Stone's River; in the fight of Wednesday, he was struck in 
the forehead by a ball and slightly wounded ; after getting his 
wounds dressed, he returned and faithfully discharged the 
duties of his office. I would respectfully recommend him for 
promotion. Of my Major A. B. Bonnaffon, who is on Colonel 
j\.Iiller's Staff as Topographical Engineer, when not in dis- 
charge of his duties to Colonel Miller, rendered me valuable 
services. Major Bonnaffon, although a young man, is an old 
soldier with but few equals in the army; a higher position 
awaits him. 

I would respectfully say a few words in behalf of Private 
Hosack, who joined Co. G. as a private and since the Regi- 
ment entered the service, Private Hosack has been acting as 
a Private Physician for the Company of which he is a mem- 
ber. Of Dr. Hosack's services on the battle field and since the 
battle of Stone's River, the poor soldier who is now wound- 
ed or suffering from his wounds can speak. He has been and 
is all to my Regiment. 

The Rev. R. C. Christy, Chaplain of my Regiment, is 
a brave, good man, always to be found (although in fee'^'e 
health), in the middle of danger and where duty called h i. 
He has been and is of valuable service in attending to the 
sick and wounded. 

All of which is 

Respectfully submitted, 

WILLIAM SIRWELL, 
Colonel Commanding 78th Regiment Penna. Vols, 



I 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 185 

V. 

Lieut. Col. Blakeley's Official Report of Chicka- 
mauga Campaign. 

Chattanooga, Tennesset:, October ist, 1863. 
Captain Charees B. Gillespie, 

A. A. General 3RD Brigade, 

2ND Division, 14 Army Corps. 
Captain : — 

I have the honor to make the following report of the part 
taken by the 78th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry 
under my command, in the movements and actions from the 
time of leaving Cave Spring, Alabama, ist September, 1863, 
to the occupation of Chattanooga, 22nd September, 1863. 

On the evening of ist September, at dark, in obedience 
to an order from Headquarters of the Brigade, the Regiment 
under my command, marched from the encampment at Cave 
Spring, Alabama, down the Crow Creek Valley, through 
Stevenson, across the Tennessee river (at midnight), up the 
Tennessee valley to near Bridgeport, then via Moor's Springs, 
ascended the Raccoon Range of mountains and, on the even- 
ing of the 3rd, bivouacked on the summit at the side of a 
stream, running through a deep ravine, which was found to 
be impassable. Company C of my Regiment, under command 
of Lieutenant David R. Brinker, was detailed to bridge the 
ravine. The work was commenced at five o'clock in the even- 
ing, and in ten hours a bridge one hundred and sixty feet long 
and thirty-five feet high at the highest point, was completed, 
over which the 2nd (Negley's) Division and others of the 
14th Corps passed in safety. For the construction of this 
bridge Lieutenant Brinker and his command were compliment- 
ed by General Thomas in General Orders. 

On the morning of the 4th I marched from the summit 
of the Raccoon ^Mountains, descending their eastern slope and 
debouched into Lookout valley at Brown's Springs, thence up 
the valley to a mill on Lookout Creek. This mill was filled 
with wheat, corn and rye. I halted here and placed Captain 
Marlin, of Company A. in charge of the mill. We ground 
out all there was in it. We scoured Lookout valley and gath- 
ered and ground all the grain we coud find, turning the prod- 
uct over to the passing army. We also gathered and turned 



186 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

in to the troops all the cattle we could find fit for beef, tak- 
ing care to leave with each family enough grain and cattle 
for their support. 

When the army had passed we had a squad of sixteen 
men too sick to march, and we had no transportation for them ; 
I, therefore, detailed Private W. S. Hosack, of Company G, 
an excellent physician, to take charge of them and remain 
with them, leaving them tents, supplies and medicines. We 
have not heard from them, and suppose they have been cap- 
tured. Our location at the mill was very unhealthy and we 
suffered much from sickness there. We followed and passed 
the greater part of the army by the time we reached Johnston's 
Crook. We lay one night in the Crook and then crossed 
Lookout Mountain into McLemore's Cove at Stephen's Gap, 
and rested there for the night of the 9th. On the morning 
of the loth, under the belief that the enemy was in full re- 
treat, the 2nd Division moved forward on the road leading 
through Dug Gap in the Pigeon Mountains to Lafa3^ette. 
Georgia, the 3rd Brigade having the advance, my Regiment 
leading the column. Near Dug Cap, as we approached the 
Chickamauga, we came upon the enemy posted in considerable 
force at the Gap and on the line of the Chickamauga. Fall- 
ing into line my Regiment pressed forward on the left of the 
Lafayette road, crossing the Chickamauga to the left of the 
stone fences, through a field of corn, then through a dense 
forest, emerging into open fields adjoining the Widow Davis' 
house, and through these fields to the top of a high knob to 
the east of her house, dislodging and. driving the enemy as 
we advanced. From this knob I was brought back and given 
position in the woods adjoining and west of the road run- 
ning north from the house of the Widow Davis. I remained 
in this position until near dark when I was moved north west- 
wardly three-fourths of a mile, and assigned a position in the 
woods, my front to the north. Soon after midnight, I was 
moved an eighth of a mile southwesterly and posted in a dense 
undergrowth, my front to the north. This movement of my 
Regiment, as well as that of the whole brigade, made at that 
time, was so quietly executed that our pickets did not know 
of it until morning. Early in the morning of the nth a vig- 
orous attack was made on that part of the division fronting 
east by the enemy, then occupying the hills we had held the 
(lay before. This attack was evidently made to cover our at- 
tack on my front, which was commenced at 10 a. m. by a 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 187 

line of skirmishers, followed by a line of siiarp shooters cov- 
ering infantry, deployed and massed, at least four regiments. 
My skirmish line consisting of eight non-commissioned offi- 
cers and sixty men under command of Lieutenants David R. 
Brinker and James H. Anchors, all under command of Ma- 
jor A. B. Bonnaffon, held this force in check for four hours, 
with the exception that about half past twelve the nth Michi- 
gan, on my left, and the 74th Ohio, on my right, were with- 
drawn leaving my flanks exposed when they were swung back 
to a better position. Major Bonnaffon and Lieutenants Brinker 
and Anchors and the men under their command deserve hon- 
orable mention for the work of this day. At 2 p. m. General 
Starkweather relieved me when I was ordered to fall back to 
General Xegley's headquarters west of the creek. From Gen- 
eral Negley's headquarters I again crossed the Chickamauga 
at the same place I did the day before, deployed and skirmished 
through the corn field, but finding no enemy I was w'ithdrawn 
and supported Captain Shultz' battery then in action on the 
hill on the north side of the road we^t of the Whice house. 
From the latter position I fell back by your order to the foot" 
of Lookout Mountain, where we arrived at dark, the enemy 
pressing us closely during the movement. I lay at the foot of 
Lookout mountain from the evening of the nth to the morn- 
ing of the 17th behind a rudely constructed breast w^orks. On 
the 17th the march was resumed in a northeasterly direction, 
and at evening I halted on ground occupied by a portion of 
General Crittenden's corps, where I remained until the even- 
ing of the 1 8th. and then was moved eastward two miles and 
halted until midnight, then countermarched one mile and. de- 
ploying my Regiment as skirmishers, wnth C and H Companies 
in reserve, moved south to the north bank of the Chickamauga. 
I w^as informed by Captain Johnston, of General Negley's staff, 
that the enemy was in force on the opposite side, and it was 
apprehended that he might attempt to cross to strike the flank 
of General AlcCook's corps, then moving into position to my 
rear, on its hard march from Alphine. On the morning of 
the 19th, by personal examination. I found that I held about 
one mile of the Chickamauga. including two fords. Both sides 
of the stream w^ere covered by trees and undergrowth. I felled 
trees into the fords. Captain Ayres reconnoitered the front 
and, by keeping up a bold appearance, we were unmolested. 
and when the corps of General McCook had passed we fol- 
lowed him to rejoin the brigade then north of Crawfish 



188 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

Springs. In moving north to the brigade we passed a part 
of the line where the division of General Jeti'erson C. Davis 
was engaged in a sanguinary conflict with the enemy. We 
passed under the rebel Are while the roar of the battle and 
the sight of the wounded, bleeding and mangled, I feared, 
might make even the heroes of Stone River quail. Some were 
cheerful, others quiet and' meditative, but determination was 
pictured on each brow which satisfied me that there would be 
no flinching on the part of the 78th Regiment. 

We found the Brigade in' line north of Crawfish Springs, 
the 2ist Ohio well advanced, engaging the enemy in the woods 
at the eastern edge of a large field. I was ordered to cross 
this field to a position on the left of the 21st Ohio. We at- 
tained our position under a raking fire, but found that we 
could not successfully return the fire, as the enemy was con- 
cealed in the woods on high ground in our front, and, being 
without sufficient support to charge, I ordered the men to lie 
down until needed. \Ve lay on our arms under a heavy fire 
until after dark with little damage, but the 21st Ohio suffered 
severely. About dark a terrific musketry engagement took 
place on our left front. After dark T moved to the right 
of the Brigade and threw out pickets covering my front and 
uniting with the pickets of the 37th Indiana on my left and 
the pickets of Colonel Wilder's mounted brigade on my right. 
In this position we lay on our arms the night of the 19th. On 
the morning of the 20th Colonel Wilder's pickets were with- 
drawn, and I immediately fell southward as far as I sould 
safely go and found no one to connect with, which fact wa'^ 
at once reported to Colonel Sirwell commanding the Brigade 
Soon after the commencement of the battle of the 20th, I dis- 
covered the enemy massing troops in the woods on my righ' 
front, and, reporting this to the Brigade Commander, twr^ 
pieces of artillery were sent to my aid and a breast work o^ 
old logs thrown up by my Regiment. About 11 a. m. our 
whole division moved V-^ the lefl;. Icr.virxg this line unoccupiec. 
Our new position was on the foot hills about one mile frorr. 
the position we held in the morning. As we marched from 
our first to our second position, I saw the enemy break through 
the line we had held in the morning, and this enabled him to 
cut off the right wing of our army, which produced the great 
disaster of the day. In our formation on the foot hills, the 
37th Indiana was on my left and the 21st Ohio on my right. 
I was moved forward to support Captain Bridge's Chicago 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 189 

Battery, then in action on the crest of the hill near a small 
house used as a hospital. I deployed my Regiment on the 
brow of the hill in front of and below the battery, the gun- 
ners firing over us. We defended the battery for awhile, when 
it ceased firing and moved to the rear without indicating to me 
what its orders were. Soon after the battery left there was 
a lull in the battle in our immediate neighborhood, but the 
firing on the left was heavy and on our right irregular and 
passing to our rear. The position of the battery was an ad- 
vanced one, and I did not connect with other troops by either 
Hank, and, in fact, after the battery left, I could see no Union 
troops anywhere except those of my own Regiment. I di- 
rected Major Bonnaffon to take command until my return, 
and I rode back to where I had parted company with the 37th 
Indiana and the 21st Ohio. They were gone and, so far 3.9^ 
I could see, our whole line was gone and the right — McCook 
and Crittenden — all broken up. I returned to the Regiment 
and found the enemy closing in on it. Placing Major Bon- 
naffon in charge of the skirmishers to protect the movement, 
we marched to the rear, and the enemy, although in over- 
whelming numbers, did not follow but a short distance. About 
800 to 1,000 paces from our position with the battery we 
found General Negley alone. He posted us in a ravine or 
hollow between two foot hills, running down towards the 
Chickamauga, with orders to prevent the enemy at all haz- 
zards from breaking through a chasm or gap in the hill on the 
south of the ravine. I massed the Regiment in the ravine 
or hollow in front of the gap and Major Bonnaffon deploved 
two companies over the hill covering our front. He soon 
called for me and I rode forward and found that our position 
was concealed from the enemy by underbrush, but from the 
foot of the hill to the Chickamauga. a hundred rods or mere, 
the land was clear and a column of rebel troops, at least a 
division, were moving over this field westwardly across our 
front, evidently unaware of our presence. Major Bonnaffon 
was anxious to charge them. We might have driven them 
for the time being, but we would have been ultimately lost 
as we were without support. Returning to the Regiment I 
did not know what to do. We knew, as vet, nothing about 
the lines or the condition of the battle. We knew that the 
right was broken and that was all. To follow the sound of 
the battle on our left would probably lead us into the rear 
of the Rebel Army, where superior numbers would destroy 



190 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

US. I was about to go forward again to ^Major Bonnaffon to 
consider again the proposition to charge on the troops below 
us, when I noticed a mounted officer well up on the hill north 
of us. He approached us cautiously until he recognized us 
and then came down rapidly. He was one of General Thomas' 
Staff Officers. He asked why we were there and who put us 
there. I told him. He communicated the fact of the loss of 
the right wing. He stated that Thomas had the only line 
I'lnbroken, and he was fighting away for dear life a mile anc 
a half north east of us. 

The only possible way for us to get in was to strike for 
the Dry Valley Road. He gave me the directions and ordered 
me to go, and left to find a way to his chief. We set out on 
the line indicated, Major Bonnaffon covering the movement 
with his skirmishers. The march being difficult and the dan- 
ger imminent I have no correct data of time or distance, but 
we found the Dry Valley Road, and it, and indeed the whole 
valley, were filled with a struggling mass of stragglfcics, bat- 
teries, wagons, ambulances and troops of all arms, on a stam- 
pede for Chattanooga and pressed by the enemy's cavalry'. 
Dividing my command with Major Bonnaffon, he threw his 
skirmish line to the rear of the broken column, between it and 
the enemy, and I moved rapidly down to near Rossville, and 
placing the Regiment across the valley we passed to Chatta- 
nooga, all ambulances with wounded, all wagons and many 
wounded on foot with the necessary assistance. We halted all 
unhurt troops and stragglers. We halted batteries and parts 
of batteries and ambulances not carrying wounded. I was 
informed that by nightfall we had halted seven batteries and 
about five thousand men wdiich were all reorganized that night 
and ready for action next morning. Colonel Sirwell, com- 
manding the Brigade, came to us at Rossville an hour later, 
when I reported to him. On Monday, the 21st, I occupied 
six different positions, the last of which was on and across 
Missionary Ridge on the left of your Brigade and uniting 
with the right of General Beatty's Brigade. I was assigned 
to this position at 12 m., and directed to take orders from 
General Beatty. That portion of the Ridge which General 
Beatty and I held being covered with a dense forest, the Gen- 
eral ordered a reconnoisance to the front. I sent out Captain 
Ayres for that purpose, who went a mile south along the top 
of the Ridge, carefully noting the topography of the country, 
location of fields, etc. For this, as well as for the reconnoi- 



I 



HISTORY AND ROSTER TSth REGIMENT P. V. I. 191 

sance, of the 19th, Captain Ayres deserves great credit for 
the valuable information obtained and the discretion display- 
ed in obtaining it. The night of the 21st I fell back with 
the general movement of the Army to Chattanooga. In this 
movement I was placed in command of the Brigade and Major 
Bonnaffon commanded the Regiment until after the formation 
of the lines for the defense of Chattanooga, 

During the movements and actions described, the 78th 
Regiment was never for an instant broken. In the trying 
scenes at Dug Gap and Chickamauga and in the retreat on 
Sunday evening, when batteries, wagons, stragglers and 
wounded filled the Dry Valley in a pell mell race for Chatta- 
nooga, the 78th Regiment moved as calmly and with as much 
precision as on dress parade. From Cave Spring to Chatta- 
nooga but one man lett the ranks without leave. Every order 
was executed to the letter, and. when by the casualties of 
the day, we were left without orders we did the best we could, 
but, with the help of INIajor Bonnaffon and Adjutant Torbetl 
it was not hard to steer clear of mistakes. 

To you personally and to Colonel Sirwell my thanks are 
due for the plain common sense manner in which your orders 
were given. 

ARCHIBALD BLAKELEY, 

Lieutenant Colonel Commanding 
78th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 



192 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

VI. 

Origin of this Regimental History 

The General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania in session in 1903, passed an act authorizing the pur- 
cliase of historical works relative to the service of Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers during the late Civil War, which was signed 
by the Governor and reads as follows : 

Section i. Be it enacted, &c., That whenever, after the 
passage of this act, any regiment or battery, or other unit 
of military organization of Pennsylvania Volunteers, shall 
publish or shall have prepared for publication a history of such 
organization, under the sanction and authority of its proper 
veteran organization, which history shall be shown to the sat- 
isfaction of the Governor, Auditor-General and Adjutant- 
General, so far as it is practicable in such works faithfully 
and accurately prepared and historically correct, to be of 
sufficient reliability and importance to justify the purchase of 
copies as herein provided for, and to contain a complete roster 
of the organization, corrected to the date of publication, and 
the Secretary of the Commonwealth, with the approval of the 
Governor, Auditor-General and Adjutant General, and at a 
price fixed by them, shall purchase four hundred copies of such 
history, the price thereof not to exceed two dollars per copy : 
Provided, That the total amount expended during the two 
fiscal years beginning June first, one thousand nine hundred 
and three, shall not exceed the sum of ten thousand dollars. 
The said appropriation to be paid upon warrants drawn by the 
Secretary of the Commonwealth, countersigned by the Audi- 
tor-General. 

Section 2. The volumes purchased, as aforesaid, shall 
be distributed as follows : One copy to the office of the Secre- 
tary of the Commonwealth, one to the office of the Adjutant 
General, one to the library of each college in the State, one 
to each Historical Society in the State, one to the library of 
Congress, and one to the library of each State and Territory of 
the Union; the balance to be placed in the State Library of 
Pennsylvania, for the purpose of exchange. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 193 

Section 3. That the State Treasurer of this Common- 
wealth be and is authorized to make all payments out of such 
money in the Treasury as is not otherwise appropriated. 

Approved the 13th day of April, A. D., 1903. 

Samuel W. Pennypacki-r. 

The Regimental Association of the 78th Regiment Penn- 
sylvania Volunteer Infantry, at its i8th Reunion in Veteran 
Legion Hall, Pittsburg, Pa.. Sept. 17, 1903, unanimou-^ly 
adopted a resolution to prepare a history of the regiment ac- 
cording to the provision of this act. A historical committee, 
consisting of Lieutenant Archibald Blakeley, Captain R. D. 
Elwood, Henry A. Miller, J. M. Lowry and Joseph T. Gibson, 
was appointed to take charge of the work. 

At the 19th Reunion of the Regimental Association the 
Historical Committee reported progress, and was continued 
with instructions to have the historv completed before the first 
of June, 1905, the limit fixed by the act of the Legislature. 
The committee employed J. j\L Lowry to collect material for 
the history, and J. T. Gibson was elected historian to edit the 
history under the direction of the committee. 

It having been decided that the history of the 78th Regi- 
ment should include the history of both the first and second 
oranizations. Captain Graham and other members of the 
second organization were invited to confer with the commit- 
tee, and they accepted the invitation. 

Soon after the work began J. M. Lowry died suddenly, 
and the whole matter was placed in the hands of the histor- 
ian, who proceeded at once to gather the materials and pi'e- 
pare the history. The work was completed in May, 1905, and 
a copy was sent to the Commission. In the meantime the 
appropriation had been exhausted, and a similar act had been 
passed by the Legislature of 1904-5, and the time was ex- 
tended. 

Proceeding under the direction of this latter act the his- 
tory has been prepared and approved by the Historical Com- 
mittee. The committee reported to the 20th Reunion of the 
Regimental Association at Ford City, October 12th, 1905, 
and its report was unanimously approved, and the committee 
discharsred. 



194 HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 

Captain R. D. Elvvoocl was elected treasurer of the His- 
torical Funds of the Regimental Association, and was di- 
rected to receive and disburse all moneys of the Association 
in connection with the publishing of this history. 

The history was submitted to the Commission of the State, 
comprising Governor Samuel W. Pennypacker, Adjutant-Gen- 
eral Thomas J. Stewart and Auditor General William P. Sny- 
der, and was approved Oct. 27, 1905. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



VII. 



Regimental Roster 



First Organization, Field and Staff Officers 

Date of Muster 
Name— Rank into Service Remarks 

William Sirwell, Col Oct. 18, '61. . .Resigned Nov. 17, 1863— recommissloB 

Mar. 9, 1864— discharged Nov. 4, 1864— ( 

piration of term. Died at Kittanning, 1 
Archibald Blakeley, Lt. Col. Oct. 18, '61. .. Resigned April 8, 1864. 
Aug. B. Bonnaffon, Lt. Col. Oct. 18. '61. . .Promoted from Maj. to Lt. Col., July 25, 18 

to Col., Mar. 26, 1865— discharged Dec. 

1865. Died at 

Joseph W. Powell. Adj Oct. 18, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 14, 1864— expiration 

term. 

Adam Lowry, Q. M Oct. 18, '65... Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 28, 186 

Thos. G. Blakeley, H. S Oct. 18, '61. .. Promoted to Quarter Master Nov. 1, 1865 

discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration 

term. 

John I. Marks, Surg Oct. 18, '61. . .Resigned August 30, 1862. 

John McGrath, Surg Apr. 14, '62. . .Resigned June 23, 1863. 

Jos. B. Downey, Asst. Surg. Aug. 2, '62. . .Promoted from Asst. Serg., 77th Reg. P. ' 

May 31, 1863— resigned Apr. 5, 1864. 
Wm. D. Bailey, Asst. Surg. Mar. 14, '63. . .Promoted from Asst. Serg. July 26, 186^ 

discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration 

term. 
Wm. M. Knox, Asst. Surg... Oct. 18, '61. . . Accidently killed at Louisville, Ky., Apr. 

1862. 
Elijah W. Ross, Asst. Surg. May 16, '62. . .Resigned Jan. 13, 1863. 
Victor D. Miller, Asst. Surg. Aug. 1, '62. . .Resigned Mar. 9. 1863. 
W.P.McCullouch, Asst. Surg. Apr. 11, '63. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration of ter 

Richard C. Christy, Chap Oct. 18, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration of ter 

Henry A. Miller, Sr. Maj. ... Oct. 12, '61. . .Promoted from Serg., Co. H, Feb. 18, 186; 

discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration 

term. 
Franklin Mechling, S. Maj. Oct. 18, '61. . .Promoted to 2d Lt., Co. B, Dec. 26, 18G2. Di 
Lewis Martin, Q. M. S Oct. 18, '61. . .Promoted from Private, Co. E, Mar. 1, 186J 

discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration 

term. 
John N. M'Leod, Q. M. S. .. Oct. 18, '61. . .Transferred as Private to Co. G, Mar. 1, ' 
Wm. J. Williams, Q. M. S. ....Oct. 18, '61. . .Promoted from Q. M. Serg. to Com. Se 

May 1, 1862— to 2d Lt Co. G, April 24, 18 



196 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name— Rank 
Benjamin F. Dean, PI. Muc. 



Qua. Wlckenhacken, PI. Muc. Oct. 12, '61. 



William H. Jack, PI Muc. 
A. M. Bamaby, Hos. St. ., 



Jos. M. Lowry, Com. Sr. 



Date of Muster 

into Service Remarlis 

Oct. 12, '61... Promoted from Private, Co. H, Feb. 1, 1864— 

discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of 

term. 
Promoted from Private, Co. K, Mar. 17, 1864 

— discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of 

term. 
Oct. 18, '61... Discharged February 22, 1863. 
Oct. 12, '61... Promoted from Private, Co. K, Nov. 1, 1863 

— mustered out Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of 

term. 
Oct. 12, '61... Promoted from Private, Co. D, Apr. 25, 1864 

— discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration ol 

term. 



Company A 



William Cummins, Capt. 
John M. Marlin, Capt. . , 



William R. Maize, 1st Lt. 



Evan Lewis, 2d Lt 

James M. Miller, 1st Serg. 
J. Thompson Gibson, Serg. 



Wm. A. Millen, Serg. ... Oct. 12. '61. 

David A. Rankin, Serg. ... Oct. 12, '61, 

Samuel Fleming, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

David Blue, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

William Garrett, Segt Oct. 12, '61. 

Daniel Bothell, Segt Oct. 12, '61 . 

William Thomas, Corp. , 



Oct. 12, '61 ... Resigned Aug. 1, 1863. 

Oct. 12, '61.. .Wounded at Stone River, Tennessee, Dec. 31, 
1862— promoted from 1st Lt, Sept. 1, 1863 
discharged Nov. 1, 1864 — expiration ot 
term. 
Oct. 12, '61. . .Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 
1862— promoted from 2d Lt. Sept. 1, 1863 
discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration ot 
term. 
Oct. 12, '61. . .Promoted from Serg. Sept. 1, 1863— discharg- 
ed Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration ot 

term. 
Oct. 12, '61... Wounded at New Hope Church, Ga., May 27, 
1864— discharged Dec. 28, to date Nov. 4. 
1864 — expiration of term. 
. See new regiment. 
.Promoted from Corp. to Serg. Oct., 1862^ 

Vet. (See 2d organization). 
. Promoted from musician Jan. 1, 1862 — dis- 
charged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
. Promoted from Corporal Sept. 1, 1863 — dis- 
charged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate Mar. 21, 
1863. 
Oct. 12, 61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



IJ 



Date of Muster 
Name— Rank Into Service Remarks 

George Adams, Corp Oct 12, '61. . .Wounded in action June 27, 1864— discharge 

Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
William Fleming, Corp Oct. 12. '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 18C4— expiration ( 

term. Died at Oil City Aug. 23. 1902. 
Samuel L. Serene, Corp. ... Oct. 12, '61... Promoted to Corp. Jan. 1, 18G2— discharge 

Nov. 4, 18C4 — expiration of terra. 
John Stauffer, Corp Oct. 12, '61. . .Promoted to Corp. Sept. 1, 18C3— discharge 

Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
Archibald M'Brler, Corp. ... Oct 12, '61. . .Promoted to Corp. Feb. 1, 1864— discharge 

Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
Lorenzo D. Bigelow, Corp. . Oct 12, '61. ..Promoted to Corp. Oct, 1862— discharge 

Oct 12, 1864— expiration of term. Die 

Indiana County. No date. 
George C. Foy, Corp Oct 12, '61. . .Promoted to Corp. Oct, 1862— captured— die 

at Richmond, Va., Nov. 19, 1863. 
John M. Brown, Corp Oct 12, '61.. .Transferred to Vet Reserve Corps. Jan. 3 

1864. 
William W. Bell, Corp Oct 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate Mar. 2 

1863. 
James Carroll, Corp Oct 12, '61.. .Died Jan. 4, 1863, of wounds received i 

Stone River, Tenn. 
John F. Rankin, Muc Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 12, 1864 — expiration < 

term. 
John G. Webb, Muc Mar. 4, '62. ..Discharged — expiration of term See 2d Or; 

Adams, John L Private Oct 12, '61. . .Transferred to Signal Corps Oct 22. 1863 

Aden, Chas. R do... Oct 12, '61... Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 5, 1864, ( 

wounds received at New Hope Church. Gi 

— grave 785. 
Ballentine, Theo. J ... do... Oct 12, '61.. .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864_expiration of tern 
Bryan, Nathaniel S. . . . do... Oct 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of tern 
Beltz, Andrew J do. . .Oct 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration ( 

term. 

Byers, Daniel do... Oct 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of tern 

Buchanan, James do. . .Oct 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of torn 

Baylor, Leander do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to 4th U. S. Cavalry Deo. 

1862. 

Currie, Geo. F do... Oct 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of tern 

Campbell, John O do... Oct 12. '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of torn 

Conway, John do... Oct 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate June 2; 

1862. Dec'd. 
Campbell, Jas do... Oct 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate Mar. 2; 

1SG3. 
Cochran, William do... Oct 12, '61... Died Mar. 20, 1863, of wounds received b 

Stone River. Tenn. 
Clowes, David do. . .Sept 10, '62. .. (See Second Organization.) 



198 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name Rank 

Carnahan, James Private 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Crooks, Jos. M. 



.do.. 



Dickie, William H do. 

Devlin, John do . 

Devlin, Jas. R do. 

Fleming, Thos. M do. 

Graham, Wm, W do. 

Gibson, Wm. R. do. 

Gibson, Andrew do. 

Guthrie, Jas. A do. 

Graden, Jas. M do. 

Hall, James do. 

Hillberry, Martin do.. 

Hefelfinger, John do. 



Helman, George do. . . Oct. 12, '61 



Huffman, John A do.. 

Harman, Philip do . . 

Huffman, John F do.. 

Jewart, Robert do.. 

Kelley, Porter do . . 

Kirkpatrick, R. B do.. 

Kirkpatrick, J. H do.. 

Knaff, Henry do . . 

Kunkle, Philip do . . , 

Kerr, Thos. C do.. 



Kelley, Thompson do. . .Oct. 12, '61 



Lewis, Joshua do.. 

Lewis, Joshua P do.. 

Lewis, Wm. T do . . 

Lewis, John do... 

Lewis, Samuel do... 

Lawson, Wesley do.. 



Remarks 
Aug. 28, 62... Died at Stone River, Tenn., Feb. 11, 1863— 

grave 128. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 5, 1862— Bu. in 

Nat. Cemetery, Sec. A, range 5, grave 18. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Transferred to Signal Corps Jan. 26, 1864. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Died at Camp Negley, Ky., Dec. 4, 186L 
.Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 4, 1862. 
.Oct. 12, '61.. .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Oct. 12, '61. ..Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Mar. 31, '64... (See Second Organization.) 
.Oct. 12, '61... Died at Stone River, Tenn., of wounds re- 
ceived in battle Jan. 23, 1861 — grave 241. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 1, 1862. 
• Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Oct 12, '61. ..Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate Dec. 19, 
1862. 
.Died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 31, 1861 — buried 
in National Cem., Sec. A, range 5, grave 13. 
.Died at Nashville Tenn., Jan. 13, 1864. 
.Prisoner from Sept. 20, 1863, to Dec. 10, 1864 

—Vet. 
.Died at Jeffersonville, Ind., Dec. 27, 1864— 
buried in Nat. Cem., Sec. 1, grave 123. 
Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Transferred to Vet. Res. Corps — date un- 
known. 
.(See Second Organization.) 
Oct. 12, '61... Killed at New Hope Church, Ga., May 27, 
1864. 
.Died at Louisville, Ky., April 6, 1863, of 
wounds received at Stone River, Tenn. — 
buried in Nat. Cemetery, Sec. B, Range 8, 
grave 38. 
.Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
Aug. 5, '62... (See Second Organization.) 
Aug. 5, '62... (See Second Organization.) 
.Oct. 12, '61... Transferred to Signal Corps, Oct. 22, 1863. 



.Oct. 12, '61. 
.Oct. 12, '61. 

Feb. 29, '64. 



.Oct. 12, '61. 
.Oct. 12, '61., 
.Jan. 5, '64. 

Sept. 10, '62., 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name 
Little, James . 



Rank 
Private 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Lewis, Jno. C. 



Luckhart, John, Corp 

Moore, Martin 

Marlin, Franklin . . . 



..do... Oct. 12, '61. 



Private 
...do.. 



Moorehead, Wm. L. 
Mahan, Ebenezer . . 

M'Elroy, David W. 
M'Farland, Wm. T. 



M'Lean, Jas. D. . 
M'Gaughey, G. W 
M'Swiney, Peter 
M'Henry, R. H. . 
Neal, Albert J. . 
Palmer, Jefferson 
Palmer, Geo. C. . 
Rarah, Daniel B. 
Rarah, Jas. B. . 
Rankin, David K. 
Repine, Israel . . 
Rupp, Nathaniel 



Reprogle, John do . 

Richie, Ephraim N do. 

Robinson, J. H do. 

Rowland, Isaac do . 



Rupp, Adam do . . 

Stewart, John R do.. 

Stear, John K Private 

Shetler, John do . . 

Simpson, Henry M do.. 

Simpson, Chas. C do.. 

Schreckongaster, C do.. 

Sheesley, Amos do. . . 



Remarks 
Oct. 12, '61... Killed at New Hope Church, Ga.. May 2 

1864. 
Died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 15, 1863 — buri< 

in Nat. Cemetery, Sec. B, Range 16, Grai 
• 29. 
Oct. 12, '61... /eteran (See Second Organization). 
Oct. 12, *61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration of ten 
.Oct. 12, '61... Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Fe 

20th, 1864. Died at Salina, Kansas. I> 

date. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 3, 1863. 
.Oct. 12, '61.. .Killed at New Hope Church, Ga., May 2 

1864. 
Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 18' 

— discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration i 

term. 
Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of ten 

Died at Dayton. No date. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of ten 
.Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of ten 
.Aug. 28, '62... (See Second Organization.) 
.Oct. 12, '61... Transferred to Signal Corps, Oct. 22, 1863 
.Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., April 13, 1863. 
.Oct. 12, '61.. .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of ten 
.Oct. 12, '61... Transferred to 4th U. S. Cav., Dec. 1, 1862. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of ten 
.Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of ten 
.Oct 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of ten 
.Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of ten 
.Oct. 12, '61... Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Jan. 2, 18i 

— discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration < 

term. 
.Oct. 12, '61. . .Veteran (See Second Organization). 
.Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Aug. 2 

1863. 
.Oct. 12, '61.. .Veteran. Died in Kansas. No date. 
.Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate June 2 

1863. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 18, 1864. 
.Oct. 12, '61. . .Veteran (See Second Organization). 
Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration of ten 
Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration of ten 
.Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration of ten 
Oct. 12, '61.. .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of ten 
.Feb. 27. '64... Veteran (See Second Organization). 
Apr. 8, '63... (See Second Organization.) 



.do. 
.do. 



.do... Oct 12, '61. 



.do... Oct 12, '61. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
• do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



200 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name Rank 

Smith. Samuel Private 

Shields, Joseph do.. 

Smail, Peter do. . 

Turney, Peter do. . 

Thome, James do.. 

Uneapher, Joseph do. . 

Umbaugh, John do . . 

Wadding, John H do.. 

Wallace, Abraham do.. 

Wentzel, Robert E. ...do.. 
Wagoner, Jeremiah ....do... 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarks 



Sept. 3, '63. . .Veteran (See Second Organization). 

.Oct. 12, '61... Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Aug. 6, 

1863. 
Sept. 10, '62.. .(See Second Organization.) 

• Apr. 9, '61. ..Veteran (See Second Organization). 
.Aug. 19, '62... (See Second Organization.) 

.Oct. 12, '61.. .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Oct. 12, '61. ..Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Mar. 28, '64. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Sept. 19, 
1864— Vet. 

• Sept. 10, '62... (See Second Organization.) 

.Oct 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 27, 1862. 



Company B 



Jas. S. Hilberry, Capt Aug. 

Martin, M'Canna, Capt Aug. 

Samuel N. Lee, 1st Lt Aug. 

Jos. B. M'Nabb, 1st Serg Oct. 

Jas. B. Fleming, 2d Serg Oct. 

David K. Thompson, Serg. ...Oct. 

Franklin Croll, Serg Oct. 

A. D. Glenn, Serg Oct. 

Wash. C. Patrick, Serg Oct. 

John M. Fleming, Serg Jul. 

Geo. A. Watson, Serg Oct. 

Patrick Shaner, Serg Oct. 

Phillip Smith, Corp Oct. 

Daniel H. Barnett, Corp Oct. 

James Moorhead, Corp Oct 

Archibald Allen, Corp Oct. 



14, 


'61 


14, 


'61 


14. 


'61 


12, 


'61 


12, 


'61 


12, 


'61 


12, 


'61 



12, 'fil. 



12, '61. 

20, '63. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 



.Resigned Dec. 25, 1862. 

.Promoted from 1st Lt, Dec. 26, 1862— dis- 
charged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 

.Promoted from 2d Lt, Dec. 26, 1862— dis- 
charged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 

.Discharged by order of War Dept, Aug. 26, 
1862. 

.Promoted from Serg. Aug. 29, 1862— dis- 
charged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 

.Promoted from Corp. Apr. 30, 1862— dis- 
charged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 

.Promoted to Corp., Oct 31, 1861— to Serg. 
July 1, 1863— discharged Nov. 4, 1864— ex- 
piration of term. 

.Promoted to Corp., June 30, 1862— to Serg., 
Jan. 12, 1864— discharged Nov. 4, 1864— ex- 
piration of term. 

.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18, 1864. 

.Died at Camp Wood, Ky., June 27, 1862. 

• Died at Putneyville, Pa., July 1st, 1864. 

.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Promoted to Corp. June 26, 1863 — discharged 
Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 

.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jan. 28, 
1862. 

.Promoted to Corp. Dec. 11, 1863 — discharged 
Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Name— Rank 

William M'Canna, Corp Oct. 12, '61 



Jas. S. Craft, Corp Oct. 12, '61. 

John B. Adams, Corp Oct. 12, '61. 

Wm. B. Irwin, Corp Feb. 2, '64. 

C. O. Hammond, Corp Aug. 25, '62. 

Wm. L. Hughes, Corp Feb. 2, '64. 

Geo. J. Reese, Corp Feb. 1, '64. 

Mark Sullivan, Corp Feb. 12, '61. 

William Mathews, Corp Oct 12, '61. 

ft Patrick Boyle, Corp Oct. 12, '61. 

I John Gates, Muc Oct. 22, '61. 

Dennis Golden, Muc Mar 1, '62. 

fl Allen, Robert M. . . . Private Oct. 12, '61. 

I Alcorn, Jesse do... Oct. 13, '61. 



Adams, Thos. B. 



Allen, Chas do . 

Adam, George do . 

Beal, Peter do . 



Remarks 

.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jan. 

1862. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. 

1863. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Apr, 

1863. 
.Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet 
.Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
.Transferred Co. A., Oct., 1864. 
.Promoted to Qr. M. Serg., Apr. 1, 1865— "V 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Died Jan. 16, 1863, of wounds received 
action. 

.Transferred to 15th Reg. U. S. A. 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration of U 
.Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
.Promoted to Corp., June 30, 1862 — dischai 

Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 

Died Dec. 1, 1899. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Dec. 
1863. 
Aug. 1, '62... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18. 1864. 
Oct. 12, '61... Died at Camp Negley, Ky., Dec. 8, 1861. 
Feb. 27, '64.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1 



.do... Oct. 12, '61. 



Bell, William do... Oct 12. '61., 



.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1865 — expiration of te 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
.Died Feb. 27, 1862. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 

1862. 
.Discharged Mar. 13, 1865 — expiration of te 
Aug. 25, '63... Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18, 1864. 
Sept 25, '63... Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18. 1864. 

..Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, June 

1863. 
. . Died at Munfordsville, Ky., Feb. 22, 1862. 
. .Died at Louisville, Ky., Mar. 15, 1862— bur 
in Nat. Cemetery, Sec. A, Range 18, Gr 
5. 
...do... Oct 12, '61... Died at Louisville, Mar. Ifi. 1S6?— h-Tipd 
Nat. Cemetery, Sec. A, Range 21, Grave 

-Bear, Geo do... Oct 12, '61... Died at Chattanooga. Tenn., Nov. 16, 186 

Grave 223. 



Bayne, John do. 

Burket, Henry do.. 

Brink, Andrew do. 

Black, Jos. M do. 

Black, Sam'l C do. 

Burdett, Jas do. . 

Bowser, Matthias A. ...do.. 

Best, Michael B do.. 

4, Bumbaugh, Frederick ..do.. 
Bier, Peter do.. 



.Oct 12, '61.. 
.Oct. 12, '61., 
.Oct 12, '61.. 
.Oct 12, '61.. 
.Oct 12, '61.. 
.Oct 12, '61.. 

.Mar. 4, '62.. 



.Aug. 14, '61. 



Black, Sam'l C do... Oct 12, '61. 

Burket, John do.. .Oct 12, '61. 



1. Branthoover, Daniel 



202 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name Rank 

Dowan, A. J Private Oct. 12 

Doverspike, Geo do . . . Oct. 12 

Downey, Jas do. . . Dec. 25 

Doverspike, Daniel do . . . Aug. 25 

Dibler, Elias do... Oct. 12 

Dinger, Amos do... Aug. 25 

Ellenberger, Levi do... Oct. 12 

Fiscus, Abraham K do... Oct. 12 

Fiscus, Jas. A do... Oct. 12 

Fulton, Samuel T do . . . Aug. 14 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Fetter, Henry 



.do... Oct. 12 



Fowser, Edward 


...do. 


.Feb. 28, 


'G4. 


Glenn, Abraham R, . 


...do. 


.Oct. 12, 


•61. 


Gamble, Robert 


...do. 


.Oct. 12, 


'61. 


Graham, Samuel 


...do. 


.Oct. 12, 


'61. 


Glenn, Elijah C. T. . . 


...do.. 


.Aug. 14, 


'61. 


Guthrie, Jas. D 


...do. 


.Aug. 25, 


'62. 


Gamble, "Wm 


...do. 


.Oct. 12, 


'61. 



Gilchrist, John do... Oct. 12 

Hendricks, Elias do. 

Himes, Matthew do. 

Himes, Jos do . 

Hinies, Solomon do. 

Holbin, Jacob do . 

Haynes, Solomon do. 

Himes, Jacob do . 

Himes, Israel do. 

Hindman, M'Clelland ...do. 

Hinshaw, Elias H do... Oct. 12 

Hobbin, Solomon do... Oct. 12 

Henry, Ebenezer do... Oct. 12 



Johnson, Andrew 



Remarks 

'61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864. 

'61. ..Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 

'61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Aug. 18,. 

1862. 
'62... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
'61... Missing in action at Stone River, Tenn., 

Dec, 31, 1862. 
'62. . .Missing in action at Stone River, Tenn., 

Dec. 31, 1862. 
'61.. .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
'61 . . . Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
'61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
'61.. .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 30, 

1863. 
'61... Died at JefEersonville, Ind., Aug. 3, 1864, of 

wounds received in action — buried in Nat. 

Cemetery, Sec. 1, Grave 152. 
.Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
'61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. 16, 

1863. 
Transferred to Company A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
Died at Marietta, Ga., Sept 15, 1864, of 

wounds received accidentally. 
'61... Died at Field Hospital, June 4, 1864, of 

wounds received in action. 
'61 . . . Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
'61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
'61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 
'62... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
'62... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
'62... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864, 
'61 . . . Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Aug. 1, 

1863. 
'62... Died July 4, 1864, of wounds received in ac- 
tion. 
'61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 29, 1864, of 

wounds received in action. 
'61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 16, 1862. 
'61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Mar. 21, 1862. 
'61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 20, 1862— buried 

in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 13, grave 3. 
.do... Jul. 6. '63 ... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 



.Oct. 12 
.Oct. 12 
.Oct. 12 
.Aug. 25 
.Aug. 25 
.Aug. 25 
.Aug. 14 

.Aug. 25 

.Oct. 12 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name Rank 

Klingensmith, F. . . . Private 

Kilgon, Jno do. 

Long, Solomon do . 

Leek, Adam do . 

Lewis, Robt. M do. 



Date of MustPr 
into Service 



Remarks 

Aug. 14, 'Gl... Transferred to 4th Reg. U. S. Cav. 
.Aug. 14, '61... Died Dec. 28, 1861. 

.Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of tc 
..Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration of tt 
.Oct. 12, '61... Died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Jan. 17, 1 
of wounds received in action — buried 
Stone River — Grave 307. 

Moorhead, Franklin do... Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of tt 

Milligan, John P do... Dec. 25, '61. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 



Mathias, David do . . . Dec. 25 

Mathews, John W do... Aug. 25 

Michael, John do . . . Aug. 25 

Martin, Geo do... Oct. 12 

M'Donald, Wesley do... Oct. 12 

M'Garvey, Edward do... Oct. 12 

M'Kelvey, Wm do . . . Oct. 12 

M'Collum, Henry do... Oct. 12 

M'Curdy, Jas. W do... Oct. 12 

M'CormIck, Robt do... Oct 12 

Nolf, Simon do... Aug. 25 

Neville, John B do... Aug. 14 

O'Harra, Wm do. . .Oct. 12 

Pigley, Jos. H do... Oct. 12 

Robinson, Sam'l B do... Oct. 12 

Rettinger, Elias do . . . Oct. 12 

Rumberger, Peter J do... Oct. 12 

Rutter, John do... Oct. 12 

Roessler, Christ'n do . . . Feb. 2 

Rhoads, David C do... Oct. 12 

Spences, John J do... Oct. 12 

Shaner, Jos. E do... Oct. 12 

Schick, Jos do... Oct. 12 

Scott, Wm do... Oct. 12 

Slagle, Daniel do... Oct. 12 

Slagle, Jacob do. . . Oct 12 

Stuart Archibald M. . . .do. . .Oct. 12 

Spice, John do... Aug. 14 

Snyder, Kimball M do... Mar. 31 

Smith, Geo. D do... Aug. 25 

Smith, Samuel do... Sept 3 

Shaffer, Adam do . . . Aug. 25 



'61... 

'62... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. • 

'62... Died at Murfreesboro, Tenn.. Mar. 21, ] 

— buried at Stone River — grave 70. 
'61... Killed at New Hope Church, Ga., May 

1864. 
'61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61... Died at Lookout Mountain, Mar. 30, 186 
'61... Killed at New Hope Church, May 31, 186 
'61... Died at Kingston, Ga., June 4, 1864, 

wounds received in action. 
'61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 14, 1865. 
'62... Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18, 1864. Diec 

Putneyville, Pa. No date. 
'61. . .Transferred to Vet Reserve Corps, Aug 

1863. 
'61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61.. .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'64... Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18, 1864— Vet. 
'61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Mar. 16, 1862. 
'61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61... Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61.. .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61. ..Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61.. .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of te 
'61... Transferred to 4th Reg. U. S. Cav. 
'64... Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18, 1864— Vet, 
'62... Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18, 1864. 
'63... Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18, 1864. 
'62... Died at Field Hospital, Tenn., Jan. 9. 18( 



204 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name 
Shaffer, Geo. H. 



Smetzer, John 
Staley, W. H. R. 
Walker, Enoch 
Wise, Wm. H. 
Wheatcraft. G. 

Yount, David . , 
Yount, Wm 



Yarger, John 
Yock, Wm. 



Date of Muster 
Rank into Service Remarks 

Private Oct. 12, '61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Mar. 13, 1862— buri- 
ed in Nat. Gem., sec. A, range 14, grave 23. 

do... Oct. 12, '61... Discharged Sept. 6, 1862. 

do... Oct 12, '61... Discharged Sept. 6, 1862. 

do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of term. 

do... Feb. 2, '64. .. Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

...do... Aug. 19, '63... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. Died 

Sept. 26, 1899. 
...do... Aug. 14, '61... Transferred to 4th Reg. U. S. Cav. 

do.. .Aug. 14, '61. ..Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, April 

27, 1863. 
...do... Aug. 25, '63... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 12, 1862— buried 

in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 6, grave 10. 



Company C 



John M. Brinker, Capt Sept. 16, '61. 

David Mohney, 1st Lt Sept. 16, '61. 

John Girts, 1st Lt Sept. 16, '61 . 

David R. Brinker, 1st Lt Sept. 16, '61. 

A. S. M'CulIoch, 2d Lt Sept. 16, '61. 

Andrew Brown, 1st Serg Sept. 29, '61. 

Wm. H. Thomas, Serg. . . . . . .Sept. 16, '61. 

John G. Wiant, Serg Sept. 16, '61. 

Geo. D. Hamm, Serg Sept. 16, '61. 

Bernard Keigan, Serg Sept. 29, '61. 

Harrison, Stahlman, Serg. ...Sept. 16, '61, 

Reuben Mohney, Corp Sept. 16, '61. 

Caleb W. Allebach, Corp Sept. 16, '61. 

Solomon Altman, Corp Sept. 16, '61. 

Henry J. Gray, Corp. Sept. 16, '61. 

Wm. H. Miller, Corp Sept. 16, '61. 

Peter Keck, Corp Feb. 8, '64. 



.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Died June 9, 1903. 

• Resigned Jan. 30, 1863. Died New Bethle- 
hem, Pa. 

.Promoted from 2nd Lt, Apr. 16, 1863— re- 
signed June 13, 1863. 

. Promoted from Serg. to 2d Lt., Apr. 23, 1863, 
to 1st Lt., July 22, 1863— mustered out 
with company Nov., 1864. 

.Promoted from 1st Serg., July 22, 1863 — mus- 
tered out with company Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864— Vet 

.Mustered out with company Nov. 4, 1864. 

. Mustered out with company Nov. 4, 1864. 
, . Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864— Vet 
Died June 14, 1896. 

.Killed at Dallas, Ga., May 27, 1864. 

. Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate June 27, 
1862. 

.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. 12, 

1864. 
..Discharged May 14, 1863, for wounds re- 
ceived in action. 

.Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864— Vet 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name— Rauk 

George J. Reese, Corp. 
David Goodman, Corp. 
F. S. Hoffman, Corp. . . 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Jas. C. M'Bride, Corp. 
John H. Schick, Corp. 



A. G. Workman, Corp. 
Samuel Lankard, Corp. 



B. Slaugenhaupt, Corp. ..... 

Jacob Shaffer, Muc. 

Phineas F. Hatzell, Muc 

Altman, Levi Private 

Ames, Jas do . . 

Brinker, Wm. do . . 

Baird, Wm do.. 

Bartley, Wm do . 

Burkhouse, Solomon do. 

Bell, Leander, do . 

Burket, Peter do. . 

Connell, Owen do. . 

Cramer, Martin V do. . 

Copenhaver, John do. 

Campbell, F. W do.. 

Curry, Wm do., 

Dervire, John do . . 

Evans, Thomas do . 

Frasier, John do.. 

Forney, Abraham do. 

Freasier, Wm. H do. 

Ferry, Patrick T do. . 

Friel, Adam do. 

Franklin, Adam do. 

Farr, Geo. W do . 

Guyer, John, do. 

Girts, John M do . 

Gould, Henry do . 

Girts, Jas. R do . 

Girts, John B do. 



Feb. 1 
Sept. 29 
Sept. 29 

Aug. 28 

Aug. 28 

Sept. 16 
Sept. 16 

Sept. 16 
Sept. 16 
Sept. 16 
Sept. 16 

. Aug. 15 
.Sept. 16 
. Sept. 16 
.Aug. 28 
. Aug. 28 

..Feb. 24 
. Sept 30 

.Sept. 16 
. Sept. 16 
..Feb. 2 
.Sept. 29 
.Sept. 16 
.Sept. 16 
.Sept. 29 
.Sept. 16 
.Sept. 16 
.Sept. 13 



Remarks 

'64... Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet 
'61... Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864— Vet 
'61... Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864— V( 

Died Feb. 2, 1900. 
'02... Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. Died 

Sligo, Pa., 1899. 

'62... Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1804. Di 

Biookville. No date. 
'61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 16, 1863. 
'61... Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 27, 18( 

Grave 20. 
'61... Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Jan. 21, 1862. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Dec. 

1S02. 
'64... Not on muster-out roll. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'01. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'62... Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18. 1864. 
'62... Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. Died 

Eurickville. 
'64... Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18. 18C4. 
'64. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate Aug. 

1865. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4. 1864. 
'64.. .Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864— Vet 
'61... Transferred to Co. B. Oct 18, 1864— Vet 
'Gl...Died in Clarion Co., Pa., June 22, 1863. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company. Nov. 4. 1864, 
'61... Transferred to Co. B. Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 
'Gl. . .Mustered out with company Nov. 4. 1864. 



'61. . .Mustered rut with company Nov. 4. 1R64. 
'62. . .Discharged Oct. 26. 1863 for wounds 
coived in action. 
.Sept 16. '63... Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18. 1864. 
..Feb. 27. '64.. .Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. 
..Feb. 24, '64... Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 18CJ. 
..Mar. 21. '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. 
.Sept. 16, '61 ... Mustered out with company Nov. 4. 1864. 
.Sept. 16. '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Sept 29. '61... Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864— Vet 
.Sept 16, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Apr. 14, 18152. 
.Sept 13, '62... Died Sept. 15. 1863. of wounds received 
action. 



206 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Hepler, Samuel Private Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Hoffer, Samuel A do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Holler, Wm. W do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Hepler, Thomas do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Apr. 27, 

1863. 

Hilliard, Reuben do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Oct. 2, 

1863. 

Himes, Levi do... Aug. 28, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Hetrick, Adam do... Aug. 28, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Hoffer, John do... Jan. 15, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Himes, Joseph C do... May 7 '63, . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Henry, Patrick do. . .Sept. 13, '62... Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., July 15, 1864, of 

wounds received in action — Grave 140. 

Hoffman, Zep'h H do. . .Sept. 21, '64. . .Discharged by G. 0., Aug. 5, 1865. 

Horn, John L do. . .Sept. 21, '64. . .Not on muster-out roll. 

Jones, Thomas do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Keller, John H do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Kennedy, Robt. E do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Keller, Samuel W do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. 12, 

1864. 

Kennedy, Philip do. . .Feb. 4, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Kell, Henry H do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Keller, Elijah do... Mar. 24, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Klutz, George do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Deserted Dec. 9, 1861. 

Kelley, Oliver do. . .Feb. 29, '64. . .Not on muster-out roll. 

Latimer, William do. . .Sept. 16, '62. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 1864. 

Lowry, Samuel ..do... Aug. 28, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. Died at 

New Bethlehem. No date. 

Mohney, Joseph do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Mohney, Samuel do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Mohney, Adam do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Mohney, Samuel G. . . .do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Mohney, Jacob G do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Miller, Jacob do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Juno 26, 

1862. 
Myers, David, R. P. . . .do. . .Sept. 29, '61. . .Transferred to Company B, Oct. 18, 1864— 

Vet. 

Maitland, Alfred do. . .Sept. 29, '61. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

Miller, Henry do... Aug. 28, '62. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 26, 

1862. 

Mohney, Lewis do. . .Feb. 29, '64. .. Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Markle, Francis do. . .Sept. 16, '61... Died at Louisvsille, Ky., Dec. 14, 1861 — buri- 
ed in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 2, grave 19. 
Montgomery, Gil. S. do... Mar. 31, '64... Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 21, 1864, of 

wounds received at Dallas, Georgia. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Millison, Eli Private Sept. 16, '61... Died at Camp Wood, Jan. 11, 1862. 

M'Miller, James M do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18( 

M'Clelland, Jer. C do... Jan. 14, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

M'Cue, Martin do... Oct. 22, '63. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

M'Bride, Ed. H. C do. . .Sept. 22, '63. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

M'Millan, Harvey M. . . .do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Died at Louisville, Ky., Nov. 12, 1861— bu 

in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 1, grave I 
M'Millan, William do. . .Sept. 13, '62. . .Died Jan. 15, 1863, of wounds receivet 

Stone River, Tenn. 

Nolf, David H .do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18( 

Nichols, Albert G do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 

Died at Oakland, Armstrong Co. No c 
Nolf, Isaac do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Dec 

1863. Died at Seneca, Pa. No date. 

Nichols, Andrew J do... Mar. 10, '63. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Nichols, Wm. A do... Jan. 12, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Orr, William .do. . .Sept. 13, '62. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Apr 

1863. 
Price, John do. . .Sept. 16, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 19, 1864 

wounds received in action. 
Peoples, James do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jun 

1862. 
Polliard, Daniel do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, 

1, 1863. 

Palmeter, Luman do. . .Sept. 15, '63. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Pence, Benjamin J do. . .Sept. 16, '61... Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Feb. 6, 1862. 

Quinn, Michael do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Det 

1862. 
Rothrock, R. K do. . .Sept. 16, 61. . .Prisoner from Sept. 8, 1863, to Nov. 25, : 

— discharged Jan. 18, 1865, to date, f 

25, 1864. Died at McClure, Pa.,— _ 190 

Reese, Lewis do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Rader, Isaac do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Dec 

1862. 

Reese, Edward M do... Aug. 21, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Reod, George do... Feb. 4, '62... Died at Nashville, Ky., Jan. 16, 1864. 

Roper, Wm. B do... Sept 16. '61... Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., March 11. 1 

Rader, Wm. H. A do. . .July 2, '63... Died at Nashville, Tenn., date unknow 

Richards. George do. . .Sept. 21, '64. . .Discharged by G. 0., May 30, 1865. 

Schellenberger, G. W. . . .do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 

Schlangenhaupt, G do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 

Shlutz, Henry J do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4. 186 

Schick, Adam M do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 

Silvis. William do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 

Storvers, Simeon do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 



208 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGrMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Shannon, John S. ... Private Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Died at Worthville, Pa. 
Schick, Reuben M do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 1, 

1862— reenlisted Mar. 29, 1864— transferred 

to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. Died at Broolcville, 

Pa. 
Schick, John do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. May 1, 

18G2. Died at West Mill\T[lle, Pa.. No 

date. 
Shannon, Jas. E do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Apr. 11, 

1862. 
Stokes, Simon do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, May 13, 

1863. 
Silvis, Amos do. . .Sept. 13, '62. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. 18, 

1864. 

Schick, Adam do. . .Sept. 29, '61. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

Silvis, Jeremiah do. . .Sept. 29, '61. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864_Vet. 

Died at New Bethlehem, Pa. No date. 
Shindledecker, A. . . . . . .do. . . Aug. 21, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Sherman, John do... Aug. 21, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Schick, John R do. . . Aug. 21, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Slocum, A. G. C do... Aug. 28, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Shannon, Geo. B do. . .Mar. 29, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Schick, Wm. F do... Mar. 9, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Smith, Geo. M do... Jan. 23, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Stone, Sylvester C do... Mar. 21, '64. ..Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Spiker, Christian do. . .Sept. 16, *61...Died at Nashville, Ky., Aug. 31, 1862. 

Saegers, Lewis do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Died Jan. 5, 1863, of wounds received at 

Stone River, Tenn. 

Shindeldecker, F do. . .Sept. 21, '64. . .Discharged by G. O., Aug. 5, 1865. 

Thompson, David do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Thomas, Jacob do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Turner, Geo. W do... Oct. 23, "63. .Discharged by G. O., Oct. 13, 1864. 

Thomp?cn, M'Clain do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Woodward, West do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Dec. 17, 

1862. 

Wiant, Frederick do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Transferred to Vet. Res. Corp, Oct. 1, 1863. 

Wiant, Jacob do. . .Sept. 16, '61. . .Killed at M'Lamore's Cove, Ga., Sept. 11, 

1863. 
Young, John P ...do... Aug. 28, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18. 1864. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Company D 



Name— Rank 

Michael Forbes, Capt 

Rob. H. M'Cormick, Capt. . 



Date of 
into Si 

Oct. 12, 
Oct. 12, 



Muster 
TVTce 



Wm. J. Nugent, 1st Lt. ... Oct. 12, 

Adam C. Braughler, 1st Lt., Oct. 12, 

John W. Ross, 1st Serg Oct. 12, 

Edward King, Serg Oct. 12, 

Jas. P M'Closliey, Serg Oct 12, 

Isaac Keirn, Serg Oct. 12, 

Jos. L. Buterbaugh, Serg. . . Oct. 21, 

Wm. W. Hamilton, Serg. . . Oct. 12, 

Davis Barkey, Serg Oct. 12, 

John Dinger, Serg 

Lewis Z. Shaw, Serg 

Thompson M. Bell, Serg. . . 

Jacob Durnmeyer, Corp. . . . 

Cyrus Diugherty, Corp 



Thomas T. Hill, Corp 

Adam Beck, Corp 

George Langdon, Corp 

Barthol'w Fleming, Corp. . . 
Leon'd A. HoUister, Muc. . . 

Jas. S. Bell, Muc 

Ake, David S Private 

Anderson, Jona'n do.. 



'61. 
'61. 



'61. 



'61. 



'61. 



'61. 



'61. 



'61. 



'61. 



'61. 



Sept 


20, 


'62 


Oct. 


12, 


'61 


Oct. 


12, 


'61 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61 


Oct. 


12, 


'61 


Oct. 


12, 


'61 


Oct. 


12, 


'61 


Oct. 


12, 


'61 


. . . Oct. 


'61 


Oct. 


12, 


'61 


Oct. 


12, 


'61 


Oct. 


12, 


'61 


Oct. 


12, 


'61 



Barkey, Robt. A do... Oct. 12, '61 



Remarks 

• Resigned Jan. 23, 1863. Dec'd. 
.Promoted from 1st Lt., Apr. 16, 1863— n 

ered out with company, Nov. 4, 18< 

Died June 22, 1898. 
.Promoted from 2d Lt, Apr. 16, 1863— n 

ered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Promoted from 1st Serg., Apr. 16, 18 

mustered out with company, Nov. 4, ] 
.Promoted to 1st Serg., Apr. 16, 1863— n 

ered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. . .Promoted to Serg., Mar. 25, 1863— must 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Promoted to Serg., Apr. 16, 1863— must 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Promoted to Serg., May 29, 1863— must 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jui 

1862. 

• Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jan 
1863.— Died at Hillsdale, Pa.— No dat( 

• Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Jan 
1864. Dec'd. 

.Transferred to company A, Oct. 18, 186' 

.Died at Stone River, May 29, 1863— hi 
in Nat. Cem,. grave 124. 

• Died at Stone River, Mar. 20, 1863— bi 
in Nat. Cem., grave 226. 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, : 

Dec'd. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, : 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, ; 
. Dec'd. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 

• Died at Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 12, 186 
wounds received in action. 

• Died at Murfreesboro, May 1, 1863. 

• Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 

• Died at Stone River, Jan. 3, 1863. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. Jar 

1863. Dec'd. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 
Dec'd. 



210 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Burnheimer, Aaron.. Private Oct. 12, '61.. Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Bartlebaugh, Sam'l . . .do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Bowers, Adam do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate — date 

unknown. 
Boughton, Thos do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. 

28, 1863. Dec'd. 

Bartlebaugh, Mat's do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Apr. 

29, 1863. Dec'd. 

Beck, Matthias do. . .Sept. 20, '62. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Oct. 3, 

1863. Dec'd. 

Brumbaugh, Sam'l do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Boice, John do... Oct. 21, '61... Died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Sept. 17, 1863. 

Cook, Jeremiah do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Tansferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Aug. 1, 

1863. 

Charles, William do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Mar. 16, 1863. 

Dougherty, Albert do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Duncan, William do... Oct. 12, '61. .. Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Dunlap, Robt. W do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, May 

27, 1863. 

Douthett, Wm. S do. . .Sept. 20, '62... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 25, 1863. 

Donley, George do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 27, 1863. 

Dougherty, John W. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Deserted Jan. 3, 1864. 

Fetter, John do. . .Sept. 20, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A Oct. 18, 1864. 

Fuller, Frederick do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Fairman. Francis M. ..do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Oct. 17, 1864. Dec'd. 

Fairman, Saml L do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Jan. 2, 1862. 

Fuller, John do... Oct. 12, '61... buried at Louisville, Ky., Mar. 21, 1862— 

buried in Nat. Cem., Section A, range 14, 

grave 26. 
Fairman, Robt. J do. . .Sept. 20, '62... Died at Stone River, Tenn., Apr. 7, 1863— 

grave 96. 

Guinter, George do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Goss, George do... Oct. 12, '61. ..Died at Louisville, Ky., May 25, 1862— 

buried in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 26, 

grave 3. 

Hudson, John do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

HofE, Samuel do... Oct. 16, '62. . .Drafted— mustered out with company, Nov. 

4, 1864. 
Holsapple, Geo do... Oct. 16, '62. . .Drafted— musterel out with company, Nov. 

4, 1864. 
Irwin, John C do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Captured, died at Andersonville, Ga., July 

8, 1864— grave, 3,038. 
Irwin, Samuel do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jan. 8, 

1863. Dec'd. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name 
Johnson, Bethuel 



Rank 
Private Oct 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Kerr, Chas. B do . . . Oct. 

Kopp, Andrew A do... Oct. 

Kiern, Henry do . . . Oct. 

Kelley, Andrew do . . . Oct. 

Keirn, Nathan do ... Oct. 

Langdon, David do. . .Oct. 

Laney, John do . . . Oct. 

Lute, Christopher H. ..do... Oct. 
Lydick, Alexander . . . .do. . .Oct. 

Lowry, Jos. M do . . . Oct. 

Lloyd, John do... Oct. 



12, '61. 



12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 
12, 



12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 



M'Laughlin, Arch'd 


..do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


M'Combs, William . 


..do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


M'Laughlin, Thos. . . 


..do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


M'Laughlin Harr'n . . 


..do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


M'Laughlin, Harr'n . 


..do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


Nupp, Franklin 


..do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


Nupp, Cyrus 


..do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


Neff, Jacob C 


..do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


Renkin, Austin 


..do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


•61. 


Richards, Edward 


..do. 


.Sept 


20, 


'C2. 



Rowley, Geo. W do... Oct. 12, '61. 

Rowland, James do . . . 



Stahl, Samuel, 1st do. 

Stiffler, Wm do. 

Stephens, John C do. 



Shettler, John do Oct. 12, '61. 



Stahl, Samuel, 2d, 



.do.. .Oct. 12, '61. 



Stuchal, Sam'l do . . . Oct. 12, '61 , 



Remarks 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, 
28, 1862.— Died at Hillsdale, Indiana 
No date. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1{ 
.Discharged, Oct. 12, 1864. 
. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 

Dec'd. 

.Pied at Camp Hambright, Ky., Feb. 23, 

'61... Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Jan. 2, 1 

buried in Nat. Cem., grave, 198. 

12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, IS 

12, '61. . ..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, IS 

Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, IS 

Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, No' 

1863.— Died at Utah, Pa., July, 1899. 

Promoted to Com. Serg., Apr. 2.5, 

Dec'd. 

. .Died at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 19, 1S62— b 

in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 11, grave 

. .Died at Louisville, Ky., December, 1861 

..Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Jan. 2, 1862 

..Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Jan., 24, 186 

..Died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 4, 1863 

..Died at Munfordsville, Ky., Mar. 4, 18 

..jMnstered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 

..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 

..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, IS 

. .Mustered out with company. Nov. 4, 18 

..Discharged on Surgeon's certificate— 

iri known. Dec'd. 
. .Died at Camp Hambright, Ky., Feb. 22, 
Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, 0( 
1863 — discharged on Surgeon's certifi 
Feb. 24, 1865. 
. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, IS 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 
. . Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 

Dec'd. 
..Discharged on Surgeon's certifi^cate, 
23, 1862. Dec'd. 

..Transferred to 4th Reg., U. S. Cavalry, 
1, 1862. 

..Died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 16, 15 



.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 



buried 
15. 



in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 2, g 



212 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name Rank 

Schreffer, Jacob .... Private 
Thomas, Jas. M do... 

Templeton, Silas F. ...do... 

Trunick, Chas. W do.. 

Wool weaver, J. A do... 

Wise, Jacob do. . . 

Woodford, Banks do... 

Walker, Robt. M do... 

Woodsides, Wm do... 

Wike, Abram B do . . . 

Yeager, John do . . . 



Date of Muster 

into Service Remarks 

Sept. 20, '62... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Mar. 9, 1863. 
Oct. 12, '61. ..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Died in South Dakota, 1897. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Died at Decker's Point, Indiana Co., Pa. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864, 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Dec'd. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Dec'd. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. Mar. 

31, 1863. 
.Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Dec. 12, 
1863. Dec'd. 
Sept. 12, '62... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 1, 1863. 



Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


Oct. 


12. 


'61. 


Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


Oct. 


12, 


'61. 



Company E 



James N. Hosey, Capt Oct. 12, '61. 



Thomas J. Elliott, 1st Lt. .. Oct. 12, '61. 
James H. Anchors, 1st Lt. . . Oct. ■ 12, '61. 



William F. Elliott, 2d Lt. .. Oct. 12, '61. 

James G. Briggs, 1st Serg., Oct. 12, '61. 

Peter Wender, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

T. M. Graham, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

Henry A. Crick, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

Jefferson B. Henry, Serg. .. Oct. 12, '61. 

Wm. H. Pritchard, Serg. ... Oct. 12, '61. 

Reuben Latshaw, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 



.Commissioned Maj., Apr. 9, 1864 — not must- 
ered — mustered out with company, Nov. 
4, 1864. 

.Resigned Aug. 30, 1862. 

.Promoted from 2d Lt., Apr. 27, 1863— must- 
ered out with company, November 4, 1864. 
Died at Crothers, Pa. 

.Promoted from 1st Serg., Sept. 1, 1863— 
mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Promoted from Serg., Sept. 1, 1863 — muster- 
ed out with companj', Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Promoted from Corp., May 20, 1863 — muster- 
ed out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Promoted from Corp., Mar. 1, 1863 — muster- 
ed out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Promoted to Corp., Nov. 1, 1863— to Serg., 
Oct. 31, 1864 — mustered out with company, 
Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Promoted from Private, Dec. 16, 1861.— Died 
at Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 31, 1862. 

.Promoted from Corp., Nov, 1, 1862— Killed 
at Stone River, Tenn., Jan. 2, 18C3 — buried 
in Nat. Cem., grave 240. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name— Rank into Service 

Jeremiah Hummel, Corp. . . Oct. 
James M'Nutt, Corp Oct. 

John Grunden, Corp Oct. 

Allen Anchors, Corp Oct. 

Harrison, Adams, Corp Oct. 

John Lusher, Corp Oct. 

William J. Ramsey, Corp. . . Oct. 

W. M. Tingling, Corp Oct. 

Armstrong, Charles Private Oct. 
Armstrong, Jackson ...do... Aug, 

Brady, John do . . . Oct. 

Boyer, Levi do . . . Oct. 

Bartley, Daniel W do... Oct. 

Blair, Isaiah do . . . Oct. 

Boyer, Ralph do... Oct. 



12, '61. 

12, 'CI. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61, 

12, '61, 



Baker, Marion do.. 

Barnaby, A. M do.. 

Barrackman, E. S do.. 

Burns, Thomas L do.. 



Remarks 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
.Promoted to Corp., Sept. 17, 1863— mustei 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
. .Promoted to Corp., Nov. 1, 1862 — muste; 

•' out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
. .Promoted to Corp., Apr. 6, 1863 — muste 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
..Promoted to Corp., Apr. 27, 1863— muste 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
..Promoted to Corp., May 21, 1863 — muste 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
. .Promoted to Corp., Feb. 1, 1864 — muste 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
..Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186'S 
. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186^5 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186-4 
. .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Oct. 
1862. 
12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Aug. 
1863. 
Transferred to Co. I. Nov. 16, 1861. 
Promoted to Hospital Steward, Nov. 1, IS 
Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Maj 

1864.— Died Nov. 4, 1898. 
Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Nov. 
1864. 



12, 


'61. 


28, 


'62. 


12, 


'61. 


12, 


'61. 


12. 


'61. 



12, '61. 



Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


Sept 


18, 


'62. 


Oct. 


12, 


'61. 



Bierey, Jeremiah do... Jan. 20, '64 

Barnett, Daniel do... Mar. 31, '64 

Berger, William do... Oct. 12, '61 

Boyer, Martin L do... Oct. 12, '61 

Burford, Samuel do... Oct. 12, '61 

Cobbett, William do... Oct. 12, '61 

Callender, James do... Oct. 12, '61 

Cellar, George do... Oct. 12, '61 

Chamber, James B. ...do... Oct. 12, 'CI 



..Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864— Vei 

. .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

. .Died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 10, 1861— bur 

in Nat. Cem., sec. D, range 4, grave 92. 
. .Died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 13. 1861— but 

in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 2, grave ^ 
..Died at Stone River, Tenn., Jan. 8, 1863, 

wounds received in action; buried in T' 

Cem., grave 211. 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186- 
. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186- 
..Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 

1862. 
. .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Dec. 

1862. 



214 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name 

Daniels, Harrison 

Disler, Joseph M do . 

Davis, William do. 

Debo, Simon A do. 

Daniels, David do. 



Rank 

Private Oct. 12 
.Oct. 12 
.Oct. 12 
.Mar. 3 
.Oct. 12 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarks 



Eddinger, Henry do... Oct. 12 



Enbody, Davis do. . .Feb. 

Elliott, David R do. . .Mar. 

Fox, George do . . . Oct. 

Fox, John L do . . . Oct. 

Flick, David R do... Oct. 



Fergasm, CD. . . 
George, Martin W. 



.do. . .Mar. 
.do. . .Oct. 



George, Christian do... Oct. 

Graham, Oliver do... Oct. 

Grant, Joseph do . . . Oct. 

George, Reuben do... Aug. 

Hogan, Benjamin F. ..do... Oct. 
Hunter, William M. ...do... Oct. 

Hummel, Samuel do... Oct. 

Hogan, George W do... Oct. 

Hagan, James do... Oct. 

Howe, Horatio S do... Mar. 

Huffman, John F do... Feb. 

Hays, William do . . . Oct. 



Irvin, Joseph do... Oct. 12 



Kelley, Samuel do... Oct. 

Knox, James do. . .Aug. 

Karnes, Alexander . . . .do. . .Aug. 

Lytle, David S do... Oct. 

Latshaw, Eberne'r J. ..do... Oct. 

Myers, Charles do . . . Oct. 

Meeker, Heeber M do. . .Oct. 

Marshal, Henry M do... Oct. 

Markle, William do . . . Oct. 



'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864., 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61.. .Transferred to Co. I, Nov. 1, 1863. 
'64. ..Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
'61... Died Feb. 25, 1863, of wounds received at 

Stone River, Tenn. 
'61. . .Captured at Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 8, 

1863. 
'64... Transferred to Co. A, Nov. 18, 1864— Vet. 
'64... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, July 2, 

1862. 
'64. ..Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, T864. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'62... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

'61 Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1865. 

'61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. . .Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Nov. 1, 

1862. 
'64... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
'64... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
'61... Died Jan. 24, 1863, of wounds received at 

Stone River, Tenn. 
'61 . . . Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — 
Died at Baldwin, Butler Co., Pa. 
12, '61. .. Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
23, '62 . . . Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 30, 

1S62. 
23, '62... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
12, '61... Died at Clarion Co., Pa., Aug. 2, 1862. 
12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
12, '61. . .Captured near Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 8, 

1863. 
12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Dec. 14, 
1862. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Moore, Gibson G Private Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Feb. 

1862. 

Martin, Lewis do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Promoted to Q. M, Serg., Mar. 1, 1862. 

Marsh, George do... Oct. 12, '61... Died Mar. 1, 1863, of wounds received 

Stone River, Tennessee — burial record, 

Marsh, Nat. Gem., Stone River, grave ! 
Mortimer, Wm. S do... Oct. 12, '61... Died Mar. 5, 1863, of wounds received 

Stone River, Tenn. 

M'Cool, Jasper do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186- 

McCoy, Andrew do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186- 

M'llwaine, Jas. A do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 

M'Pherson, Jas. A do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 

Died in Pittsburg, Pa. 
M'llwaine, Josiah do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. Mar 

1862. 

M'Elroy, James do. . .Feb. 29, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

M'Call, Eli do... Jan. 3, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

M'Cain, Alexander do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Freeport, Pa., Apr. 24, 1864. 

Nichols, James G do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 

Nichols, Geo. W do... Aug. 28, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Over, Christian do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Mis. in action at Stone River, Tenn., Jan 

1863. 
Phinici. Samuel do... Oct. 12, '61 .. .Prisoner from Sept. 23, 1863, to Nov. 

1864— discharged, Jan. 17, 1865 to di 

Nov. 20, 1864. 

Painter, Jos. R do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Reese, Thos do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 

Ramsey, John W do... Oct. 1,2 '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 

Died in Clarion Co., Pa. 

Reichert, Thos. L do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company. Nov. 4, 186' 

Reardon, Andrew J. ..do... Feb. 17, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

Rupert, S. M do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Died Feb. 17, 1862. 

Slagenhaupt, J. A do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 

Say, Thomas do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 

Snyder, John do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 

Seip, Jas. H do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 

Shaner, Samuel R do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186- 

Smith, Henry C do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 

Shafer, Henry S do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Sept 

1863. 

Stewart, Allen do... Jan. 3, '62 ... Transferred to Co. A, October 18, 1864. 

Slaugenhaupt, J. D. ...do... Oct. 12, '61... Killed at Dallas, Ga.. May 27, 1864. 
Snyder, Christian do... Oct. 12, '61... Mis. in action at Stone River, Tenn., J 

1, 1863. 
Sternts, Peter do... Mar. 21, '64... Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 9, 1864. 



216 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Slater, Evan W Private Oct. 12, '61. . .Paroled prisoner— deserted, 1863. 

Turner, John H do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Teitsworth, Jas. R. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — 

Died at Bmlenton, Pa. 

Turner, John M do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Thorn, Samuel do... Oct. 12, '61... Killed on picket, Nov. 13, 1862— buried in 

Nat. Gem., Louisville, Ky., sec. D, range 

4, grave 93. 
Williams, Jon'n N do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — 

Died in Clarion Co., Pa. 

Worner, Jacob do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov, 4, 1864. 

Wenner, William do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Died Dec. 7, 1861— buried in Nat. Cem., 

Louisville, Ky,, sec. D, range 4, grave 98. 

Whitdul, Henry H do... Oct. 12, '61... Died Jan. 9, 1863, of wounds received at 

Whitling, Edward do... Oct. 12, '61... Stone River, Tenn.— burial record, H. H. 

Whitehill, Nat. Cem., grave 128. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — 

Yingling, John do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . . Died at Lamartine. Pa. 

Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Yingling, Chambers ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864, 
Yingling, Joseph R. ...do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
Yohe, John do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Killed on picket at Camp Rutherford, Tenn., 

Apr. 16, 1862. 

Yingling, David M do... Mar. 21, '64.. .Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., July 21, 1864. 

Yingling, Emory do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Captured— died at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 

18, 1864— grave 6,103. 



Company F 



Chas. B. Gillespie, Capt. ... Oct. 12, '61. 

William B. M'Cue, 1st Lt., Oct. 12, '61. 
Henry W. Torbett, 1st Lt. . . Sept. 10, '61, 

Jon. D. Murphy, 2d Lt Oct. 12, '61, 

George W. M'Graw, 1st Serg,, Oct. 12, '61 . 

John Keifer, Serg Oct. 12, '61 . 

William H. Huff, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

John Flanigan, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

A. R. Weaver, Serg Oct. 12, '61 . 



.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Resigned Nov. 29, 1862. 

.Promoted from 2d to 1st Lt., Nov. 30, 1862— 

to Capt., Co. A, Dec. 3, 1864. 
.Promoted from 1st Serg., Mar. 1, 1863— 

mustered out with Co., Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Promoted from Serg., May 1, 1864 — muster- 
ed out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Promoted to Serg., May 1, 1864 — mustered 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — Died in 

Westmoreland Co., Pa. 
.Promoted from Corp., Aug. 1, 1863 — muster- 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

ed out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Apr. 7, 

1864. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name— Rank 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarks 



William B. M'Cue, Serg. . . . Feb. 29 

John M. Alter, Corp Oct. 12 

James M. Slusser, Corp Oct. 12 



John S. Davidson, Corp. 



Oct. 12 



1^ Samuel Boreland, Corp Oct. 12 

William H. Sheffer, Corp. . . . Oct. 12 
. , Daniel Huey, Corp Oct. 12 



Charles E. Shaw, Corp Oct. 12 

Adam Ekas, Corp Oct. 12 

Wm. W. Hughes, Corp Oct. 12 

James S. K. Huff, Muc Oct. 12 

James M'Cain, Muc Oct. 12 

^ Adams, James Private Oct. 12 

Adams, Duncan do. . .Oct. 12 

Alter, David do... Oct. 12 



•, Ash, Michael do. . .Feb. 26 

'> Barr, John T do. . .Oct. 12 



Boyle, John . , 
Bowers, Lewis 
Boyle, Peter . , 



Bradin, John . , 
Boyle, Michael 



Churchill, John W. . 
f Clawson, Albert H. . 
Clowes, John W. . . . 
Conley, George W. . 
Critzer, Daniel . . . . 

\ Cypher, James S. . . 

Casterline, Elijah T. 



.do... Oct. 12 

.do... Oct. 12 

.do... Oct. 12 

.do. . .Sept. 15 

.do... Oct. 12 

.do... Oct. 12 

.do... Oct. 12 

.do... Oct. 12 

.do... Oct. 12 

.do... Oct. 12 

.do... Oct. 12 

.do... Oct. 12 



I, Conway, Dennis do... Oct. 12, '61 



'64. 
'61. 
'61. 

'61. 

'61. 
'61. 
'61. 



'61. 

'CI. 

'61, 
'61, 
'61, 

'61, 
'61, 
'61, 



'64. 
'61. 

'61, 
'61, 

'61, 

'63, 
'61, 

'61, 
'61, 
'61, 
'61, 
'61, 

'61, 

'61 



. .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864, 
..Wounded near Dallas, Ga., May 27, 1864 

discharged Oct. 15, 1864. 
..Promoted to Corp., Dec. 1, 1861 — muster 

out with Co., Dec. 4, 1864. 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864, 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
..Promoted to Corp., Mar. 1, 1863 — wound 

near Dallas, Ga., May 27, 1864 — muster 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
. .Promoted to Corp., Aug. 7, 1863 — muster 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
. .Promoted to Corp., Apr. 1, 1864 — muster 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
..Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Jan. 20, 1862. 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864, 
. .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June : 

1863. 
. .Absent, sick, at muster out. 
. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864, 
..Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. : 

1862 — mustered out with company, Nov. 

1864. 
. .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 

Dec'd. 
. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
. .Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Aug. 

1863. 
. .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
. .Captured at Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 

1863— discharged by G. O., May 23, 1865 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
. .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, F( 

22, 1SG2. 
..Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, May 

1862. 
. Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. May 

1862.— Died, Oct., 1901. 
. .Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, IJ 

— buried in Nat. Cem., grave 87. 



218 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Cypher, Reuben A. .. Private Feb. 29, '04... Not on muster-out roll. 

Denny, James W do... Oct. 12, '61.. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Drum, John K do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Dujan, Dennis do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 23, 1863. 

Duff, Andrew J do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 19, 1864— 

grave 230. 

Edwards, Philip do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Gibson, Elijah do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Gibson, George W do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Garrison, Robert R. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 3, 

1862. 
Girt, Joseph do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Apr. 10, 

1864. 

Gable, Martin do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Griffith, Philip do... Oct. 12, '61... Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862. 

Haws, Benjamin F. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Wounded at New Hope Church, Ga., May 

30, 1864 — mustered out with company, 

Nov. 4, 1864.— Died at Barberton, Ohio. 
Hardy, Frederick do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to 4th Reg., U. S. Cav., Dec. 4, 

1862. 
Haslett, Reuben A do. ..Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 2, 

1863. 

Helm, John do... May 21, '63. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Henry, James do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Stone River, Tenn., Mar. 9, 1863— 

burial recorded, Dec. 31, 1862, Nat. Cem., 

grave 113. 

Hipman, Conrad do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., May 1, 1863. 

Harris, Horatio do... Oct. 12, '61... Killed accidentally at Decherd, Tenn., Apr. 

4. 1863. 

Hagins, John do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 18, 1861. 

Kistler, Andrew J do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Keibler, Joseph do... Oct. 12", '61. . .Wounded near Dallas, Ga., May 27, 1864— 

mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Kipp, Abraham do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4,1864. 

Keibler, Samuel do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 23, 

1862. 
Kenniston, David do... Oct. 12, '61... Killed accidentally at Pulaski, Tenn., Aug. 

9, 1862— burial record, Dec. 18, 1861, Nat. 

Cem. Louisville, Ky., sec. A, range 4, 

grave 5. 
Lewis, Lewis do. . .Oct. 12, '61. ..Transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 1, 1863. 

— Died at Sol. Home, Dayton, Ohio. 

Meredith, John do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Mitchell, Francis do... Oct. 12, '01. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Mitchell, Robert do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 



^ 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



V 



f 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into S€rvice Remarks 

Meyers, Francis Private Oct. 12, '61 . . Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864, 

Died at Fryburg, Pa. 

Market, Valentine do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to 4th Reg., U. S. Cav., Dec. 

- 1862. 

Miller. John do. . .Sept. 20, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Messick, Hiram do... Oct. 12, '61... Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 18( 

Morrow, John do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Prisoner from Sept. 20, 1863, to Nov. ! 

1864— discharged February 6, 1865. 
M'Fadden, Hugh F. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
M'Cracken, Nathan ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
M'Glaughlin, J. N do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Wounded near Dallas, Ga., May 31, 1864 

mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18( 

Dec'd Oct. 9, 1905. 

M'Cracken, George do... Oct. 31, '63. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

M'Donald, Stroder do... Feb. 29, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864.— Died 

Coylesville, Pa. 

M'Gee, Patrick H do... Feb. 28, '64. . .Deserted, June 15, 1864. 

Needham, Jonathan ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. i 

1862 — mustered out with company, Nov. 

1864. 
O'Connor, Festus J. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to 4th U. S. Reg., Cav., Dec. 

1862. 

Otterman, Charles do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Died at Bowling Green, Ky., Mar. 17, 1862. 

Pennington, James do... Feb. 2, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1804— Vet. 

Pennman, James do... Oct. 12, '61... Died Jan. 8, 1863, of wounds received 

Stone River, Tenn., buried in Nat. Cer 

grave 171. 

Reed, Johnston do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Ross, John K do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Rowley, Wesley do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Roney, James M do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Reagan, James do. . .Oct. 12, '01. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, May l 

1862. 
Rippey, Thomas B do... Oct. 12, '61. .. Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jan. i 

1864. 

Rivers, John do... Feb. 29, '64 ... Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Rafenacht, Emmuel ...do... Aug. 5, '64. . .Substitute — not on muster-out roll. 

Sheffer, Samuel do... Oct. 12, '01. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Shearer, Daniel do... Oct. 12, '01. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Sheldon, Samuel do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Sindorf, John do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Supplee, Peter do... Oct. 12, '01. . .Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. J 

1862 — mustered out with co.npany, Nov. 

1864. 
Street, William do... Oct. 12, '61 . . . :\Iustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 



220 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Smith, William Private Oct. 12, '61 . . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, May 13, 

1862. 
Shaffer, Samuel, Sr. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Sept. 8, 

1862. 
Sproul, William J. ... do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Dec. 19, 

1863. — Died at Parnassus, Pa. 
Sarver, Benjamin do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Apr. 10, 

1864. 

Sill, Conrad do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Stewart, Christopher ..do... Aug. 6, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Stivers, Abram do... Aug. 28, '62... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 25, 1863. 

Slusser, Samuel do... Aug. 28, '62... Died, Jan. 9, 1863, of wounds received at 

Stone River, Tenn. 
Sullivan, Michael do... Oct. 12, '61... Died, Jan. 13, 1863, of -vvounds received at 

Stone River, Tenn. 
Sossa, Lewis do... Oct. 12, '61.. Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862 

— buried in Nat. Cem., grave 65. 
Taylor, George W do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 

1862 — mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 

1864. 

Thomas, John B do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Tuxford, John do... Aug. 28, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Uhl, Joseph A do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Weir, Alfred L do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Weir, Benjamin F do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Wilson, James do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Dec. 

27, 1862. 

Walters, Coston do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Died at Nashville, Tenn., Mar. 28, 1862. 

Weaver, Henry S do... Oct. 12, '61... Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862. 

Walker, John R do... Feb. 26, '64... Not on muster-out roll. 

Zerby, Daniel do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Killed at Hermitage Ford, Tenn., October 

20, 1862. 



Company G 



John Jordan, Capt 

Wm. J. Galbraith, 1st Lt. . 
Jacob R. McAfoos, 1st Lt. . 



Oct. 12, '61... Resigned Apr. 12, 1864.— Died at Leadville, 
Col. 

Oct. 12, '61... Transferred to U. S. Signal Corps, June 20, 
1863. 

Oct. 12, '61... Promoted from 2d Lt., Aug. 26, 1863— must- 
ered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — 
Died at Milville. Clarion Co., Pa. 



Samuel H. Croyle, 1st Serg., 
\ Bernard Huber, Serg 

Andrew J. Thompson, Serg., 
) George G. Borland, Serg. , . 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7&th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name— Rank 

Wm. J. Williams, 2d Lt. 



Date of Muster 
into Service 

Oct. 18. '61. 



Remarks 
Promoted from Com. Serg., Apr. 24, 18i 



Oct. 
Oct. 

.Oct. 
Oct. 



12, '61. 
12, '61. 

12, '61. 
12, '61. 



') Peter O. Bowser, Serg Oct. 

I Wm. A. Henderson, Serg. . . Oct. 

Samuel Klugh, Serg Oct. 

^^ John C. White, Serg Oct. 

h Thomas Shea, Corp Oct. 



Robert L. Marshall, Corp. . . 
Isaac Schrechengost, Corp.. 



Oct. 
Oct. 



12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61., 

12, '61. 

12, '61. 

12, '61., 

12, '61., 



Com. Capt., Apr. 13, 1864 — not musten 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1 

Dec'd. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 

Dec'd. 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 

.Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 

1SG2 — mustered out with company, No-' 

1 864.— Died at Dayton, Pa. 

.Discharged, Oct. 12, 1864— expiration 

term. — Died at Kittanning, Pa. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. May 

1862. Dec'd. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. May 

1862. Dec'd. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, July 

1S63. Dec'd. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1 

Died Jan. 2, 1905. 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 

Died at Kittanning, Pa. 

David S. Cochran, Corp. ... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 

Wm. G. M'Elhiney, Corp. . . Oct. 12, '61 . . . Mustered out with company, Nov. 

Joseph M'Elwee, Corp Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 

John C. Roof, Corp Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to 4th U. S. Cav., Nov. 30, 1 

Thomas M'Cleary, Corp. ... Feb. 2, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864— Ve 

John W. P. Blair, Corp Fev. 2, "64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18, 1864— Ve 

James M'Collums, Corp. ... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Feb. 17, 1862 

Arthur L. Myrtle, Corp Oct. 12, '61... Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1 

John G. Webb, Muc Mar. 4, '62. , .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

James M. Hawk, Muc Mar. 12, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

M'Kendria M. Lias, Muc. ... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Camp Negley, Ky., Dec. 11, 1861 
Borland, Samuel . . . Private Oct. 12, '61 . . . Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 
Bowser, William J. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 

Bowser, John G do. . .Sept. 13, '62. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 

1863. 
.Transferred to 4th U. S. Cav., Nov. 30, 1 
.Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 
.Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18, 1864. 
.Died at Louisville, Ky., Nov. 16, 1862. 
.Deserted, Mar. 30, 1864— Vet. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 
Died at Long Run, Pa. 



4, 186 
4, 186 

4, 186 
4, 186 
4, 186 



:,\ Becket, William . 

' Bowser, Wash'n R. 
Bridget, Hamilton 

^ Burket, John 

Bennett, Abraham 
Campbell, Mark . 



....do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


....do. 


.Aug. 


27, 


'62. 


....do. 


.Sept 


13, 


'62. 


....do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


'61. 


....do. 


..Feb. 


2, 


'64. 


....do. 


.Oct. 


12, 


•61. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Clark, William Private Sept. 13, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Cousins, James H do. . .Sept. 13, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A. Oct. 18, 1864. Dec'd. 

Cousins, Simon do. . .Sept. 13, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. Dec'd. 

Cf.ble, John W do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Dec. 14, 1861. 

Clever, Wm. H. H. ... do... Oct. 12, 61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 1, 1861. 
Cliristman, Michael . . .do. . .Sept. 13, '62... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 25, 1863. 
Croyle, John do. . .Sept. 13, ■62... Mis. in action at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 

31, 1862. 

Davis, Orlando P do... July 8, '63. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Dickson, John do. . .Sept. 12, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Erwin, James M do... Oct. 12, '61... Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Jan. 2, 1863. 

Folwer, Francis do... Oct. 12, "CI. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. May 18, 

1862. Dec'd. 
Flenner, Elijah do.. Sepz. 1.?, '62. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate— date 

unknown. 
Guyer, William W do... Apr. 1, 62. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. May 18, 

1862. 
Hagerty, Wm. A do... Oct. 12 '61 .. .Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 

1862 — avsent, sick, at muster out. 

Hughes, George do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Hoover, Jacob do.,. Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Hopkins, John A do... Oct. 12, '61 .. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Hosack, William S. ...do... Oct. 12, CI .. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Henry, Oliver do... Oct. 12, '01. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Hooks, Hugh A do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Jan. 2, 1863 

— mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 

1864. 
Henry, Charles do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Dec'd. 
Hall, John do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Captured at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 

1862— absent at muster out. 
Howser, Isaac do. . .Oct. 12, '61 . . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. May 18, 

1862. 

Heath, Joshua do. . .Feb. 2, 64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

Hastings, John S do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Camp Negley, Ky., Dec. 11, 1861. 

Hull, Morrison do... Oct. 12, '61... Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1S62. 

Jewell, Thomas M do... Oct. 12, '61 .. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18G4. 

Johnston, Wm. C do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Johnston. Thomas do... Oct. 12, '64. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. May 18, 

1862. 
Lemon, John H do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Aug., 

1862.— Died at Kittanning, Pa. 
Lowry, Alex'r A do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Oct. 1, 

1862. Dec'd. 
Myrtle, Henry A do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. Dec'd. 



I 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Xame Rank into Service Remarks 

Marshall, James W. .. Private Oct. 12, '61. . .Wounded near Dallas, Ga., May 27, 186' 

mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 

Marshall, Wm. A do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1SG4 

Myers, Joseph L do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Died at Utah, Pa. 

Myrtle, Jacob B do... Feb. 2, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, October 18, 1864— "V 

Mains, Daniel do... Mar. 4, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A. Oct. 18, 1864. Died 

Kittanning. 
Murph, Daniel do... Oct. 12, '61... Died Jan. 5, 1863, of wounds received 

Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862. 
M'Leod, James N do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 

1862 — mustered out with company, N 

4, 1864, Died at Kittanning. 
M'Cracken, James . . . .do. . .Oct. 12, 'CI. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 

Dec'd. 
M'Vey David L do... Oct. 12. 61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, IS 

Died at Kittanning. 

J.I'Pherson, Eli do... Mar. 4, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

M'Millen, Daniel do. . .Sept. 10, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

M'Bride, Enos do... Mar. 12, '62... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 30, 1862. 

MCrady, George do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 12, 1862. 

Pool, William V do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, July 

lies. Died Mar. 16, 1903. 
Porter, Wm. M do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 1, 1861— bur 

in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 3, grave 9 

Reed, George S do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Ruffner, Simon do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Runyan, Phineas D. ...do... Oct. 12. '61 .. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Ruffner, Daniel do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Ruffner, Wm. H do... Mar. 3, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Rowdybush, Michael ...do... Mar. 24, '64. . .Deserted, June 2, 1864 — Vet. Dec'd. 
Soxman, Henry F do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 

1862— mustered out with company, Nov. 

1864. 

Snyder, John S do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Sowers, William do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Sowers, Samuel H. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18C4 
Schrechenghost, W. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Slease, Samuel do... Feb. 2, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

Sowers, John N do... Aug. 30, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Shannon, George W. ..do... Aug. 30, '62, . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Shannon, James do. . .Aug. 30, '62. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Sov/ers, Henry do. . .Sept. 13, '62. . .Died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 11, 186 

buried in Nat. Cem., Stone River, gr£ 

306. 



224 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Troutiier, Thomas ... Private Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to 4th U. S. Cav„ Nov. 30, 1862. 
Troutner, George W. ..do... Mar. 4, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864.— Died, 

June 15, 1902. Dec'd. 
Thompson, John H. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Died— date unknown— of wounds received at 

Stone River, Tenn, Jan. 2, 1863. 

Wilson, Thomas do... Oct. 12, '61... Died near Nashville, Tenn., Mar. 15, 1862. 

Yingst, Henry E do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1862. 

Yount, Daniel do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to Vet Res. Corps, Aug. 1, 1862. 

Yount. Jacob do. . .Sept. 13, '62... Died at Louisville, Ky., Nov. 24, 1863— sec. 

A, range 28, grave 10. 



Company H 



William S. Jack, Capt Oct. 12, '61. 

Hugh A. Ayres, Capt Oct. 12, '61. 



Jos. B. Mechling, 1st Lt Oct. 12, '61. 

Samuel J. M'Bride, 1st Lt. .. Oct. 12, '61. 



Fred'k F. Wiehl, 2d Lt Oct. 12, '61. 

James A. Gilmore, 1st Serg., Oct. 12, '61. 

Albert B. Hay, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

Lycur's, Cummins, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

Alfred G. Reed, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

Henry A. Miller, Serg., Oct. 12, '61. 

Charles F. Smith, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

David H. Mackay, Serg Oct. 12, '61. 

William Boyd, Corp Oct. 12, '61. 

Wm. H. Black, Corp Oct. 12, '61. 



.Died at Nashville, Tenn. Feb. 5, 1863, of 
wounds received at Stone River, Tenn. 

. Promoted from 2d to 1st Lt, Feb. 17, 1863— 
to Capt. Apr. 16, 1863 — mustered out with 
company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Resigned, Nov. 30, 1862. 

.Promoted from 1st Serg., to 2d Serg., and to 
1st Lt, Apr. 23, 1863 — mustered out with 
company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Promoted from Serg., Apr. 23, 1863 — muster- 
ed out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — Died 
at Chattanooga, Sept. 1, 1900. 

.Promoted from Corp. to 1st Serg. Sept. 1, 
1862— to 1st Serg., May 1, 1863— mustered 
out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

. Promoted from Private, May 1, 1863 — muster- 
ed out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Promoted from Corp. Nov. 3, 1863 — mustered 
out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

. Promoted to 1st Lt, Company C, 134th regi- 
ment P. v., Aug. 15, 1862.— Died in Wash- 
ington, D. C, Dec.' 27, 1862, of wounds. 

.Promoted to Serg., Maj., Feb. 18, 1863. 

.Discharged Oct. 12, 1864 — expiration of term. 

.Promoted from Private, Sept. 23, 1864— 
wounded transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

.Promoted to Corp., Oct 16, 1862 — mustered 
out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Promoted to Corp., May 1, 1863 — mustered 
out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — Died at 
Butler, Pa. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name — Rank 
Josiah Hilliard, Corp. 



John F. Denny, Corp. . . 
D. W. Humphries, Corp. 

Wm. J. Johnston, Corp. 



George Schaff ner, Corp Oct. 

Hugh D. Martin, Corp. ..... Oct. 

Wm. A. LowerJ^ Corp Oct. 

Harvey J. Miller, Corp Oct. 

Benj. W. Truxall, Corp Oct. 

Wm. J. Moore, Corp Oct. 



Robert C. Borland, Corp. 

John P. Shirley, Mucs 

Allen, Gideon R. ... Private 
Angles, Jacob J do. . 



Date of Muster 

into Service Remarks 

Oct. 12, '61 . . .Promoted to Corp., May 1, 1863— mustered 

with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Oct. 12, '61... Promoted to Corp., Aug. 22, 1863— must( 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Oct. 12, "ei... Promoted to Corp., Dec. 17, 1863— must( 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 Diec 

New Castle, Pa. 
Oct. 12, '61... Promoted to Corp., Dec. 17, 1863— must* 
out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
12, '01. ..Discharged, Oct. 12, 1864— expiration of U 
12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 

1862.— Died at Oil City, Pa. 
12, '61. ..Promoted to Corp., Feb. 1, 1862— dischar 

Mar., 1863, to accept promotion. 
12, '61. . .Transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Apr. 28, 1 
12, '61... Died at Camp Negley, Ky., Dec. 9, 1861. 
12, '61... Promoted to Corp., Oct. 10, 1862.— Died 
Murfreesboro, Tenn., of wounds receivei 
Stone River — burial record. Record, 1 
24, 1863— buried in Nat. Cem., Stone Ri 
grave 269. 
Oct. 12, '01. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4. 186 

Died at S. Home, Marion, Ind., 1903. 
Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 



Anderson, Wm. G. .....do. 

Black, John C .do. 



Birch, William do. . 

Brown, Joseph do. . 

Braden, Alex. C do. . 

Black, John A. do.. 

Birch, John do . . 

Christley, Wm do. . 

Christley, Wm. C do.. 

Campbell, R. D do. . 

Cross, Boston B do. . , 



Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 
.Mar. 14, '63. . .Transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, July 27, 1 

— Died in Clarion Co., Pa. 

.Oct. 12, '61... Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., May 9, 1864. 

.Oct. 12, '61... Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1 

— mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1 

— Died in Missouri. 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 

Died at Brownsdale, July 24. 1904. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186 
.Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
.Died at Louisville, Ky., Apr. 22, 1864— hui 
in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 21, grave 1. 
12, '61... Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 



.Oct. 12, '61. 

.Oct. 12, '61. 

.Oct. 12, '61. 
.Feb. 26, '62. 

.Oct. 12, '61. 

.Oct, 

.Oct. 12, '61. 

.Oct. 12, '61., 

Oct. 12, '61., 



• Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 

Died at Slippery Rock. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186' 

Died at Mt. Chestnut. 
.Prisoner fom Sept. 20, 1863, to Nov. 20, 1 

— discharged. Mar. 29, 1865, to date, N 

27. 1864. 



226 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



of 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Cooper, Stephen Private Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Died at Slippery Rock, 1903. 
Christley, Neyman do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged, Oct. 12, 1864 — expiration 

term. Died in 1903. 
Clark, James B do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, July 29, 

1863. 
Cassidy, Thomas do... Mar. 14, '63. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, July 27, 

1863.— Died in Clarion Co., Pa. 
.Transferred to Co. I, Oct. 31, 1861.— Deceased. 
.Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864.— Died in 

Clarion Co., Pa. 



Cunningham, T. A do. . .Oct. 12, '61. 

Caussins, John A do. . .Aug. 28, '62. 



Crocker, Edward S do . . . Oct. 13, '61 



Dunlap, John W do... Oct. 12, '61. 

Dean, Benjamin F do... Oct. 12, '61. 

Derrimore, John do... Feb. 29, '64. 



Efchenbaugh, Jos. P do. 

Forcht, Henry do. 



.Oct. 12, '61 
.Oct. 12, '61 



. Oct. 



Frank, Edward do. 

Fil/.simmons, John do. . .Oct 



Hoerr, John do . . . Oct 

Hoffman, John do. . .Oct 

Hinchberger, Chr'n do... Oct, 

Kerr, John do . 



Kild, John C do. 

Lindsey, James W do... Oct. 12, '61 



Lo: 
La 



g, James C. 
e, Horace . . 



.do. 
.do. 



Lcnlcard, John do. . .Mar. 1, '63 



Le.r.on, Robert . . 



.Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Feb. 23, 1862— 
buried in Nat. Cem., Louisville, sec. D, 
range 6, grave 16. 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — 
Died in Kansas. 

.Promoted to Prin. Mus., Feb. 1, 1864.— Died, 
1904. 

.Died, Mar. 30, 1864 — buried in Allegheny 
Cem., Pa. 

.Deserted, July 17, 1862. 

.Wounded at Dallas Ga., Aug. 14, 1864 — mus- 
tered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — 
Died at Butler, Pa., June 24, 1904. 

.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Apr. 28, 
1863 — wounded at Murfreesboro, Tenn. 

.Died at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 11, 1863— burial 
record, Feb. 12, 1863, Nat. Cem., sec. A, 
range 6, grave 27. 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

. Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jan. 10, 

1862.— Deceased. 
Feb. 15, '64... Not on muster-out roll. 

. Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

. Transferred to 4th Reg., U. S. Cav., Dec. 1, 
1862. 

.Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864.— Deceas- 
ed. 

.Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864 — Died at 
Butler, Pa. 

.Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. 



12, '61., 
12, '61. 



12, '61. 
12, '61. 
12, '61. 



.Oct. 12, '61 
.Oct. 12, '61 



.do... Feb. 16, '64. 



Lo- g, John do . . . Mar. 30, '64 . 

Locke, David E .do. . .Oct 12, '61. . .Died at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 28, 1862. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 781 h REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service 

Morgan, Hugh Private Oct. 12, 'Gl . . . 

Murphy, Andrew N do... Oct. 12, '61... 

Moore, David do... Aug. 28, '62... 

Moore, Robert C. ..... . .do. . .Aug. 31, '62. . . 

Myers, James do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . . 

Mechling, Jacob do... Oct. 12, '61... 

M'Cleary, James do... Oct. 12, '61... 



M'Quiston, Dav. Jr do. . 

M'Quiston, John K do.. 

M'Candless, Geo. W do. . 

M'Coy, Joseph P do. . 

M'Nees, David L do . . 

M'Bride, George D. .... .do. . , 

M'Quiston, David, Sr. ...do.. 

Neyman, Wm. J do. . 

Neely, William do.. 

Nelson, Elias do . . 

Nulph, James 0. do. 

Prosser, Abr'm B do . . 

Parker, John do. . 

Patterson, John F do . . 

Patton, Samuel J do . . 

Patterson. Daniel do.. 

Rose, George do . . 



.Oct. 13, '61... 
.Oct. 13, '61... 

.Oct. 13, '61... 
.Oct. 12, '61... 
.Oct. 12, '61... 

.Oct. 12, '61... 
.Sept. 22, '62... 
.Oct. 12, '61... 

.Oct. 12, '61... 

.Sept. 16, '61... 

.Aug. 28, '62... 
.Oct. 12, '61... 

• Oct. 12, '61... 

.Oct. 12, '61... 

.Sept. 1, '64... 
.Oct. 12, '61... 
.Oct. 12, '61... 



Reiber, John J do . . . Oct. 12, '61 . . . 



Richey, Abr'm B do... Oct. 12, '61... 

Roth, George W do . . . Oct. 12, '61 . . . 

Rumbaugh. Peter K do... Oct. 12, '61... 

, Runyan, James W ..do... Oct. 12, '61... 

Reed, Samuel do. . .Aug. 5, '63. . . 



Remarks 

Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Transferred to 4th Reg., U. S. Cav., Dec. 

1862. Killed in action. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. Dec'c 
Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 30, 1862. 
Died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 2G, 1863 

buried in Nat. Cem., Stone River, Tenn. 
Wounded at New Hope Church, Ga., May ! 

1864 — mustered out with company, Nov. 

1864. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Died at Butler, Pa. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, July : 

1864.— Died in Butler Co., Pa. 
Transferred to Vet. Corps, May 15, 1864. 
Died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 8, 1864. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Died in Butler Co., Pa. 
Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June : 

1863. — Deceased. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet, 

Wounded at Stone River, Jan. 2. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Died at Pleasant Hill, Mo., Apr. 18, 1905, 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Died at Baker's Landing, Apr., 1902. 
Transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 6, 18' 

Died at Garnett Kan., Apr., 1896. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. 
Died at Woodsonville, Ky., Feb. 9, 1862. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864, 

Wounded at Stone River. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Died at Butler, Pa., Jan. 2, 1901. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
Died at Camp Negley, Ky., Dec. 12, 1861. 
Died at Louisville, Ky., Mar. 19, 1862— bi 

ied in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 16, grave 
Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862 
Died at Nashville, Tenn. Nov. 16, 1863. 



228 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name 



Rank 

Private Oct. 12 
...do... Oct. 12 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Scott, Robert P. . 
Shull, John W. . . 

Smith, William A do. . .Oct. 12 

Strokely, James L do... Oct. 12 

Sykes, Thos. M. C do... Oct. 12 

Sykes, William C do. . .Oct. 12 

Shindler, Adam do. . .Oct. 12 

Stoughton, Thos. J do... Oct. 12 

Schmidt, Karl do . . . Sept. 16 

Sheen, Patrick do. . .July 25 

Smith, George W do. . .Feb. 26 

Shirley, John R do. . .Feb. 28 

Sagaser, Henry H do... Feb. 22 

Smith, George H do... Oct. 12 

Thompson, Dallas J. ...do... Oct. 12 



Thompson, Robt. R do... Feb. 22 

Thornburg, Jesse S do. . .Feb. 20 

Thornburg, John R do. . .Feb. 16 

Trimble, Thomas do... Oct. 12 

Travais, George W do. . .Oct. 12 

Vaughan, William P. ...do... Oct. 12 

Welsh, Milton do. ..Oct. 12 



Williams, John B. 
Wallace, William . 

White, George W. 



...do. 
....do. 



.Oct. 
.Oct. 



.do... Oct. 12 



Wilson, James S do... Oct. 12 

Wallace, Sam'l, Sr do... Oct. 12 

Wallace, Sam'l, Jr do... Oct. 12 

Walker, Hugh B do. . .Oct. 12 



Remarks 

'Gl. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61... Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. ..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
'61. . .Mustered out with company Nov. 4, 1864. — ■ 
Died in Pittsburgh, July, 1877. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

• Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Mustered out with company Nov. 4, 1861. — 

Deceased. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. May 20, 

1863.— Deceased. 
.Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864.— Vet.— 

Deceased. 
.Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. 
.Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. 
. Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864.— Died at 

Butler, Pa. 
.Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. 
.Died at Camp Fry, Ky., Feb. 26, 1862. 
.Wounded at Stone River, Tenn., Jan. 2, 1863 

— mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 

1864. 
.Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. 
.Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. Dec'd. 
"64... Transferred to Co. B, Oct 18, 1864. 
'61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 24, 1861. 

. Died at Lookout Mountain,' Tenn., Dec. 20, 

1863. 
.Transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, July 27, JS63. 

Deceased. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 — 

Deceased. 
.Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1861. 

• Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Juno 23, 
1863.— Deceased. 

. Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. 5. 

1864. 
.Discharged, Oct. 12, 1864 — expiration or term. 
'61... Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Nov. 21, 18'o:5. 
'61... Deserted, July 17, 1863. 

'61.. .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Apr. 10, 
1864. Died Sol. Home, Dayton, Ohio, 1900. 



'61., 
'61., 
'61., 

'61., 

'61. 

'63. 
62., 
'64. 

'64. 
'61., 

'61. 



'64. 
'64. 



'61.. 

'61.. 

'61.. 

'61.. 
'61., 

'61.. 

'61.. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 5 

Company I 

Date of Muster 
Name— Rank into Service Remarks 

Robert D. Elwood, Capt Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

George W. Black, 1st Lt Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 

Died at South Bend, Pa. 
Samuel M. Crosby, 2d Lt. ... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Dec. 9, 1862. 
John S. M'Llwain, 2d Lt Oct. 12, '61. . .Promoted from Serg., Feb. 18, 1863_must 

ed out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. Dec' 
William Henry, Jr., 1st Serg. Oct. 12, '61. . .Promated from Corp. to Serg., Mar. 1, 186' 

f mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 3 8 
Samuel H. Kerr, 1st Lt Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jan. 

1863. 

William B. Kerr, Serg Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

William J. Davis, Serg. ..... Oct. 12, '61... Promoted to Serg., Feb. 17, 1863— mustei 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Hez. V. Ashbaugh, Serg. ... Oct. 12. '61. . .Promoted from Corp., Apr. 30, 1863— must 

ed out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
John D. Hall, Serg Oct. 12, '61. ..Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. Mar. 

1863. 
Wm. C. Murphy, Serg Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Aug. 

1863. 
William J. Wright, Serg. ... Sept. 18, '62. ..Promoted from Private, Oct. 1, 1864— tra: 

ferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
Aaron Hawk, Corp Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 

Dec'd. 
Joseph L. Kerr, Corp Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, IS 

Dec'd. 

Jamos Drummond, Corp Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

James C. Bair, Corp Oct. 12, '61. . .Promoted to Corp., Mar. 1, 1863— muste 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
James H. Stitt, Corp Oct. 12, '61. . .Promoted to Corp., Apr. 30, 1863— muste 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. Dec' 
William Young, Corp Oct. 12, '61. . .Promoted to Corp., June 1, 1863 — muste 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
James Curren, Corp Mar. 4, '62. , .Promoted to Corp., Oct. 1, 1864 — transfer 

to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
Lewis T. Hill, Corp Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. IS, 1864. Died 

Kittanning, Pa. 
George Edmonson, Corp. ... Oct. 12, '61. . .Deserted Oct. 17, 1861. 

T. A. Cunningham, Muc Oct. 12, '61 .. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186^ 

Theodore Barrett, Muc Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186^ 

Bair, George Private Oct. 12, '61 .. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 11 

Dec'd. 

Bond, Richard do... Oct. 12, '61 .. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186- 

Bryson, Daniel do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186^ 



230 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service 

Bowser, Matthias P.. . Private Mar. 4, '62. . . 

Brown, Allen do . . . Mar. 31, '64 . . . 

Baker, Morrison M do... Oct. 12, '61... 

Cline, Rudolphus M. . . .do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . . 

Clements, Jesse A do... Oct. 12, '61... 

Cochlin, James do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . . 

Champion, Jas. A do... Dec. 17, '62... 

Chapman, John C do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . . 

Drake, George S do . . . Oct. 12, '61 . . . 

Devers, Neal do... Oct. 12, '61... 

Dunlap, Thomas do... Oct. 12, '61... 

Darin, John do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . . 

Depp, George do... Mar. 31, '64... 

Dougherty, Harr'n do... Oct. 12, '61... 

Davis, William I do... Oct. 12, '61... 

Erb, Uriah F do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . . 

Elliott, William do . . . Oct. 12, '61 . . . 

Eakman, Aaron do . . . Oct. 12, '61 . . . 

Fennell, John M do... Oct. 12 '61... 

Fleck, Martin L do... Mar. 31, '64... 

George, Samuel do... Oct. 12, '61... 

Getty, Thomas C do... Oct. 12, '61... 

Gray, William H do... Sept. 5, '62... 

George, John do. . .Sept. 18, '62. . . 

Gray, Samuel A do. . .Sept. 18, '02... 



Hunter, Martin V. 
Hodil, Jacob D. . . 
Irwin John 



.do... Oct. 12, '61. 
.do. . .Jan. 4, '64. 
.do... Oct. 12, '61. 



Kerr, Robert do... Oct. 12, '61. 

Kerr, Patrick do... Oct. 12, '61. 

Kenniston, os. A do... Oct. 12, '61. 

King, Francis M do... Sept. 5, '62. 



Remarks 

Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
Deserted Oct. 14, 1864. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 12, 1864. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Died at Saltsburg, Pa. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1864. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Dec'd. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Dec'd. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Dec'd. 
Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 6, 

1863. Dec'd. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
Died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 6, 1863, 

of wounds received at Stone River. 
Died at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 5, 1862. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Died, Jan. 24, 1863, of wounds received at 

Stone River, Tenn. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Dec'd. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
INIustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Clustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Dec'd. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. Dec'd. 
Died, Feb. 24, 1863, of wounds received at 

Stone River, Tenn. — buried Nat. Cem. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Aug. 23, 1864— 

buried in Nat. Cem., grave 482. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4. 1864. 

Dec'd. 
Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. J 

Date of Muster 
Name Rank Into Service Remarks 

Ketcham, Jefferson .. Private Oct. 12, '61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Mar. 9, 1862— buri 

. in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 14, grave 10 

Kennedy, Geo. F do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Pulaski, Tenn., July 27, 1862. 

Love, John do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Long, Jacob S do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Lambing, Geo. W do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 

Dec'd. 
Lambing, Joseph B. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 

1S64. 
Marsh, Absolom K. ...do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. 

1864. Dec'd. 
Martin, John W do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 

1862. 

Mott, Henry do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Died at Louisville, Ky., Jan, 15, 1862— buri 

in Nat. Cem., sec. A, range 8, grave 2. 
M'llravy, John do... Oct. 12, '61. . .M'.istered out with company, Nov. 4. 18 

Dec'd. 
M'Laughlin, Jos. C. ...do... Oct. 12, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. A, 18 

Dec'd. 
M'EIroy, Johnston ... do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
M'Millen, Geo. W do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Nov. 

1864.— Died at Saltsburg, Pa. 

M'Means, James do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 8, 1863. 

Nolder, Martin do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Pifer, Conrad do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Clustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Procious, Adam do... Mar. 4, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Rogers, Hugh H do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Clustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Reisinger, George W. ..do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Reed, Joseph L do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

, Row, Christopher H. ..do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to 4th Reg., U. S. Cav., Dec. 

1862.— Died at Benton Harbor, Mich. 
Shields, Cornelius . . . .do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .:\Iustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Smullin, Henry do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Snyder, Theodore do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Snyder, Frederick do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Stivenson, George do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 18 

Dec'd. 
Smail, Daniel do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Oct. 

1862. Dec'd. 

Silvis, Jonathan do. . .Sept. 18, '62. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Se 

I 25, 1863. 

, Shick, Christian do... Feb. 29, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Shannon, Oliver do... Jan. 4, '61. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

, Snyder, Albert do... Sept. 5, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Stark, Robert B do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Camp Negley, Ky., Dec. 6, 1861. 



232 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name 

Stark, Joseph M. P. 
Sarver, Lynus T. . 

Thorn, Robert B. . 
Turney, Henry . . . 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarks 



.do., 
.do. 



Thompson, John W. 
Thomas, Jacob . . . 
Tarmer, John L. . . 
Tittle, Richard J. . 
Uptigraff, James . . 

Woods, Joel 

Wilson, James F. . 

Williamson, B. F. . 



Wanderling, W. H. 
Young, Theodore . 



.do. 
.do. 
..do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Oct. 
.Oct. 

.Jan. 
.Mar. 
..Dec. 
.Oct. 
.Oct. 
.Oct. 
.Oct. 



4, '64. 

9, '64. 

17, '62. 

12, '61. 



12, '61. 



Rank 
Private Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Mar. 14, 1862 
. .do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Died at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 15, 1862— buried 
in Nat. Gem., sec. A, range 2, grave 24 
12, '61... Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 
12, '61... Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 22 
1863. Dec'd. 
.Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
.Ttansf erred to Co. B, Oct. 4, 1864. 
.Died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 4, 1863. 
.Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Feb 9, 1862. 
12, '61.. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. ■ 
12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Aug. 12 

1862. 
.Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 6, ol 
wounds received in action. May 27, 1864— 
buried in Nat. Cem., grave 917. 
.Died at Chattanooga, Tenn., July 21, 1864- 

buried in Nat. Cem., grave 44. 
.Died at Bowling Green, Ky., Mar. 27, 1862 



.do... Oct. 12, '61. 



.do... Mar. 28, 
.do... Oct. 12, 



'64. 



'61. 



Company K 



DeWitt C. Hervey, Capt. . 
Joseph B. Smith, Capt. . . , 



Oct. 12, '61. 
Oct. 12, '61. 



Robt. W. Dinsmore, 1st Lt., Oct. 12. '61. 



Matt'w J. Halstead, 2d Lt., 
Robert M. Smith, 2d Lt. . . 



Joel Crawford, 1st Serg. 



William Martin, Serg. 
Albert Sempkins, Serg 



Oct. 12, 'Gl. 
Sept. 11, '61. 



Oct. 12; '61. 

Oct. 12, '61. 
Oct. 12, '61. 



William C. Barnett, Serg. .. Oct. 12, '61, 



..Resigned, Nov. 17, 1862. 

..Promoted from 1st Lt, Feb. 17, 1863— must- 
ered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — 
Died at Ford City, Pa., A. C. S. 3rd Brig. 

..Promoted from 1st Lt., Feb. 17, 1863— must- 
ered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

..Killed at Stone River, Tenn., Jan. 2, 1863. 

. .Promoted from Serg. to 2d Lt, Jan. 2, 1863 
—to Capt, Co. B, Dec. 3, 1864— Died at 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

..Promoted to Corp., Oct 18, 1862— to Serg., 
Feb. 1, 1864 — mustered out with company, 
ed out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

. .Promoted from Corp., Mar. 1, 1863 — muster- 
Nov. 4, 1864. 

..Promoted to Corp., Oct 18, 1862— to Serg., 
Mar. 1, 1863— mustered out with company, 
Nov. 4. 1864. 

..Promoted to Corp., May 26, 1862— mustered 
out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name— Rank 
Benjamin Oswald, Serg. 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarks 



Oct. 12, '61. 



Marion J. Dinsmore, Serg., Oct. 12, '61 

, Ado'niram J. Hastings, Serg., Oct. 12, '61 

William W. Smith, Serg. .. Oct. 21, 'Gl, 

William H. Green, Serg. ... Oct. 12, '61 



William P. England, Corp., Oct. 12, '61 

James C. Burford, Corp. ... Oct. 12, '61 

H. H. Bengough, Corp Oct. 12, '61 

Amos Claypool, Corp Oct. 12, '61 

Thomas Callender, Corp. ... Oct. 12, '61 

Erastus Pierce, Corp Oct. 12, '61 

Wm. W. Maxwell, Corp. . . . Sept. 11, '61 

William H. H. Step, Corp. . . Sept. 11, '61 



Samuel M. Dunn, Corp Sept. 13, '62 

Stuart P. Henry, Corp Oct. 12, 'C^ 

Robert Callender, Muc Oct. 12, '61 

Adams, James Private Oct. 12, '61 

Alwine, Francis do... Oct. 12, '61 

Alwine, Lewis do. . .Feb. 24, '64 

Altman, Hamilton do... Oct. 12, '61 

Aildns, Adam do... Oct. 12, '61 

B6ney, George H do... Oct. 12, '61 

Blair, Milton do . . . Oct. 12, '61 

Bowser, Hezekiah do... Oct. 12, '61 

Bowser, William do. . .Sept. 11, '61 



..Promoted to Corp., May 26, 1862— to Sen 

Mar. 1, 1863 — mustered out with compan 
|f Nov. 4. 1864. 
. . Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 

1862.— Died in Pittsburg, Dec. 28, 1899. 
..Transferred to Signal Corps, June 28, 186 
..Died. Jan. 18, 1863, of wounds received 

Stone River, Tenn. 
..Died at Manchester, Tenn., July 6, 1863 

burial record, July 6, 1863, Nat. Cen 

Stone River, grave 285. 
..Promoted to Corp., Mar. 1, 1863 — musten 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — Died 

Lycoming Co., Pa. 
..Promoted to Corp., May 27, 1862 — musten 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
. . Promoted to Corp., May 27, 1862 — musten 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
..Promoted to Corp., May 27, 1862 — muster( 

out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. — E 

ceased. 
..Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Nov. 1 

1862.— Deceased. 
..Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Dec. 

1862. 
..Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

Died in Butler, Pa., Mar. 9, 1900. 
..Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

Deceased. 
..Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
.Lied, Jan. 24, 1863, of wounds received 

Stone River, Tenn. 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
..Transferred to Co. B, Oct. IS, 1864. 
..Died, Jan. 3, 1863, of wounds received 

Stone River, Tenn. 
..Died, Jan. 20, 1863, of wounds received 

Stone River, Tenn. 
..Muttered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
. .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jan. ] 

1SC2. 
..Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 



234 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 

into Service 



Bailey, Wm. C do. 

Callender, James do. 

Claypool, Henry do. 

Clark, David do. 



Name Rank into Service Remarlvs 

Beal, Peter Private Feb. 27, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Boney, Wm. W do... Aug. 25, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Bonner, Samuel C do... Oct. 12. '61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 5, 1862. 

Bowser, Mark C do... Oct. 12, '61... Died, Mar. 12, 1863, of wounds received a1 

Stone River, Tenn. 
.Oct. 12, '61. ..Deserted, Dec. 14, 1862. 
.Oct. 12, '61... Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
..Oct. 12, '61. ..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
.Sept. 11, '61... Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

Colbert, Daniel do... Aug. 30, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Copley, Albert do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Knoxville, Jan. 21, 1863, of wounds 

received at Stone River, Tenn. 
Dinsmore, Thos. J do... Apr. 1, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. Wound- 
ed at New Hope Church. Died Jan. 2, 
1904. 

Dotty, John C do... Aug. 25, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Davis, David do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 1, 1862. 

Davis, Michael do... Oct 12, '61... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 19, 1863. 

Dotty, George W do... Aug. 25, '62... Died at Louisville, Ky., Mar. 28, 1864. 

Edwards, Albert do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 26, 

1862. 
.do... Oct. 12, '61. ..Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 26, 

1862. 
.do... Oct. 12, '61... Absent, sick, since Dec. 31, 1862. 
.do... Oct. 12, 'CI.. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864.— 
Died at Kittanning, Pa. 

Gibson, Albert do... Oct. 12, ''"•l. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Gillam, Enoch do... Oct. 12, '61. ..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Gillam, James do. . .Sept. 13. '62.. .Transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, May 1, 1864. 

Hastings, Enoch do... Oct. 12, '01. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Hindman, Charles do... Oct. 12, 'CI. ..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Hooks, Hugh do. . .Oct. 12, 'Cl . ..Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Nov. 10, 

1862. 

Hogan, John W do... Dec. 16, '6:5. ..Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

Hutchison, S. A do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Feb. 6, 1862. 

Hollingsworth, B. F. ..do... Oct. 12, '61... Died, Jan. 16, 1863, of wounds received at 

Stone River, Tenn. 
.Died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 16, 1863, of 

wounds received at Stone River. 
..Died April 13, 1863— buried in Nat. Ceme- 
tery, Stone River, Tenn., grave 100. 
..Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
. .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, June 30, 
1862. 



Edwards, Adam 

Fiscus, John W. 
Geary, John W. 



Hartman, John P do. ..Oct. 12, '61. 

Hutchison, J. W do... Oct. 12, '61. 

Jack, Maurice do... Oct. 12, '61. 

Jack, James W do... Oct. 12, '61. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Jolm, Daniel Private Oct. 12, '61. . .Died at Green River, Ky., Jan. 28, 1862. 

King, James do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, i864 

Karnes, Godfrey C do... Feb. 29, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Lemon, Lobin do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 1, 1S64 

Lloyd, Absalom do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1364 

Lytle, C. W. E do... Feb. 27, '64. . .Transferred to Co. B, Nov. 4, 1864. 

Malone, Rodney O. ...do... Oct. 12, 61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1SG4 
Monroe, James M do... Oct. 12, '61 .. .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Nov. 

1862. 
Meckling, Laird do. . .Sept. 12, '62. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. Mar. 

1863. 

Moore, William C do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Camp Wood, Ky., Jan. 28, 1862 

Minteer, Samuel A. . . .do. . .Sepi. 13, '62... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 19, 1863. 
M'Clelland, S. M do. . .Sept. 11, '61. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet 

Died in Allegheny City, June 7, 1903. 

Painter, John do... Oct. 12, '61 .. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Prunkard, John do. . Oct. 12, *61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864 

Prunkard, David do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1.S64 

Pugh, Jackson do... Oct. 12, '61 .. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1S64 

Painter, Peter A do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate. Mar. 

1863. 

Painter, Samuel do. . .Sept. ^1, '61. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864.— Vet. 

Pugh, Joseph K do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Deserted, Dec. 22, 1863. 

Rigby, Reuben M do... Oct. 12, 'CI. . .Transferred to 4th Reg., U. S. Cav., Dec. 

1862. 
Row, Joseph do. . .Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. 

1862. 

Roney, John W do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Transferred to Signal Corps, Oct. 21, IS 

Rea, Lemuel S do... Aug. 30, '61. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Richey, Wm. A do... Sept. 1, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Rhodes, John do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 15, 1863. 

Saltsgiver, Isaac do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Absent, sick, since Aug. 15, 1863. 

Shields, Robert do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186-^ 

Sipe, Solomon do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186-^ 

Smith, Richard W do... Oct. 12, '61 .. .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1861 

Smith, Richard H do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186^ 

Southworth, J do... Oct. 12, '61... Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186^ 

Stuart, George W do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186^ 

Summerville, S do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186'; 

Swartzlander, W do... Oct. 12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 186'? 

Stroyick, John G do... Oct. 12, '61 .. .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Aug. 

1863. 

Step, Levi do. . .Sept. 29, '61. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

Smith, Levi H do... Aug. 58, '62. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Steele, Samuel R do... Oct. 17, '63. . .Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 



236 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name 

Solinger, Peris G. 
Spangler, Abra'm 



Smith, Jacob C. 
Unger, John W. 



Rank 

Private Mar 
. . .do... Oct. 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarks 



Wade, John . 
Wolff, William B 
Wade, Jacob . 

Wickenhacker, G 
Wolf, John G. . 
Wolff, Jacob .. 
Young, John .. 
Younkins, John F. 
Younkins, Michael 



.do. 
,do. 

.do. 
,do. 
,do. 



...do. 
...do. 
...do. 
...do. 
...do. 



. .Feb. 
.Oct. 

.Oct. 
.Oct. 
.Oct. 

.Oct. 

.Sept. 

.Oct. 

.Oct. 

.Oct. 



.do. . .Oct. 



3, '64... Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 4, 1864. 
12, '61... Died at Green River, Ky., Jan. 4, 1862- 

burial record, Dec. 15, 1861, Nat. Gem. 

Louisville, sec. A, range 3, grave 1. 
2, '64... Deserted, Apr. 10, 1864— Vet. 
12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jan. 29| 

1863. ' 

12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
12, '61. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, July 12 

1863. 
12, '61. ..Promoted to Prin. Mus., Mar. 17, 1864. 
1, '62... Transferred to Co. B, Oct. 18, 1864. 
12, '61... Died — date unknown. 

12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
12, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Nov. 4, 1864. 
12, '61. ..Mustered out with company. Nov. 4, 1864. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Second Organization Field and 
Staff Officers 



Name— Rank 

Augustus B. Bonnaffon, Col. 
Henry A. Torbett, Lt. Col., 



Date of Mustor 
into Service 

Sept. 17, '61... 
Sept. 10, '61... 



Robert M. Smith, Major .. Sept. 11, '61, 



Abram W. Smith, Adj 

William B. McCue, Q. M. . . 

John T. Walton, Surg 

Oliver P. Bollinger, Asst. Sr., 
Florrilla B. Morris, Asst Sr., 
Thos. P. TomlinsoD, Asst .Sr, 
Samuel Edwards, Asst. Sr, . . 



Apr. 29, '65.. . 
Feb. 29, '64... 

June 19, '65. . . 
Apr. 3, '05.. . 
Apr. 18, '65... 
July 24, '65... 
Feb. 16, '65... 



Samuel M. Dumm, Sr. Maj., Sept. 13, '02... 

Geo. J, Reese, Sr. Maj Feb. 1, '64 . . . 

Peter Keck, Com. Sr Feb. 8, '64... 

John Miller, Com. Sr Sept. 20, '62... 

Henry Dresher, PI. Muc Feb. 15, '65. . . 

A. G. Nixon, PI. Muc Feb. 21, '65. . . 

William A. Coulter, Hos. St., Mar. 9, '65.. . 



Remarks 

Promoted from Lt. Col., Mar. 26, 1865— di< 
Promoted from Capt., Co. A, Mar. 26, 1865 

mustered out Sept. 11, 1865. 
Promoted from Capt, Co. B, Mar. 5, 186E 

mustered out Sept 11, 1865. 
Absent, with leave, at muster out. 
Promoted from 1st Lt, Co. A, Dec. 4, 1864 

mustered out with reg.. Sept .11, 1865. 
Mustered out with reg., Sept. 11, 1865. 
Resigned June 22, 1865. 
Resigned July 1, 1865. 
Died Sept 7, 1865. 
Promoted from Serg., Co. I, July 1, 1865 

mustered out with reg., Sept. 11, 1865. 
Promoted from 1st Serg., Co. B, May 

1805— discharged by G. O., June 19, 18( 
Promoted from Cor., Co. B, April 1, 1865 

mustered out with reg.. Sept 11, 1865 

Vet 
Promoted from Serg., Co. B, Aug. 2<, 1865 

mustered out with reg., Sept. 11, 1865 

Vet 
Promoted from Cor., Co. A, May 1, 1865 

discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 
Promoted from Private, Co. E, Sept. 1, 18 

—mustered out with reg., Sept. 11, 1865. 
Promoted from Private, Co. E, Apr. 1, 18 

— reduced and transferred to Co. E, Jui 

15, 1805. 
Promoted from Private, Co. B, May 

1805 — absent on furlough at muster out. 



Henry W Torbett, Capt. 
David A. Rankin, Capt 



Sept. 10, '61 
. Oct. 12, '61 



Company A 

.Promoted from 1st Lt., Co. F, to Capt., De 
3, 1864— to Lt Col., Mar. 26, 1865. 

.Promoted to 2nd Lt, Dec. 3, 1864— to Cap 
Mar. 20, '05 — mustered out with compan 
Sept. 11, 1865— Vet 



238 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of MuBter 
Into Service 



Name— Rank 
Williama B. M'Cue, 1st Lt, Feb. 29, '64 



William B. Irwin, 1st Lt, Feb. 2, 'G4 
John M. Fleming, 1st Lt. . , July 20, 'Go 



Jacob A. Slagle, Serg 

C. O. Hammond, Serg 

Wm. A. Millen, Serg 



Feb. 



Au 



John Dinger, Serg 

Thomas M'Leary, Corp 

John W. P. Blair, Corp 

Andrew J. Reardon, Corp. . . 

Kimber, M. Snyder, Corp., 

William H. Wise, Corp 



Sept. 20, 'C2. 
Feb. 

Feb. 2. '64. 



Feb. 17 



Mar. 3 



George D. Smith, Corp. 
Simon A. Debo, Corp. 
John Miller, Corp. . . . 



Dennis Golden, Muc 

James M. Hawk, Muc 

Horatio S. Howe, Muc 

John G. Webb, Muc 

Ash, Michael Private 

Allen, Charles do.. 

Armstrong, Jackson . . do. . 

Barnett, Daniel do . 

Bathell, John do.. 

Best, Michael B do.. 

Brinker, Henry P do.. 

Brink, George W do.. 

Bridges, Hamilton do.. 

Bowzer, Wash. R do. . , 

Brumbaugh, Fred .... do.. 
Brumbaugh, Samuel .. do.., 
Burford, Henry H do.. 



Remarks 

Promoted from Serg. to 1st Lt., Dec. 2, 1864 

—to Q M., Dec. 4, 1864. 
Promoted from 1st Serg., Mar. 15, 1865 — re- 
signed June 24, 18G5— Vet. 
Promoted from Serg. to 2d Lt., Mar. 31, 
1865, to 1st Lt., July 17, 1SG5— mustered 
out with company, Sept., 11, 1865. 
2, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
—Vet. 
25, '62. . .Promoted from Corp., Dec. 4, 1864— dis- 
charged by G. C, June 19, 1865. 
Oct. 12, '61 . . . Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
—Vet. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 
2, '64... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
—Vet. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
—Vet. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
—Vet. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
—Vet. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
—Vet. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

.Promoted to Corp., Dec. 1, 1864 — to Com. 
Serg., May 1, 1865. 

.Discharged — expiration of term. 
'62. . .Discharged — expiration of term. 
'64... Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 

.Discharged — expiration of term. 

.Discharged by G. O., May 13, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

• Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Dischr.rged by G. O., July 29, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 12, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 12, 1865. 



Feb. 2 

Aug. 25 
Mar. 31 
Sept. 20 

Mar. 1 
Mar. 12 
Mar. 31 
Mar. 4 
Feb. 25 
.Aug. 1 
.Aug. 28 
..Mar 31 
. Mar. 2 
.Aug. 25 
.Feb. 14 
.Aug. 1 
.Sept. 13 
.Aug. 27 
.Aug. 25 
.Aug. 25 
•July 24 



'64. 
'64. 
'64. 

'62. 

'64. 
'62. 

'62. 



'62. 
'64. 
'62., 
'62. 
64. 
'65. 
'63. 
'Go., 
'64 . 
'62., 
'62. 
'62. 
'62., 
'64.. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank Into Service Remarka 

Bradin, John Private Sept. 15, '63. ..Committed suicide, July 2, 1865. 

Blerey, Jeremiali do... Jan. 26, '64... Not on muster-out roll — Vet. 

Campbell, James do... July 21, '63. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Cherry, John do... Mar. 3, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18( 

Clowes, David do. . .Sept. 10, '62. . .Discharged by G. C, June 19, 1865. 

Coursins, Simon do. . .Sept. 13, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., Sept. 11, 1865. 

Coursins, James H. . . .do. . .Sept. 13, '62. . .Deserted May, 1864 — returned Apr. 13, 18 

— discharaged by G. C, Maay 23, 1865. 

Davis, Orlando P do... July 8, '63. . .Discharged by G. O., July 29, 1865. 

Dickson, John do. . .Sept. 12, '64. . .Discharged by G. O., May 27, 1865. 

Daverspike, Daniel do... Aug. 25, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., May 27, 1865. 

Dibler, Henry do. . .Sept. 14, '64. . .Discharged by G. O., May 27, 1865. 

Enbody, David do. . .Feb. 19, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Vet. 
Elliott, David R do... Feb. 19, '64. . .Transferred to 1st bat., 5th reg., V. R. ( 

Feb. 2, 1865— discharged by G. 0„ Sej 

12. 1865. 

Fowser, Edward do... Feb. 28, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Frauntz, Jacob do... Aug. 24, '63. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Furgasm, Clayton D ..do... Mar. 31, 'G4. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 
Fleming, Richard D. ..do... Aug. IC, '64. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Fetter (Ketter) J do. . .Sept. 20, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Gibson, Andrew do. . .Mar. 31, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

died at Creekside, Indiana Co. 

Gable, Martin do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Guthrie, James D do... Aug. 25, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

George, Reuben do. . .Aug. 28, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Hughes, William do. . .Feb. 2, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Vet. 
Heath, Joshua do. . .Feb. 2, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Vet. 

Hellem, John do... May 21, '03. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Harman, Andrew J ...do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Halben, Jacob do. . .Aug. 25, 'G2. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Hinies, Solomon do. . .Aug. 25, 'C2. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Hains, Solomon do... Aug. 25, 'G2. . .Discharged by G. C, June 19, 1865. 

Hartman, Robert do... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Apr. 20, 1865. 

Johnson, Andrew do. . .July 6, '63. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Kirkland, John do... Feb. 14, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Kunkle, Philip do. . .Sept. 10, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Knauff, Henry do... Jan. 5, '64 ... Discharged by G. O., Oct. 4, 1865. 

Karnes, Alexander ... do. . .Aug. 23, '62. . .Discharged by G O., June 19, 1865. 

Lacock, John A do. . .Apr. 1, '64... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 21, 1865. 

Lewis, John C do... Oct. 12, '61... Died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 15, 1863 

buried in Nat. Cem., section B, range 1 

grave 29. 



240 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



N'amc — Rank 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Luckhart, John, Corp Oct. 12, '61. 



Lewis, Samuel 



Private Aug. 5 



Matthias, David do . . . Feb. 2 

Myrtle, Jacob B do... Feb. 2 

Mathews, John W do... Aug. 25 

Miller, Jacob do . . . Sept. 14 

Milligan, John P do... Dec. 25 

Mains, Daniel do... Mar. 5 

Miller, Scott M do... Feb. 7 

M'Millen, Daniel do... Sept. 10 

M'Gee, Patrick do . . . Feb. 28 



M'Call, Eli 

M'Pherson, Eli . . . 
M'Canna, Barnabas 



M'Donald, Theo. 
M'Cracken, Geo. 
M'Kelvy, Jas. . . , 
M'Swiney, Peter 

Nolf, Simon 

Nichols, Edward 
Nichols, Geo. W. 
Pennington, Jas. 
Painter, Jos. R. 
Reprogle, John . 



.do... Jan. 3 
.do... Mar. 4 
.do... Jan. 19 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



..Feb. 28 
..Oct. 31 
..Feb. 29 

.Aug. 28 

.Aug. 25 
..Feb. 15 

.Aug. 28 
..Feb. 2 

.Mar. 31 



Rowderbush, M. 



.do... Oct. 12 



,do.. .Mar. 24 



Roessler, Christian .. do... Feb. 2 

Ruffner, Wm. H do... Mar. 3 

Rivers, John do . . . Feb. 29 

Schecenghost, C do... Feb. 27 

Slease, Samuel do... Feb. 2 

Sheesley, Amons do... Apr. 8 

Sill, Conrad do . . . Mar. 31 

Stewart, Alex. K do... Mar. 31 

Shaffer, John do... Sept. 14 

Small, Peter do... Sept. 10 

Smith, John E do. ..Mar. 2 

Smith, Samuel do... Sept. 3 



'62. 
'G4. 

'64. 

'62. 
'61. 
'61. 
'62. 
'65. 
•62. 

' 64. 

•62. 
'62. 
'64. 

'64. 
'63. 
'64. 
'62. 
'62. 
'65. 
'62. 
'64. 
'64. 
'61. 

•64. 

'64. 
'64. 
'64. 
'64. 
'64. 
'63. 
'64. 
'64. 
'64. 
'62. 
'65. 
'63. 



Remarics 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

—Vet. 
.Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept .11, 1865 

—Vet. 

—Vet. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1S65. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

.Discharged Nov. 17, 1864. 

.Discharged — expiration of term. 

.Discharged by G. O., May 29, 1865. 

.Deserted — returned — mustered out with com- 
pany, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Deserted — returned — absent, in confinement, 
at muster out. 

.Discharged — expiration of term. 

.Discharged — expiration of term. 

.Discharged by Surgeon's certificate, May 26, 
1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 7, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., Sept. 2, 1865. 

.Killed at Spring Hill, Tenn., Feb. 16, 1865. 

.Discharged by G 0„ May 27, 1865 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Absent, sick, at muster out. 

.Discharged by G. O., Aug. 19, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., Aug. 19, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company. Sept. 11, 1865 — 
Vet. 

. Deserted — returned — mustered out with com- 
pany, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1SG5. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Absent, sick at muster out — Vet. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1805. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name 

Schick, David . . . . 
Shannon, James . 
Shannon, Geo. W. 
Sowers, John N. , 
Stewart, Chris, . . 
Spencer, Peter . . 
Spencer, Hiram L 



Rank 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Private 

..do... Aug. 30, 'C2. 
. .do. . .Aug. 30, '62. 
..do... Aug. 30, '62. 
. .do... Aug. 6, '64. 
..do... Sept. 15, '64. 
. .do... Feb. 17, '64. 



}. 0., June 


19, 1865. 


}. O., June 


19. 1865. 


r. 0., June 


19, 1865. 


}. O. June 


19, 1865. 


Surgeon's 


certificate 



Shaffer, John C do. . .Sept.l4, '64. 

Stewart, Allen do... Jan. 3, '62. 

Suxford, John do. . .Aug. 25, '62. 

Sowers, Willlm do... Mar. 21, '65. 

Troutman, Henry do. . .Sept. 14, '64. 

Troutman, Jacob do. . .Sept. 14, '64. 

Turney, Peter do... Apr. 9, '61. 

Troutner, Geo. W do... Mar. 4, '62, 

Trexford, John do. . .Aug. 28, '62, 

Wheatcraft, Geo. S. ...do... Aug. 19, '63 

Wise, Joshua do . . . Sept. 28, '64 , 



Yingling, Jos. R. 
Yarger, John . . 



.do... Mar. 31, '64 
.do. . .Aug. 25, '63 



Remarks 

Absent— sick — at muster out. 
..Discharged by G. C, June 19, 1865. 
. .Discharged by G. 
. . Discharged by G. 
. . Discharged by G. 
. .Discharged by G. 
. . Discharged on 

26, 1865. 
..Discharged by G. C, June 19, 1865. 
. .Discharged — expiration of term — died in 

diana Co., Pa., date. 
..Discharged by G. C, June 19, 1865. 
. .Not on muster-out roll. 
..Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 
..Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 
. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

—Vet.— Died, Mar. 30, 1899. 
. .Discharged — expiration of term. 
. .Not on muster-out roll. 
. .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Nov 

1864. 
..Discharged on Surgeon's certificatae, Ji 

19. 1865. 
..Mustered out with company. Sept. 11, li 
..Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, S« 

4, 1865. 



Company B 

Robert M. Smith, Capt Sept. 11, '61. . .Promoted from 2d Lt, Co. K„ to Capt, L 

3, 1864— to Major, Mar. 15, 1865. 

Andrew Brown, Capt Sept. 29, '61. . .Promoted from 1st. Serg. to 1st Lt., Dec 

1864— to Capt, Mar. 15, 1865— resigi 
July 26, 1865— Vet. 

Bernard Kelgan, Capt Sept. 29, '61. . .Promoted from Serg. to 2d Lt, Dec. 4, 1 

to 1st Lt. March 15, 1865— to Capt A 
7, 1865 — mustered out with company, S( 
11,1865— Vet 

Wm. H. H. Stepp, 1st Lt. .. Sept. 11, '61. . .Promoted from 1st Serg. to 2d Lt., Mar. 

1865— to 1st Lt, Aug. 7, 1865— muste 
out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 — ^Ve 
Died at Slate Lick, Pa., 1900. 

Franklin Mechllng, 2d Lt. .. Oct 12, '61 ... Promoted from Serg. Major, Dec. 26, 186 

discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration 
term. 



242 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name— Rank 

Francis S. Hoffman, 1st Serg, 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarks 



Samuel M. Dumm, 1st Serg., Sept. 13 

Thomas Evans, Serg Sept. 29 

David Goodman, Serg Sept. 29 

Levi Stepp, Serg Sept. 29 

Wm. W. Maxwell, Serg, . . . Sept. 11 

William J. Wright, Serg. .. Sept. 18 
Peter Keck, Serg Feb. 8 

S. A. M'Clelland, Corp Sept. 11 

Samuel Painter, Corp Sept. 11 

Alfred Maitland, Corp Sept. 29 

F. W. Camapbell, Corp Sept. 29 

Jesse S. Thornburg, Corp. . . Feb. 20 

Jacoab Thomas, Corp Mar. 9 

William A. Nichols, Corp. . . Jan. 12 
James Curren, Corp Mar. 4 

James C. M'Bride, Corp. . . Aug. 28 
Lewis T. Hill, Corp Oct. 12 

Jacob Slagle, Corp Feb. 2 

Alwine, Lewis Private Feb. 24 

Bowser, William do... Sept. 11 

Brown, Allen do... Mar, 31 

Bill, Leander do.,. Feb, 24 

Black. John A do.Feb. 26 



Bartloy, William do... Aug. 28 

Burkhouse, Solomon ,,do,,,Aug. 28 



Sept. 29, 'Gl. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

—Vet. 
, '62, ., Promoted from Corp, to Serg., Dec. 1, 18G4 

—to 1st Serg., Mar. 15, 1865— to Serg. Ma- 
jor, May 1, 1865, 
, '61. . .Mustered out with company. Sept, 11, 1865 — 

Vet. 
, '61. , .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 — 

Vet. 
, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 180 j — 

Vet. 
, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Sept, 11, 1865 — 

Vet. 
, '61,,, Discharged by G, O., June 19, 1865. 
, '64. . .Commissioned 2d Lt, July 27, 1865— not 

mustered — promoted to Com. Serg., Aug. 

27, 1865— Vet. 
, '61... Absent at muster-out — Vet. 
, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18G5— 

Vet. 
, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865— 

Vet. 
, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 — 

Vet. 
, '64 ... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
, '62. ..Discharged Mar. 13, 18G5— expiration of 

term. 
, '62... Discharged by G. 0., June 19, 1865. 
, '61 ... Discharged by sentence of G. C. M., Apr. 

12, 1865. 
, '64. ..Transferred to company A, October 18, 1864 

—Vet. 
, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
, '61. , .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 — 

Vet. 
, '64.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 — 

Vet. 
, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
, '62. . .Discharged February 26, 18G5— expiration of 

term, 
, '62,., Discharged by G, O., June 19, 1865, 
, '63... Discharged by G. O, June 19, 1865. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Baney, William W. . . Private Aug. 25, '62. . .Discharged by G. C, June 19, 1865. 

Beck, Joseph do... Jan. 14, '65. . .Deserted Aug 11, 1865. 

Burket, Peter do... Sept. 30, '64... Not on muster-out roll. 

Clark, David do. . .Sept. 11, '61. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Vet. 
Champion, James A... do... Dec. 17, '62. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 
Conder, Andrew J. . . Private Oct. 12, '61. . .Discharged Nov. 4, 1864— expiration of ten 

Collins, Barnard do... Aug. 14, '61. . .Dishonorably discharged— date unknown. 

Cousins, John A do... Aug. 28, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Cosert, Daniel do... Aug. 30, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Cherry, John do... Mar. 3, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Coulter, William A. ...do... Mar. 9, '65. . .Promoted to Hospital Steward, May 1, 186 

Copenhaver, John do... Feb. 2, '64... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 8, 1865— V( 

Depp, John do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Dinsmore, Thos. J do... Apr. 1, '62. . .Discharged Mar. 31, 1865— expiration 

term. 

Dotty, John C do... Aug. 25, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Eastley, Raymond do... Aug 12, '64. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Ferry, Patrick S do. . .Sept.l5, '63. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Friel, Daniel do... Jan. 2, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Franklin, Adam do... Feb. 24, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Farr, George W do... Mar. 21, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Fleck, Martin L do... Mar. 31, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Fresh, Charles do... Jan. 21, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 

Frantz, Jacob do... Aug. 24, '63. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

Fawser, Edward do... Feb. 28", '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18, 1864— died i 

Kittanning, Pa., 1899. 

Gould, Henry do. . .Sept. 29, '61. . .Absent, sick, at muster out — Vet. 

Gray, William H do. . .Sept. 5, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

George, John do. . .Sept. 18, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Hoffer, John do... Jan. 15, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Hodiil, Jacob D do... Jan. 4, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Hammel, Thomas do... Jan. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Hetrick, Adam do... Aug. 28, '62. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

Hogan, John W do... Dec. IC, '63. . .Discharged by G. O., July 20, 1865— Vet. 

Hughes, William do... Feb. 2, '64. . .Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864— Vet. 

Himes, Levi do. . .Aug. 29, '62. . .Transferred to Vet, Reserve Corps., Apr. 1 

1865— discharged by G. O., June 19, 186 

Jones, Thomas do. . .Jan. 25, '65. . .Deserted Feb. 11, 1865. 

Johnston, Daniel do. . .Feb. 23, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., May 16, 1865. 

Keel, Henry H do... Mar. 31, '64. . .:\Iustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Keller, Elijah do... Mar. 24, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Karnes, Godfrey C. ...do... Feb. 29, '64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 

Kennedy, Philip do... Feb. 4, '62. . .Discharged Feb. 3, 1865— expiration of tern 

King, Francis M do... Aug. 5, 'C2. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 



244 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name 



Rank 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarks 



Kilgore, John Private Oct. 12, '61 . 

Long, John do... Mar. 30, '64. 

Lytle, C. W. E do... Feb. 27, "64. 

Lemon, Robert do... Feb. 16, '64. 

Lowry, Samuel do. . .Aug. 28, '62. 

Lenkirk, John do... Mar. 1, '63. 

Myers, David, R. P., Private Sept. 29, '61. 



Mohney, Lewis 



.do... Feb. 29, '64 



Mackey, David H do. . .Feb. 9, '64 . 

Miller, Henry do... Aug. 28, '62. 

Moore, David do . . . Aug. 28, '62 . 

Moore, Robt. C do... Aug. 31, '62. 

Matthias, David do . . .Feb. 2, '64 . 

Moore, Henry do... Jan. 25, '65. 

Martin, Andrew do... Jan. 27, '65. 

McCue, Martin do... Oct. 22, '63. 

M'Bride, E. H. C do. . .Sept. 22, '63 

M'Clellan, Jere. C do... Jan. 14, '64 

M'Canna, Barnabas ...do... June 19, '64, 

M'Collum, Robt do. . .Feb. 22, '65 

Nelson, Elias do. . . Sept. 16, '61 

Nichols, Andrew J. ...do... Mar. 10, '63 

Nulph, Jas. O do... Aug. 28, '63 

Procius, Adam do... Mar. 4, '64 

Patton, Samuel J do... Sept. 1, '64, 

Palmeter, Luman do. . .Sept. 15, '63, 

Reed, Joseph L do... Mar. 31, '64 

Reese, Levi do . . . Mar. 8, '65 , 

Reese, Edward M do... Aug. 28, '62 

Rea, Lemuel S do... Aug. 30, '62 

Richy, William A do... Sept. 1, '62 

Riley, William E do... Jan. 21, '65 

Rearick, Adam do... Feb. 22, 'Gfi 

Silvis, Jeremiah do. . .Sept. 29, '61 

Sagasar, Henry S do... Feb. 22, '64 

Schick, Adam do... Sept. 29, '61, 

Schmidt, Carl do . . . Sept. 16, '61 

Schick, Christian do. . .Feb. 29, '04 

Schick, Reuben M do... Mar. 29, '64 

Schick, William F do... Mar. 9, '64 



..Killed at Camp Wood, Ky., Dec. 28, 1861. 

..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

. . Absent at muster out. 

. . Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

..Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

..Discharged by G. C. M., June 15, 1865. 

. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 — 
Vet. 

. . Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 — 
Vet. 

..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

. . Discharged with G. 0., June 19, 1865. 

..Discharged by G. 0., June 19, 1865. 

. . Discharged by G. 0., June 19, 1865. 

..Transferred to Co. A, Oct 18, 1864— Vet. 

. .Deserted Feb. 4, 1865. 

..Deserted June 22, 1865. 

. . Mustered out with company, Sept. 1, 1865. 

..Absent, sick, at muster out. 

..Discharged by G. 0., May 19, 1865— Vet. 

..Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

..Discharged by G. O., June 13, 1865. 

..Absent, by sen. of G. C. M., at muster out- 
Vet 

..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 

..Discharged by G. 0., June 19, 1865. 

..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 

..Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

..Deserted — date unknown. 

..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 

..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 

..Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 

..Discharged by G. 0., June 19, 1865. 

..Discharged by G. 0., June 19. 1865. 

..Deserted Feb 19, 1865. 

..Discharged by G. O., Sept. 21, 1865. 

..Mustered out with company Sept. 11, 1865— 

..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Vet. 

. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865— 
Vet. 

. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 — 
Vet. 

..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



1865. 



1865. 



1S65. 
1865. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78lh REGIMENT P. V. I. 



24 



Name 

Shannon, Geo. B. . . . 
Sheen, Patrick . . . . 

Smith, Geo. M. 

Shannon, Oliver . . 
Stone, Sylvester E. 
Solinger, Peris G. . 
Steele, Samuel R. . 
Sullivan, Mark 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Rank 

Private Mar. 29, 'G4 
...do... July 25, '63 

.Jan. 

.Jan. 

• Mar. 

• Mar. 
..Oct. 

.Oct. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
..do. 
..do. 



Smith, Philip do... Oct. 12 

Slabry, Wm. H. R do... Aug. 14 

Smeltzer, John do... Aug. 14 

Smith, Levi H do... Aug. 28 

Smith, Andrew J do... Sept. 21 

Snyder, Albert do . . . Sept, 5 

Shirley, John R do... Feb. 28 

Sherman, John do... Aug. 21 

Shindledecker, A do... Aug. 21 

Shindledecker, Jno. . . .do. . .Sept. 21 
Sthallman, Geo. W. . . .do. . .Sept. 21 
Smith, Geo. W do... Feb. 2G 

Spencer, Hiram L do... Feb. 17 

Slocum, A. G. C do... Aug. 28 

Shick, John R do... Aug. 21 

Shay, John do . . . 

Thornburg, John R. . . .do. . .Feb. 
Thompson, McLain . . .do. . .Mar. 

Thompson, R. R do... Feb. 

Thompson, Jno. W. ...do... Jan. 

Wolff, John G do... Sept. 

Young, John P do... Aug. 



'64. 
'64. 
'G4. 
'G4. 
•G3. 
'Gl. 



'61., 
'Gl. 

'61. 

'62. 

'64. 

'62. 

'G4., 

'62., 

'62. 

'64. 

'64. 

'62. 



Remarks 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18Gc 
.Absent by sentence G. C. M., at muster out 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18C5 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186c 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864* — e.xpiration o 

term. 
.Discharged Nov. 4, 1864 — expiration of terra 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate — dat 

unknown. 
.Discharged on Surgeon's certificate — dat 

unknown. 
.Discharged by G. O., May 25, 18G5. 
.Drafted— discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865 
.Discharged by G. C, June 19, 1865. 
.Discharged by G. 0., May 27, 1865. 
.Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 
O., June 19, 
O., June 19, 
0., June 19, 



18G5. 
1865. 
1865. 



25, 1 865— expiration o 



.Discharged by G. 

.Discharged by G. 

.Discharged by G. 

.Discharged Feb. 
term. 

.Transferred to Co. A, Oct. 18, 1864. 

.Transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps., Apr. 13 
1865. 

.Died at Ringgold, Pa., June 23, 1865. 
Died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 29, 1864. 
'64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18G5 
'64... Absent on furlough, at muster out. 
'64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
'64. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186c 
'62... Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 
'62... Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 



'64. 
'62. 



•Gl. 



Company C 

A. B. Selheimer, Capt Feb. 20, '65. . .Mustered out 

John S. M'Ewen, 1st Lt Feb. 20, '65. . .Mustered out 

Samuel Eisenbeis, 2d Lt. ... Feb. 20, '65. . .Mustered out 

Chas. H. Henderson, 1st Serg Mustered out 

Feb. 18, '65 . . . Mustered out 

Jos. S. Waream, Serg Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out 

Matthew P. Stroup, Serg. .. Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out 



with 


company. 


Sept. 




1865 


with 


company, 


Sept. 




186J 


with 


company, 


Sept. 




1865 


with 


company, 


Sept. 




1865 


with 


company. 


Sept. 




1865 


with 


company. 


Sept. 




1865 


with 


company. 


Sept. 




1865 



246 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name — Rank 

William H. Kitting, Serg. 
Samuel Chestnut, Serg. . . 
James Luker, Corp 



■Geo. W. Snyder, Corp. 



Jas. H. Jacobs, Muc 

Hobert S Rowe, Corp 

William H. Felix, Corp 

Wm. W. Hamaker, Corp. . . . 
David B. Weber, Corp. . . . 

Charles Miller, Corp 

Thomas J. Enney, Corp . . . 

Gustin P. Riden, Corp 

Alter, Jos. H Private 

Adams, John do.. 



Arnold, Simon J 
Allebach, Knox P 
Bcarly, Jacob . . 
Brought, John A. 
Broom, Dickson 
Boyden, Thomas 
Cook, Josiah W. 
Comfort, Joseph A 
Conner, Geo. E. 
Comfort, Samuel M 
Dasher, Henry 
Delhi, Jones P. 
Drake, Brice B. 
Dreese, Banks 
Fetzer, William H 
Ficthorn, Joseph A 
Freeburn, Geo. W 
Fear, Wm. W. . 
Fear, Elmer S. . 
Ford, Samuel W. 
Friend, Jeremiah 
Gezette, Martin 
Gregory, Stephen P 
Hart, Geo. W. . . . 
Hogle, Gilbert . . 
Himes, John L. . 
Hamaker, Jas. P. 
Hineman, Sebastian 



..do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do.. 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do., 
.do.. 



Hess, Samuel do. 



Date of Muster 
into Service Remarks 

Feb. 18, 'G5. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18C5 
Feb. 18, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, 'G5. . .Promoted to Corp., June 3, 1865— mustered 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Feb. 18, '65. ..Promoted to Corp., July 1, 1865— musterec 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Feb. 18, '65 ... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11. 1865 
Feb. 18, '65 ... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Discharged by G. C, June 2, 1865. 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
.Feb. 14, '65.. .Discharged by G. C, Aug. 21, 1865. 
.Feb. 18, '65... Discharged by G. O., May 16, 1865. 
.Feb. 24, '65... Not on muster-out roll. 
• Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
.Feb. 18, '65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
.Feb. 18, '65 ... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
.Feb. 18, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
.Feb. 18, '65... Discharged by G. C, June 7, 1865. 
.Feb. 18, '65... Discharged by G. 0., June 7, 1865. 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65... Deserted Aug. 18, 1865. 
Feb. 18, '65... Deserted Aug. 12, 1865. 

Feb. 18, '65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65... Died at Nashville. Tenn., May 14. 1865. 
Feb. 18, '65... Deserted Aug. 17, 1865. 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 14, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11. 1865 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186E 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Discharged by special order, date unknown 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186" 
Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18C." 
Feb. 18, '65. . ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1S6E 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



247 



Name 

jjackson, Michael . . . 
Jones, Thomas C. . . 

Kraft, Daniel J 

Kerr, Frederick R. . 
Lowmiller, Thomas 

Little, Chas. F 

Lotz, Adam 

Mitchell, Charles . . 

Morrison, Jas 

Mattreu, Daniel D. . 

Miller, Jos. A 

Morrison, Samuel F. 
Marks, Samuel A. . . 

Meuzer, Levi A 

May, Jas. H 

May, Wm. S. . 
M'Coy, Jas. R , 
M'Gregor, Daniel C 
Nighthart, John F. 
Owens, Jos, M, 
Oruer, Jos. B. . 
Peuebaker, Eph. B. 
Peters, Geo. A. . 
Price, John . . . . , 
Portprfield, S. A. 
Price, Ellas .... 
Ramsey, Samuel J. 
Ramsey, Wm. "W. 
Riden, Lewis H. 
Riddle, Samuel . 

Rager, Jos 

Riden, Wm. C. . . 
Rothrock, Jas. . . 
Snyder Geo. A. . 
Smithers, Geo. W. 
Smith, Theodore B. 
Singleton, John 
Stevens, Geo. W. 
Smithers, Robt. 
Steinbarger, H. J. 
Shull, Abraham D. 
Jhimp, Thompson 
5peese, John S. 
5witzer, Daniel 
j Shields, Chas. G. 



Rank 

Private Feb 
. . .do. . .Feb. 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Kemarks 

18, '65... Discharged by G. O., May 20, 18G5. 
18, '65... Deserted Aug. 24. 1865. 
Feb. 18, '65 . . . Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



..do.. 

..do... Feb. 14, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
..do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
..do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Discharged by G. C, May 20, 1865. 
..do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., May 15, 1865. 
..do... Feb. 18, 'G5. . .Dsicharged by G. C, Sept. 8, 1865. 
..do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
..do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65 ... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65... Discharged by G. 0., May 12, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65... Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65... Discharged by G. O., July 15, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. IS, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster-out. 

.Feb. 18, '65... Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65... Deserted Aug. 24, 1865. 

18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 10, '65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65... Discharged by G. 0., June 6, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Feb. 18, '65 ... Discharged by G. 0., May 23, 1865. 



..do. 
..do. 
..do. 
..do. 
..do. 
..do. 
. do. 
..do. 
..do. 
,.do. 
, .do. 

.do.. .Feb 
. . do . . . Feb 
, .do.. 

..do. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

..do. 

.do.. 
..do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

..do. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 



.Feb. 18, '65 ... Discharged by G. C, June 8, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Mar. 27, 1865. 

• Feb. 18, '65. . .Absent, on detached service at muster out. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65 ... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

..Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



.Feb. 18, '65... Discharged by G. O., Aug. 28, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 18, '65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Feb. 15, '65... Discharged by G. O., Aug. 21, 1865. 

.Feb. 16, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11. 1865. 



248 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service Remarks 

Shingler, Jeremiah .. Private Feb. 22, 'G5. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186E 
Shingler, Christopher ..do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186f 

Smith, Jas. W do... Feb. 18, 'Go. . .Discharged by G. 0., June 7, 1865. 

Stackpole, Jas. B do... Feb. 18, '65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Mar. 23, 1865. 

Saeger, Josiah do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Deserted June 20, 18C5. 

Tice, Gideon M do... Feb. 18, '05. . .Discharged by G. 0., May 17, 1865. 

Thomas, M'Connell do... Feb. 18, '65 ... Discharged by G. 0., June 6, 1865. 

Umbarger, Obe'h L. . ..do... Feb. 18, '65 ... Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Vanzandt, Jacob A. ...do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, ISCf 

Waream, Edmund B. ..do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18GE 

Waream, John A do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18Gc 

Whithoff, Henry do. . .Feb. 18, '65. .. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186^ 

Webb, Lafayette do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Absent, on detached service, at muster out 

Webb, Thaddeus B. ...do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186f 

Wolfkill, Daniel D do... Feb. 23, '65 ... Mustered out with company, Sept. -11, 186!^ 

Zeigler, John do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186." 






Company D 



John A. Swartz, Capt Feb. 22, '65. 

Wash. L. Stoey, 1st IJ. Feb. 22, '65. 

Samuel M. Mitchell, 2d Lt. .. Feb. 22, '65. 

Benjamin E. Dailey, 1st Serg. Feb. 17, '65. 

Fred W. Yingst, 1st Serg. ... Feb. 17, '65. 

Oliver Atticks, Serg Feb. 20, '65. 

Samuel C. Miller, Serg Feb. 20, '65. 

L. C. Cornman, Serg Feb. 8, '65. 

Jacob Walters, Serg Feb. 8, '65. 

Peter Fitzpatrick, Serg Feb. 22, '65. 

George H. Coover, Serg Feb. 18, '65. 

Abra'm W. Rudisill, Corp. .. Feb. 17, '65. 

Jas. Forster, Corp Feb. 20, '65. 

Adam H. Weaver, Corp Feb. 8. '65. 

Porter Fink, Corp Feb, 17. '65. 

John Kepford, Corp Feb. 18, '65. 

Martin M'Comas, Corp Feb. 20, '05. 



.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186J 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186f 
.Promoted from Serg., June 3, 1865 — mustere 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Discharged by G. O., June 2, 1865. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186f 
.Promoted from Corp., June 3, 1865 — mustere 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Promoted from Corp., June 3, 1865 — mustere 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Promoted from Corp., July 7, 1865 — mustere 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
..Discharged by G. O., June 2, 1865. 
..Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 6, 1865. 
..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186i 
..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186i 
..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
, . Promoted to Corp., June 3, 1865 — mustere 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
..Promoted to Corp., June 3, 1865 — discharge 

by G. 0., Aug. 28, 1865. 
..Promoted to Corp., July 7, 1865— mustere 
out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78(h REGIMENT P. V. I. 



249 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Name— Rank 
bhn J. Keller, Corp Feb. 20, '65 



Remarks 
to Corp., July 18, 



ohn Atkinson, Corp Peg. 17, '65 



Villiam Ebersole, Corp Feb. 20, 

'homas Maloney, Corp Feb. 17 

amuel H. Zell, Corp Feb. 8 

am. M. Longwell, Miic Feb. 17 

lichael Maloney, Muc Feb. 17 

luchenbach, J. N. . . Private Feb. 17 

LShbaugh, Alex do. . .Feb. 16 

Irenner, Jacob do... Feb. 17 

lussom, Jas. C do... Feb. 17 

tishop, Geo. W do...Feb.l7 

Irady, Sam'l R. P do . . . Feb. 17 

lonhayro, Lewis do... Feb. 16 



tricker, Jos do... Feb. 11 

lott, Wm. C do... Feb. 20 

Hack, Adam do... Feb. 8 

leard, Wm do... Feb. 17 

loden, "Wm. H do . . . Mar. 7 

tender ,Cloyd C do... Feb. 22 

learcroft, Wm do. . .Feb. 11 

•ornelius, Geo. J do... Feb. 20 

lulbert, Thomas do . . . Feb. 22 

ladwalader, J. W. .. Private Feb. 22 

louch, Geo. W do. . .Mar. 7 

)ougherty, Wm. H do... Feb. 17 

)itler, Geo. W do... Feb. 18 

)ay, David A do . . .Feb. 8 

)unn, James do...Feb. 2C 

Jshclman, Daniel do... Feb. 8 

niiott, Daniel do... Feb. 17 

Jbersole, Michael do... Feb. 18 

^easter, William do... Feb. 22 

^ry, Benjamin D do... Feb. 

'ink, Isaiah do. . . Feb. 

^easier, John do . . . Feb. 

I'oley, Terrence do... Mar. 

rentzler, Solomon do... Feb. 

Jraves, Geo do... Feb. 21 

ralloway, Geo do... Feb. 16 

laldoman, Samuel do. ..Feb. 20 

less, Washington do... Feb. 18 



.Promoted to Corp., July 18, 1865 — mustered 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Promoted to Corp., Sept. 1, 1865 — mustered 
out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., July 18, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. O., June 3, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. O., Aug. 28, 1865. 
'65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Deserted July 27, 1865. 
.Absent, sick, at muster out. 
• Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Substitute — mustered out with company, 
Sept. 11. 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Discharged by G. O., June 2, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., May 16, 1865. 
..Discharged by G. 0., June 3, 1865. 
..Discharged by G. O., May 27, 1865. 
..Deserted Aug. 23, 1865. 
..Died at Alexandria, Va., Mar. 23, 1865. 
..Absent, sick, at muster out. 
..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



'65. 
'65. 
•65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 



'65. 
•65. 
•65. 
•65. 

•65. 
•65. 



'65... Discharged by G. 0.. Aug. 28, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., May 12, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., May 16. 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. O., June 8, 1865. 
'65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 
'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., May 27, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., May 30, 1865. 
'65... Deserted April 9, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0.. June 12, 1865. 
'65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Mar. 9, 1865. 
'65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



250 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Into Service 



Name Rank 

Hoffman, Henry A. . . Private Feb. 8, 

Hoopes, Harland A do... Feb. 17 

Hinkle, William do... Feb. 7 

Higgins, Thomas do . . . Feb. 22 

Isenberg, Wm. H. . . . Private Mar. 7 

Koller, Luther do . . . Feb. 17 

Kinney, Wilson do... Feb. 22 

Kier, Thos. M do... Mar. 7 

Kennedy, John do . . . Mar. 25 

Leedy, Daniel, do... Feb. 22 

Lerew, Jesse do... Feb. 22 

Lieb, Sobieski do... Feb. 18 

Littimer, William do . . . Apr. 5 

Loyer, Jacob do . . . Feb. 22 

Myers, David H do . . . Feb. 20 

Mooney, Henry A do... Feb. 17 

Mateer, Jas. D do... Feb. 8 

Mitchell, Jesse F do. . . Apr. 4 

Martin, Wm. H do... Feb. 18 

M'Guire, Charles do. . . Feb. 20 

M'Clellan, Wm. K do... Mar. 7 

M'Millen, Scott do... Feb. 18 

M' Adoo, John, do . . . Mar. 7 

M'Gartlin, Joseph do... Feb. 21 

M'Cally, John do... Mar. 25 

M'Clellan, Jas do... Mar. 7 

Nickel, John do... Feb. 11 

Neidig, David, do... Feb. 20 

Neary, Jos Private Apr. 4 

Peck, Simon D do... Feb. 17 

Price, Wm. H do. . .Feb. 9 

Patterson, W. H. F do... Feb. 20 

Palmer, Jacob G do. ..Feb. 22 

Potts, Taylor do... Feb. 14 

Peiffer, Jacob do... Feb. 11 

Ragan, James do . . . Feb. 18 

Rhea, Joseph do . . . Mar. 7 

Rockey, Michael do... Feb. 17 

Raber, Wm. H do... Feb. 18 

Still, Wm do... Feb. 17 

Stroh, Andrew J do... Feb. 17 

Spencer, Chas. C do... Feb. 18 

Stence, Frederick D do... Feb. 18 

Showalter, Samuel do... Feb. 17 



Remarks 



'65 . . . Absent, sick, at muster out. 
65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
•65... Discharged by G. O., May 23, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., June 3, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0.. June 3, 1865. 
'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Deserted April 9, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. O., Sept. 9, 1865. 
'65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., May 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Absent, sick, at muster out. 
'65. ..Absent, sick, at muster out. 
'65. ..Absent, sick, at muster out. 
'65... Absent, sick, at muster out. 
'65... Discharged by G. O., June 14, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Substitute — absent, sick, at muster out. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., June 24, 1865. 
'65... Deserted April 9, 1865. 
'65... Deserted July 27, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., July 15, 1865. 
'65. ..Mustered out with company. Sept 
'65... Mustered out with company, Sept 
'65... Substitute — mustered out with 

Sept. 11. 1865. 
'65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Apr. 24, 1865 
'65... Mustered out with company. Sept 
'65... Mustered out with company. Sept 
'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 
'65... Absent, sick, at muster out. 
'65... Discharged by G. O.. June 24, 1865. 



11, 1865. 
11, 1865. I 
companj' 



11, 1865. 
11, 1865. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



251 



Name Rank 

Showalter, Geo. W. . . Private 

Sweltzer, Christian do,., 

Shanahan, Edward do.., 

Troup, Eli H do.., 

Taylor, Geo. H do. . . 

Thompson, Henry C. ...do.., 

Wonderly, David C do... 

Wilkins, Thos do.. 

Wolf, Philip D do.., 

Witcom, Jos. H do. . 

Walborn, Jacob do . . , 

Winters, Herman do.. 



Date of 
into S 


Muster 
jrvice 


Feb. 


17, 


'65... 


.Feb. 


21, 


•65... 


.Feb. 


16, 


'65... 


.Feb. 


18, 


'65... 


. Mar. 


22, 


'65... 


.Feb. 


18, 


'65... 


Feb. 


20, 


'65... 


.Feb. 


22, 


'65... 


.Feb. 


16, 


'65... 


.Feb. 


17, 


'65... 


.Feb. 


22, 


'65... 


.Feb. 


17, 


'65... 



Remarks 

Discharged by G. 0., June 14, 1865. 
Deserted, Aug. 25. 1865. 
Died at Nashville, Tenn., May 3, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Died at Columbus, Ohio. Mar. 1, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Discharged by G. 0., June 7, 1865. 
Deserted July 22. 1865. 



Company E 

Robert I. Boggs, Capt Feb. 27, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Alex. Gillespie, 1st Lt Feb. 27, '65. . .Resigned June 10. 1865. 

Lewis Gansz, 2d Lt Feb. 27, 'C5. . .Commissioned 1st Lt., June 10, 1865 — not 

mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
1865. 

Charles Hoffman, 1st Serg., Feb. 23, '65. . .Commissioned 2d Lt, June 1, 1865— not 

mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
1SG5. 

John Kay, Serg Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18G5. 

Samuel Beers do... Feb. 21, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Frederick Burry do... Feb. 20, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Christy Robb do. . .Feb. 21, '65. . .Promoted from Corp., July 19, 1865— muster- 
ed out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

James Barton, Corp Feb. 18, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., Feb. 27, 1865— discharg- 
ed by G. O., Sept. 9, 1865. 

Theophilus Graham, Corp. . Feb. 24, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Nicholas Kramer, Corp. ... Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Samuel A. Davis do... Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Henry Davis do... Feb. 21, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., June 5, 18G5— mustered 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Frederick Pilgrim do... Feb. 16, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., June 5, 1864— mustered 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

John H. Muder do... Feb. 15, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., July 19, 1865— mustered 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

William Duncan, Corp. ... Feb. 22, '65. . .Discharged by G. 0., May 15, 1865. 

Thos. R. Williams, Corp. ... Feb. 20, '65. . .Discharged by G. 0., June 3, 1865. 

'Alex. T. Dunbar, Corp Feb. 20, '65 .. .Promoted to Corp., July 19, 1865— deserted 

Aug. 5, 1865. 

Detmor P. Boggs, Hue Feb. 21, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER TSth REGIMENT P. V. I. 



N'ame— Ranli 

Philip Cradle, Muc 

Armstrong, Joseph, Private 
Armstrong, Wm. M. ..do.. 
Alexander, Jacob S. ...do.. 

Alexander, Jos. H do.. 

Augustine, Jacob do . . 

Bohn, Charles do . . 

Bedillion, Robt do . . 

Beckman, Irwin do . . 

Bauman, Frederick ...do.. 

Behm, William F do.. 

Black, Lewis do . . 

Bartley, Williamson ...do.. 
Bartley, Naaman F. ..do.. 
Bartley, Washington . . do . . 

Crooksbank, J. C do.. 

Covert, Benjamin F. ..do.. 

Critchlow, Jahn C do.. 

Dresher, William do.. 

Dombart, John do . . 

Dershiner, Jacob W. ..do.. 

Dunbar, Daniel do.. 

Dresher, Henry do.. 

Duncan, Philip do.. 

Foreman, James do.. 

Fry, George W do . . 

Gilliland, John W do.. 

Grubbs, Patterson .... do. . 

Garvin, James R do.. 

Goehring, Lewis do.. 

Gibson, Samuel S do.. 

Graham, William do.. 

Gold, William J do.. 

Hays, George do.. 

Heckert, Amos do. . 

Hays, James do.. 

Horn, James D do.. 

Heller, Erdman do. 

Hamor, Adrian C do.. 

Kirker, Martin L do.. 

Kuhn, James do . . 

Kaltenbaugh, J do.. 

Kennedy, Peter do.. 

Kerr, Reason J do . 

Lerner, Lewis do . . 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Feb. 20 
Feb. 24 
.Feb. 24 
.Feb. 17 
.Feb. 17 
.Feb. 20 
.Feb. 15 
.Feb. 15 
.Feb. 15 
.Feb. 15 
.Feb. 18 
.Feb. 24 
.Feb. 17 
.Feb. 17 
.Feb. 17 
.Feb. 22 
.Feb. 18 
.Feb. 20 
.Feb. 15 
.Feb. 18 
.Feb. 21 
.Feb. 28 
.Feb. 15 
.Feb. 20 
.Feb. 14 
.Feb. 21 
.Feb. 20 
.Feb. 14 
.Feb, 
.Feb. 
.Apr, 
.Feb, 
.Feb. 25 
.Feb. 17 
.Feb. 15 
.Feb. 1^ 
.Feb. 23 
..Feb. 15 
.Feb. 20 
.Feb. 
.Feb. 
.Feb. 
.Feb. 
.Apr. 
.Feb. 



15 



'65. 



Remarks 
Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186!! 



'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with compauy, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Discharged Mar. 31, 1865. 

'65... Deserted Aug. 8, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

'65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

'65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company. Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65 . . . ^Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Discharged by G. O., May 23, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Promoted to Prin. Mus., Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... .Deserted Aug. 8, 1865. 

'65. .. Mustered out with company. Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 19, 1865. 

'65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

'65... Discharged by G. O., Aug. 28, 1865. 

'65. .. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Discharged Aug. 24, 1865. 

'65. . .Deserted Aug. 8, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1805. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'05... Discharged by G. O., May 23, 1865. 

'65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 12, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18G5. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18G5. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 



253 



Name Rank 

Lawall, John Privat 

Lensner, John G do, , 

Lutz, Jacob do-. 

Marburger, George do.. 

Mochol, Michael do . . 

Michael, Chris do.. 

Michael, Edward do.. 

Miller. Levi J do . . 

Maxler, Francis do.. 

Martin, Aug. N do.. 

Morgan, John H do. . 

Martin> William H do.. 

M'Intyre, George do. 

M'Ginley, John do.. 

Neely, Thomas do.. 

Nixon, Alfred G do.. 

Powell, John do . . 

Lowell, Wilson do.. 

Pearce, David E do. . 

Phillips, Joseph do.. 

Potts, James do. . 

Raabe, Charles do. . 

Roth, Alfred J do . . 

Reddick, Charles do.. 

Raabe, Christian do.. 

Rogers, Charles do.. 

Ramsey, William do.. 

Ruby, Andrew do.. 

Renger, Valentine do.. 

Rice, John B do. . 

Scliroth, Christian ....do.. 

Sefton, Edward ..do.. 

Shuster, Gottlieb do.. 

St. Clair, John W do.. 

Schaffer, George W. ...do.. 

Shelly, Martin do . . 

Spang, Josiah R do.. 

Shell, George do.. 

Tomay, Francis do.. 

Thompson, Jas. W do.. 

Thonbury, Sam. R do.. 

Trimble, Samuel do.. 

Vandivoort, Milton ....do.. 
Whitner, Valentine . . . do . . 
IZwanziger, Jno do.. 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarks 



6 Feb. 15, 'G5. ..Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Mar. 6, '65. . .IMustered out with company, 
.Feb. 18, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. T5, '65... Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 20, '65... Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 14, '65... 

.Feb. 23, '65... Discharged Aug. 30, 1862. 
.Feb. 18, '65... Deserted Feb. 28, 1865. 
.Feb. 18, '65... Deserted Aug. 5, 1865. 
..Feb. 23, '6.5. ..Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 22, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Mar. 6, '65. ..Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 21, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 18, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. IS, '65. ..Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 17, '65. ..Absent, sick, at muster out. 
.Feb. 21, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 17, '65... Deserted Aug. 8, 1865. 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 23, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 16, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 18, '65... Discharged by G. O., Sept. 8 
.Feb. 21, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 
.Feb. 25, '65. ..Mustered out with company, 
.Mar. 6, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 
.Feb. 17, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 20, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 
.Feb. 21, '65. ..Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 14, '65... Deserted Feb. 28, 1865. 
.Feb. 16, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 14, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 
.Feb. 25, '65. ..Discharged by G. O., May 23. 
.Feb. 15, '65... Deserted Aug. 5, 1865. 
.Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 21, '65. ..Mustered out with company, 
.Feb. 20, '65... 



Sept. 11, 

Sept. 11, 

Sept. 11, 

Sept. 11, 

Sept. 11, 

Sept. 11, 

Sept. 11, 



Sept. 11, 
Sept. 11, 
Sept. 11, 
Sept. 11, 
Sept. 11, 
Sept. 11, 



1865. 
1865. 
1865. 

1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 



1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 



Sept. 11, 1865. 



Sept. 




1865. 


Sept. 




1865 


Sept. 




1865 


Sept. 




1865 


Sept. 




1865 


, 1865 


, 





Sept. 11, 1865. 



Sept. 


11, 


1865 


Sept. 


11, 


1865 


Sept. 


11, 


1865 


Sept. 


11, 


1865. 


Sept. 


11, 


1865. 


Sept. 


11, 


1865. 



1865. 

Sept. 11, 
Sept. 11, 



1865. 
1865. 



254 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Company F 



Name— Rank 

James L. Graham, Capt. 



Date of Muster 
into Service 

Feb. 27, '6r, 



Remarks 



Thomas Nelson, 1st Lt Mar. 1, 'G5. 

Walter Reynolds, 2d Lt Feb. 27, '65. 

James Wallace, 1st Serg. .. Feb. 23, '65. 

William Canby, Serg Feb. 16, '65. 

George Rowan, Serg Feb. 16, '65. 

David Roberts, Serg Feb. 23, '65. 

James G. Mitchell Feb. 23, '65. 

Jonas Byers. Corp Feb. 21, '65 . 

Robert M'Elherson, Corp. . . Feb. 23, '65 . 

John M'Broom, Corp Feb. 20, '65. 

John A. Bennett, Corp Feb 20, '65 . 

Anthony Thompson, Corp. .. Feb. 23, '65. 

Henry Marshall, Corp Feb. 23. '65 . 

James M'Cartney, Corp. ... Feb. 20, '65. 

John Lees, Corp Feb. 23, '65 . 

George M'Cartney, Corp. ... Feb. 20, '65. 
Wm. Neithercoat, Corp Feb. 11, '65. 

George Robinson, Corp Feb. 23, '65. 

Patrick Devine, Corp Feb. 23, '65. 

George W. Smith, Miic Feb. 14, '65 . 

George W. Roof, Muc Feb. 14, '65 . 

Ackelson, John Private Feb. 23, '65. 

Benedict, Wm. J do... Feb. 15, '65. 

Blundin, James do... Feb. 20, '65. 

Baldwin, Thomas do. . .Feb. 10, '65. 

Nowman, John do... Feb. 8, '65. 

Burtt, William S do... Feb. 23, '65. 

Burtt, Charles N do... Feb. 23, '65. 

Boyer, Elias do... Mar. 6, '65. 

Black, Solomon do... Feb. 14, '65. 

Bilbey, Christopher ...do... Mar. 17, '65. 

Bratton, Samuel C do. . .Feb. 13, '65. 

Blain, James do. . .Feb. 23, '65. 

Brown, David do. . .Feb. 20, '65. 

Bcnner, George do... Feb. 22, '65. 

Bundu, Eugene H do... Feb. 25, '65. 

Chisholm, James do. . .Feb. 15, '65. 

Caughey, Samuel W. ..do... Feb. 23. '65. 

Clouse, Jacob do... Feb. 14, '65. 



.Absent, with leave, at muster out — mustered 
out afterwards to date, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Absent, on furlough, at muster out 

. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

, Absent, sick, at muster out. 

. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

. Promoted to Corp., Feb. 27, 18G5 — mustered 
out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18C5. 

. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., July 12, 1865. 

.Discharged on Surgeon's, certificate, 
27, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., July 12, 1865. 

.Deserted Mar. 3, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company. Sept 

.Absent, sick, at muster out. 

.Mustered out with company. Sept 

.Mustered out with company, Sept 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11. 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. IJ, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18G5 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18C5 

.Absent, sick, at muster out. 

.Mustered out with company. Sept 

.Absent, sick, at muster out. 

.Mustered out with company. Sept 

.Discharged by G. O., May 12, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 2, 1865. 

• Mustered out with company, Sept. II, 1865 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 3 865 

• Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 



May 



11, 1865. 

11, 1865. 
11, •Ji65. 



11, 1865 



11. 1S65 



HISTORY AND ROSTER TSth REGIMENT P. V. I. 



25 



Name 



Date of Muster 
Rank into Service 



Remarks 



Cypher, William H. . . Private 

Dipple, George do... Feb. IG 

Davis, "Watter N do. 

Etzler, Daniel do . 

Elder, William W do. 

Fry, John P do . 

Forsyth, Leicester K. ..do. 

Fullerton, Miles do. 

Fullerton, John do. 

Gilmartin, Patrick ....do. 

Graham, Thomas do. 

Gaston, Alex. L do.. 

Groff, Samuel do. 

Griffith, William do. 

Haswell, John do. 

Hick, Frank do. 

Irwin, Thomas do. 

Jones, Thomas do. 

Jones, Daniel do . 

Krenzlien, William do. 

Kelly, Francis A do. 

Keighly, Wm. H do. 

Kearns, Jerome do. 

Kelly, James do. 

Kramer, Charles do . 

Lewis, William G do. 

Letzkus, George do. 

Lehman, Christ'p'r J., do., 

Logan, Calvin do., 

Lewis, Samuel do. 

Larrimer, Joseph D. ...do. 

Morrow, John do... Feb. 23 

Moore, George do. . .Feb. 23 

Magee, Lewis do... Feb. 14 

Maitland, Amos do. .Feb. 25 

Maxwell, James A do... Feb. 26 

M'Murray, William do. 

M'Govern, John do. 

M'Millan, Samuel do. 

M'Garvey, James do. 

M'Alice, John do. 



.Feb. 28 
.Feb. 16 
.Feb. 14 
.Feb. 23 
.Feb. 16 
.Feb. 22 
.Feb. 20 
.Feb. 15 
.Feb. 23 
.Feb. 14, 
.Feb. 7 
.Feb. 20 
.Feb. 15 
.Feb. 14 
.Feb. 23 
.Feb. 20 
.Feb. 20 
.Feb. 20 
.Feb. 16 
.Feb. 16 
.Feb. 23 
.Feb. 14 
.Feb. 15 
.Feb. 23 
.Feb. 16 
. Mar. 6 
.Mar. 17 
.Feb. 13 
.Feb. 23 



Feb. 23 
Feb. 23 
Feb. 23 
Feb. 16 
Feb. 15 



M'Grain, James 
Neal, John C. . . 
Neal, Alexander 



..do.. Feb. 23 
.do... Feb. 23 
.do. . .Feb. 15 



'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
"Go. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 

'65. 
'65. 
'65. 



Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1?6! 
. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1861 
. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1861 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 
. Oischarged by G. C, June 12, 1865. 
. 'discharged by G. 0., June 12, 1865. 
.Discharged by G. 0., July 12, 1865. 
. ;)eserted Sept. 6, 1865. 
. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1861 
. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186i 
.Absent, sick, at muster out. 
.Discharged by G. 0., June 2, 1865. 
.Died at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 20, 1865. 
• INIustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Deserted Sept. 6. 1865. 
. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Absent, on furlough, on muster out. 
.Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 4, 1865. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Absent, sick, at muster out. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1861 
.iMustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1861 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1861 
.Deserted Mar. 3, 1865. 

. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186i 
.:\Iustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Discharged by G. 0., June 2, 1865. 
.Discharged by G. 0., July 12, 1865. 
.Discharged by G. 0., June 3, 1865. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Deserted Sept. 6, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.:Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Deserted Mar. 4, 1865 — returned May 1( 

1865— discharged May 11, 1865. 
.Deserted Sept. 6, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186! 



256 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name 

Newton, William . . . 
Nickle, James H. . 
Nicholas, Edward . 

Pike, William 

Powell, William . . 
Prophater, Jackson 
Roberts, Thomas . . 

Reed, Thomas 

Rice, Isaac B 

Rush, Thomas 

Rush, John H 

Reynolds, James . . 
Stevenson, Harvey 
Stevenson, John . . 

Shrock, Abner 

Swingle, Jacob 

Sloan, John D. . . . 
Sowers, William . . 

Stoer, John 

Smith, Philip 

Scott, William 

Vanica, William J. 

White, Albert 

Wilkinson, John . . 

Waters, Silas 

Watson, Samuel . . 



Rank 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarlis 



Private Feb. 23, '65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 23, '65... Absent, sick, at muster out. 
...do... Feb. 15, '65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 14, '65... Absent, sick, at muster out. 
...do... Feb. 13, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 24, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 23, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 11, '65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

..do... Mar, 6, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

..do... Mar. 17, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 16, "65. . .Discharged by G. O., May 15, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 15, '65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., May 12, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 21, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., Oct. 3, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 23, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 20, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 20, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

..do... Mar. 17, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

..do... Mar. 21, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 23, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., May 23, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 10, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Deserted Mar. 2, 1865. 

...do... Feb. 21, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 6, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 20, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Mar. 17, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
...do... Feb. 8, '65... Deserted Mar. 2, 1865— returned June 10, 
1865 — mustered out with company, Sept. 
11, 18G5. 

Young, Andrew do... Feb. 23, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Yeager, Jacob do... Feb. 25, '65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Company G 

David S. Cook, Capt Mar. 2, '65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Isaac Reno, 1st Lt Mar. 2, '65. ..Resigned, May 27, 1865. 

James R. Cowden, 1st Lt Mar. 2, '65. . .Promoted from 2d Lt., July 1, 1865— mustered I 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Benjamin Craven, 2d Lt Feb. 27, '65. . .Promoted from 1st Serg., July 1, 1865— 

mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Forbes J. Wylie, 1st Serg. ... Feb. 27, '65. ..Promoted to Serg., Mar. 2, 1865— to 1st Serg., 

July 1, 1865— mustered out with company, 

Sept. 11, 1865. 
Alex. S. Anderson, Serg Feb. 27, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., Mar. 2, 1865— to Serg., 

Mar. 3, 1865— mustered out with company, 

Sept. 11, 1865. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78tli REGIMENT P. Y. I. 



2 



Date of Muster 
Xame— Rank into Service Remarks 

William J. Woods, Serg Mar. 13, '65. . .Promoted to Serg., Mar. 27, 1865 — musten 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Samuel White, Serg Feb. 27, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., Mar. 2, 1865— to Serj 

July 1, 1865 — mustered out with compan 

Sept. Ih 1865. 
J. W. Strawbridge, Serg Feb. 27, 'G5. . .Promoted to Corp., Mar. 2, 1865— to Serj 

August 12, 1865 — mustered out with coi 

pany, Sept. 11, 1865. 

William A. Tait, Serg Feb. 27, '65.. .Discharged by G. 0., August 11, 1865. 

John G. Branyan, Corp Feb. 27, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., Mar. 2, 1865 — muster* 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Lewis F. Demmler, Corp Feb. 27, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., Mar. 2, 1865— musten 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Wm. F. Brannan, Corp Feb. 27, 65. . .Promoted to Corp., Mar. 2, 1865— musten 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Samuel M'Brown, Corp Feb. 25, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., Mar. 2, 1865 — absent, sic 

at muster out. 
James Holton, Corp Feb. 27, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., May 17, 1865 — muster 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Robert Savage, Corp Feb. 27, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., July 1, 1865— muster 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Joseph C. Frazier, Corp. Feb. 27, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., July 1, 1865— muster 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
John C. Ashton, Corp Feb. 27, '65. . .Promoted to Corp., Aug. 12, 1865— muster 

out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

James H. Smith, Corp Feb. 27, '65. . .Discharged by G. 0., May 17, 1865. 

David M Clark, Muc Feb. 27, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Edwin Ayers, Muc Feb. 27, '65. , .Discharged by G. O., Aug. 7, 1865. 

Ashton, Stephen M. Private Feb. 27, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Aley, Isaiah do . . . Feb. 27, '65 . . . Discharged by G. 0., Sept. 18, 1865. 

Anderson, David M do... Feb. 27, '65. . .Discharged by G. 0., Sept. 9, 1865. 

Anderson, John do. . .Feb. 27, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Alcorn, Henry H do... Feb. 27, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Anderson, William do... Feb. 14, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Armstrong, B. H do. . .Feb. 27, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., June 8, 1865. 

Arnold, Cyrus do. . .Feb. 27, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., June 12, 1865. 

Bollner, H. P do... Feb. 27, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Banford, Thomas do... Feb. 27, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Blume, Christopher do... Feb. 27, '65. . .Discharged by G. 0., Sept. 9, 1865. 

Barr, Henry do. . .Feb. 27, '65. . .Plastered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Burford, Andrew J do... Feb. 14, '65. . . ! nscharged by G. 0., May 20, 1865. 

Bown, George H do... Feb. 27, '65. . .Discharged by G. 0., June 2, 1865. 

Bennett, Lemuel Private Feb. 27, '65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 31, 1865. 

Byers, William do... Feb. 27, '65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 25, 1865. 

Cronan, Dennis K do... Feb. 25, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865, 



25S 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name Rank 

Carus, William Private 

Christman, Fred'k do... 

Craven, James do . . . 

Crawford, Wm. N do. . . 

Cissnia, James A do . . . 

Davis, Calvin do . . . 

Dow, Franklin K do . . . 

Deflenbaugh, H. N do. . . 

Dougherty, John W do . . 

Drake, John T do . . . 

Evans, John do . . , 

Fees, John C do . . , 

Frazier, John T do . . , 

Filbert, John do . . , 

Foster, Richard L do... 

Fleming, Joseph J do... 

Feazel, John do . . 

Feazel, George W do . . . 

Frazier, John Private 

Forbes, J. W do... 

Hardman, David do... 

Hamilton, John do . . . 

Hosey, James do. . , 

Hoffman, John D do . . . 

Horn, Simon do . . . 

Irwin, William do... 

James, William do... 

Kirk, David D do... 

Kirk, George do. . . 

Knox, Alexander do... 

Linder, Edgar T do,.. 

Luce, John do . . . 

Lynch, George do . . . 

Lloyd, Joseph J do . . . 

Lynch, James do. . . 

Libengood, Henry do... 

Mars, Benjamin do... 

Mars, George do. . . 

Merchant, Fred'k do... 

Moses, Adam Private 

Meanor, George W do. . . 

Milligan, John do . . 

M'Clure, Robert S do.. . 

M'Kee, Thomas do . . . 



Date of Muster 

into Service Remarks 

Apr. 3, 'G5. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Mar. 17, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., May 31, 1865. 
Feb. 27, '65... Discharged by G. O., June 12, 1865 
Feb. 27, *65...Died at Nashville, Tenn., Apr. 15, 1865. 
Mar. 4, '65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Apr. 22, 1865. 
Feb. 27, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 
Feb. 27, '65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Mar. 2, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Mar. 6. 65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Mar. 2, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 27, '65... Discharged by G. 0., May 23, 1865. 
Feb. 27, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 
Feb. 27, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Feb. 27, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Feb. 8, '65. . .Absent, by sentence of the G. C. M., at mus- 
ter out. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Discharged by G. O., May 21, 1865. 

'65... Discharged by G. 0., July 20, 1865. 

'65... Discharged by G. 0., June 8, 1865. 

'65... Not on muster-out roll. 

'65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



Mar. 23 
.Feb. 27 
.Feb. 27 
Feb. 27 
Mar. 15 
.Feb. 25 
• Feb. 28 
.Feb. 26 
Mar. 18 
Feb. 8 
.Feb. 28 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 25 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 27 
Mar. 4 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 15 
Feb. 27 
Mar. 15 
Feb. 27 
Feb. 27 



'65... Discharged by G. 0., May 19, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., June 3, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company. Sept 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. 0., May 27, 1865. 

.Died at Nashville. Tenn., June 2, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 



'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
•65. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



25 



Name 



Rank 



Date of Muster 
into Servire 



Ucninrks 



M'Conahy, Wm. J. . . Private 

M'Gowan, John S do.., 

M'Gowan, J. Law'ce ....do... 

M'Clnre, John H do... 

Nickerson, Jacob do.., 

Peters, Robert do . . , 

Rudisill, William do... 

Sims, William B do. . . 

Smith, William do. . . 

Shields, Samuel do... 

Swartzlander, Levi do... 

Shull, Alired L do... 

Sample, Sidney do. . . 

Swagger, Jesse B do... 

Snedeker, Albert E do... 

Stuchell, Wm. A do... 

Smith, Daniel Private 

Shafer, Lewis C do... 

Shaf er, Israel do . . . 

Smith, William A do. . . 

Thompson, John L do, . . 

Taylor, Thomas do . . . 

Thompson, Cal'n G do... 

Thompson, John do. . . 

Vogel, Philip do . . . 

Wise, Christopher C. ...do... 

Walters, Josep.h do . . . 

Walker, Andrew M do... 

Wilson, John do... 

W^ise, John M do . . . 

Zediker, Levi do . . . 



Feb. 
,Feb. 
.Feb. 
Apr. 
• Feb. 
.Feb. 
.Feb. 
Feb. 
.Feb. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Feb. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Feb. 
Feb. 



'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., June 12, 1865. 
'65... Deserted Mar. 8. 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., Sept. 9, 1865. 
'65. ..Discharged by G. 0., May 23, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., May 23, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. O., May 27, 1865. 
'64. . .Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. O., June 19, 1865. 
'64. . .Discharged by G. 0., June 19, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65... Discharged by G. O.. June 2, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
'65... Discharged by G. O., May 25, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 



1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 



1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 



1865; 
1865. 
1865. 

1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 

1865. 



Company H 



Paul Crawford, Capt Mar. 4, '65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Joseph B. Bown, 1st Lt Mar. 4, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Jos. H. Rubincam, 2d Lt Mar. 4, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

William Johnston, 1st Serg .. Feb. 23, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

William Shipman, Serg Mar. 3, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Joseph H. Shuck, Serg Mar. 1, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

James Swinston, Serg Mar. 3, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

John Buchanan, Serg Feb. 23, '65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Robert Sloan, Corp Feb. 23, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

George Barker, Corp Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

George Rimmel, Corp Feb. 20, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



2G0 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 



'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 



Date of Muster 
Name — Rank into Service 

Ralph Trumbell, Corp Feb. 20 

John Reed, Corp Feb. 23 

Abraham Winders, Corp Feb. 21 

Thomas Sheridan, Corp Feb. 23 

Isaac Prescott, Corp Feb. 20 

James Wolf, Muc Feb. 21 

Charles Deer, Muc Feb. 21 

Alter, Jacob Private Feb. 21 

Baker, William do . . . Feb. 21 

Becker, William do... Mar. 1 

Bennett, John H do... Jan. 25 

Brown, Robert do . . . Feb. 20 

Brown, Thomas do. . .Feb. 15 

Black, John do . . . Feb. 20 

Bell, George do... Feb. 21 

Brunson, Josiah do... Feb. 23 

Lloman, Joseph do... Feb. 21 

Cavitt, Lewis do... Feb. 20 

Cooper, David do... Feb. 21 

Compbell, John do . . . Feb. 23 

Chambers, Christ'r do... Feb. 21 

Cowan, Thomas do... Mar. 22 

Cross, Joseph L do... Mar. 23 

Cullenberger, Jas do . . . Mar. 3 

Crabb. Mark M do... Feb. 23 

Deer, Hugh do. . .Feb. 20 

Dixon, Henry do . . . Mar. 3 

Donnelly, Joseph do... Mar. 1 

Eldoringham, H do... Feb. 21 

E\ans, John J do, ..Feb. 21 

Fisher, Charles do... Feb. 20 

Force, George do... Feb. 21 

Firhook, Edward do... Feb. 21 

Ferryman, Peter do... Mar. 3 

Gar^tel, Simon do... Mar. 3 

Gessner, Henry do. . .Feb. 23 

Geis, John B do.. .Mar. 4 

Griffith, George do... Mar. 1 

Hamilton, Stewart do... Feb. 23 

Hahn, Joseph do . , . Feb. 21 

Hawkins, Thomas do... Feb. 25 

Hoover, Albert M do. . .Feb. 15 

Hall, Ephraim do... Feb. liJ 

Humphreys, Benj do... Mar. 1 



Remarks 



.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Absent on furlough, at muster out. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. O., Aug. 28, 18G5. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., June 3, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Absent, bl sentence of G. C. M., at muster 

out. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. 0., Sept. 9, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. 0., Sept. 9, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. 0., Aug. 28, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. 0., May 13, 1865. 

.Discharged by G. 0., June 8, 1865. 

. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. O., Sept. 9, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 18G5. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Discharged by G. 0., May 20, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
'65... Died at Cincinnati, Ohio, Sept. 2. 18G5. 
•65... Discharged by G. 0., Sept. 9, 186."). 
'65. . .Absent, on furlough, at muster out. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'G5. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65., 



'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name Rank 

Holland, William . . . Private 

Hagar, David do.. 

Johnston, William do., 

Jones, John J do.. 

Kline, Jacob do.. 

Klingensmith, W. G. ...do.. 

Krumpe, Charles do . . 

Klingensmith, L. E do.. 

Lefever, James M do . . 

Lighthill, Geo. W do.. 

Lydick, Joseph M do.. 

Marks, Frederick do.. 

Meehan, Hugh do . . 

Morack, Thomas do . . 

Moore, Charles do.. 

Morrison, A. J do . . 

Morrison, Henry H do.. 

M'Allister, Thomas do.., 

M'Cord, Blair M do.. 

M'Millan, John H do.. 

Olinger, William do. . 

Painter, William do . . 

Peacock, Daniel do . . 

Pheiffer, John S do.., 

Reno, Francis P do.. 

Rogers, Neil do.. 

Sheriff, William do.. 

Shaffer, John do . . , 

Shultz, August do.. 

Slacker, William do . . 

Steel, Christopher do . . 

Stilts, Henry do.., 

Smith, Lewis do . . 

Schwere, Edward do . . , 

Sloan, John D do.. 

Speedy, Henry C do... 

Step, Michael do . . 

Stevenson, William do . . 

Snook, John M do . . . 

Thompson, George do . . , 

Tishart, Lewis do. . . 

Taylor, Samuel do.., 

Watson, James do . . . 

Welsh, Simon T do... 

Whaley, Joseph do . . . 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Feb. 23, '65. 
Mar. 14, '65. 
.Feb. 9, '65. 
.Feb. 20, '65. 
Mar. 1, '65. 
Mar. 3, '65. 



.Feb. 21, '65. 

.Feb. 14, '65. 

.Feb. 21, '61. 

.Feb. 27, '65. 



Remarks 

.Discharged by G. O., July 15, 1865. 
.Deserted July 30. 1865. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Feb. 22, '65... Deserted Aug. 19, 1865. 
.Feb. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Feb. 21, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Feb. 21, '65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Feb. 21, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Mar. 22, '65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Mar. 2, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Mar. 13, '05. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Feb. 20, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Feb. 20, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Mar. 14, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Feb. 20, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Mar. 2, '65. . .Discharged by G. 0., July 15, 1865. 
.Feb. 21, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Feb. 26, '05. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Feb. 23, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Mar. 1, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
.Feb. 23, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Feb. 20, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Feb. 23, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Mar. 1, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Feb. 21, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Feb. 23, '65. .. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Feb. 23, '0.^. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Mar. 13, '65. .. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Feb. 22, '65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11 
Feb. 21, '65... Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 
Mar. 3, '65. . . Discharged by G. O., May 23, 1865. 
Feb. 27, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
Feb. 24, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
Feb. 28, '65... Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 
Feb. 21, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
Feb. 21, '65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 
Feb. 23, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 



1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 



1865. 
1865. 

1865. 
1865. 
1865. 



262 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Date of Muster 
Name Rank into Service 

Wher, Jacob Private Mar. 6, '65 . . , 

Wher, Nicholas do.. .Mar. 6, '65... 

Wilson, Alexander do... Feb. 20, '65... 

Wolford, John do. . .Feb. 21, '65. . . 

Wagner, John do . . . Feb. 23, '65 . . . 

Wormsley, Jacob do . . . Feb. 24, '65 . . . 



Remarks 

Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Discharged by G. 0., May 27, 1865. 
Discharged by G. O., June 3, 1865. 



Company I 



Charles D. Wiley, Capt Mar. 3, '65. 

John McRoberts, 1st Lt Mar. 3, '65. 

George B. M'Nulty, 2d Lt. ... Feb. 15, '65. 



Frederick Herman, 1st Serg., Feb. 25, '65. 

Frank A. Marks, Serg Feb. 16, '65. 

Lawrence F. Miller, Serg Feb. 20, '65. 

George W. Grubbs, Serg Feb. 16, 65. 

Horace Van Gezer, Serg Feb. 26, '65. 

Samuel Edwards, Serg Feb. 16, '65. 

William M. Price, Corp Feb. 16, '65. 

Joseph Kelley, Corp Feb. 21, '65. 

John S. Glenn, Corp Feb. 14, '65. 

Adam Daum, Corp Feb. 18, '65. 

Charles Palmer, Corp Feb. 17, '65. 

Galen Andrews, Corp Feb. 17. '65. 

Jacob J. Barnhart, Corp Feb. 25, '65. 

David Fry, Corp Feb. 16, '65. 

Robert Ingram, Muc Feb. 21, '65. 

William Kuhns, Muc Mar. 9, '65. 

Andrews, Abijah Private Feb. 17, '65. 



..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

. . Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

. . Promoted from private to 1st Serg., Mar. 3, 

18G5— to 2d Lt., June 7, 1865— mustered out 

with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Promoted from private, June 8, 1SG5 — 

mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

. . Promoted from private. Mar. 3, 1865 — mus- 
tered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

, . Promoted from private. Mar. 3, 1865 — mus- 
tered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

, . Promoted from private. Mar." 3, 1865 — mus- 
tered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

..Promoted from private. Mar. 3, 1865 — mus- 
tered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Promoted to Serg. Maj., July 1, 1865. 

.Promoted to Corp., March 3, 1865 — mustered 
out with company, September 11, 1865. 

..Promoted to Corp., Apr. 25, 1865 — mustered 

, . out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Promoted to Corp., May 18, 1865 — mustered 

, . out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Promoted to Corp., May 23, 1865 — mustered 
out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Promoted to Corp., May 30, 1865 — mustered 
out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Promoted to Corp., Aug. S, 1865 — mustered 
out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Promoted to Corp., Aug. 8, 1865 — mustered 
out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Promoted to Corp., July 1, 1865 — mustered 
out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



2G3: 



Name Rank 

Archibald, Jas. A. . . . Private 

\,rbuckle, Robert do . . . 

^Ims, Samuel A do... 

Ukinson, Wm. T do... 

Bush, Jacob do.. 

3riney, John do . . . 

3oggs, Henry C do. . . 

3entz, Joseph do... 

31iss, Henry do. . . 

Brant, Henry do... 

3etz, Conrad do... 

3oggs, Palmer do. . . 

;jampbell, John A do... 

Uameron, Hugh do... 

!}ampbell, Thomas do... 

]];ampbell, Alex'r do... 

Dhristiau, Rich'd A do... 

Ulaypole, Samuel do... 

Jlawson, William do... 

Daly, Michael J do. . . 

Deary, Mark do . . . 

Davidson, John do. . . 

Dixon, Michael do... 

S'ennell, Isaac do. . . 

5'enncll, Daniel do. . . 

Waller, Augustus H do... 

■fausnaught, Bern'd do... 

jardner, Samuel do . . . 

3amble, James R do... 

jrossman, Jacob G do... 

jordon, John do... 

!3erber, Lewis do . . . 

Howard, George do... 

Hutchison, Georgp do. . . 

Herwick, John D do... 

Hastings, Frank do . . . 

Hall, Thomas S do... 

Hiltz, Michael do... 

Hazlett, Washing'n do... 

Fohnston, John B do... 

Fackson, Jas. A do. . . 

Tones, David J do . . . 

Johnston, Thos. A do... 

Kirkham, James do. . . 

Kelly, Hiram do. . , 



Date of Muster 



into Service Remarks 

.Mustered out with company. Sept. 

• Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 

• Mustered out with company, Sept. 

• Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.INIustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Discharged by G. 0., June 3, 1865. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 

• Mustered out with company, Sept. 
'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 
'65... Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 
'65. • •Mustered out with company, Sept. 

• Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Discharged by 0. O., Sopt. 0, 1SG5. 
.Discharged by G. 0., Sept. 9, 1SG5. 

• Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Died at Nashville, Tenn., Aur. 15, 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 
'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 

• Deserted Aug. 10, 1865. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Discharged by G. O.., May 20, 1865. 
.Deserted Aug. 8, 1865. 

• Mustered out with company, Sept. 

• Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 
.Absent, sick, at muster out. 
.Mustered out with company, Sept. 



Feb. 24 
Feb. 20 
Mar. 17 
Feb. 16 
• Jan. 14 
Feb. 17 
Feb. 16 
Feb. 16 
Feb. 21 
Feb. 20 
Feb. 18 
Feb. 16 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb, 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb, 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 

Feb. 22 
Feb. 15 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Mar 
Mar. 23 
Feb^ 19 
Feb. 17 
Feb. 17 
Feb. 16 
.Feb. 18 
Feb. 20 
Feb. 18 
Feb. 18 
Mar, 
Feb, 
Feb, 
Mar, 
Feb. 17 
.Feb. 17 



'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65 • 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 



'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 



'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 
'65. 



11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1S65 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11. 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


1865. 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865. 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865. 


11, 


1865 


11, 


1865. 


11, 


1865. 


11. 


1865. 



11, 1865. 



264 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name Rank 

Keefer, Nelson Private 

Knipshield, Michael .... do . . 

Little, John do.. 

Lambing, David M do... 

Lucas, Samuel H do . . , 

Lowry, William do. . 

Lehr, Lewis do . . 

Maggie, Charles B do.. 

Miller, James do.., 

M'Candless, Alex. M. ...do.. 

M'Cain, Jacob do . . 

M'Caffery, Michael do.. 

M'Collum, Moses do . . 

M'Sorely, Arthur do . . 

Osborne, Rob't. C do.. 

Proctor, David do . . 

Patterson, Geo. B do . . 

Quartz, James A do. . 

Richards, George do.. 

Rawie, John do . . 

Robinson, Thomas do.. 

Rigger, Jacob do . . 

Rigger, Henry do . . 

Rice, Michael do . . 

Shaw, William do.. 

Smith, William do.. 

Struthers, William do.. 

Sutton, David do.. 

Slutter, William do . . 

Stevenson, David S. ...do.. 

Slutter, Christian do. . 

Swisher, George do . . 

Townsend, Israel do... 

Woods, Harry do . . . 

Worthington, Wm do... 

Wently, James do . . . 

Wonderly, Joshua do... 

Wolff, John H do... 

Wintersteen, H. V do . . . 

Wilson, William do... 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarks 
Mar. 6, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 18, '65... Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 
.Feb. 17, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

• Mar. 17, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Mar. 17, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb, 18, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 15, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Mar. 22, '65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 1, 1865. 
.Feb. 24, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 16, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 16, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 24, '65... Discharged by G. O., May 20, 1865. 
.Feb. 18, '65... Deserted Aug. 14, 1865. 
.Feb. 22, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Mar. 6, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 24, '65... Discharged by G. 0., June 7, 1865. 
.Feb. 21, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Mar. 15, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

• Feb. 21, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 21, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 25, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 25, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 17, '65... Discharged by G. 0., June 2, 1865. 
.Feb. 16, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 18, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 20, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 21, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
.Feb. 24, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
,Feb. 24, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186' 
Feb. 24, '65.. .IMustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186: 
Feb. 27, '65.. .Discharged by G. O., June 22, 1865. 
Mar. 17, '05. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 180 
Feb. 21, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 
Feb. 18, '05. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, ISO 
Feb. 21, '05. . .Clustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 
Feb. 14, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 186 
Feb. 18, '05... Deserted Aug. 8, 1805. 
Feb. 25, '65.. .Deserted Aug. 9, 1865. 
Feb. 20, '65... Deserted Aug. 18, 1805. 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 7Sth REGIMENT P. V. I. 



265 



Company K 



Name — Rank 

fohn Brewster, Capt 

David G. Enyeart, 1st Lt. . . 
Milton H. Sangree, 2d Lt. . . 
Thomas Shriner, 1st Serg., 
3reorge H. Lincoln, Serg. . . 
Jas. W. Buchanan, Serg. . . 
Wm. Zimmerman, Serg. . . . 
Granville L. Robb, Serg. . . . 



Date of Muster 
iuto Service 



Remarks 



Christian Foust, Corp Mar. 7 

Henry Schultz, Corp Mar. 7 

Matthew G. Beaver, Corp. . . Feb. 28 

Jacob Auman, Corp Feb. 28 

Benjamin H, Grove, Corp. . . Feb. 28 

Davis Shoup, Corp Feb. 28 

William Fulton, Corp Feb. 28 

Henry H. Summers, Corp. . . Feb. 28 

Orlady Heiffner, Corp Feb. 28 

John S. Johnston, Muc Feb. 28 

Arford, John H. . . . Private Mar. 6 

Baker, Winfield S Feb. 28 

Baker, Abraham do... Feb. 28 

Buckwalter, B. F do... Feb. 28 

Bordell, Israel do... Mar. 2 

Erode, Samuel E do... Mar. 6 

Beaver, Henry do... Mar. 7 

Barnett, David do... Feb. 28 

Brady, John C do... Mar. 27; 

Biglow, Eliphas do... Mar. 2 

Brindle, Lonathan , . . .do. . .Feb. 28 

Buzzard, Andrew do... Mar. 7 

Cunningham, W do... Feb. 28 

Clapper, Olive W do... Feb. 28 

Corbin, John do. . .Feb. 28 

Coulter, Thomas J. ...do... Mar. 7 

Clark, Andrew do... Mar. 6 

Colpitzer, George do... Mar. 2 

Dengate, Christopher . .do... Feb. 24 

Dean, William do... Mar. 7 

Dorman, Henry do. . .Feb. 28 

Edwards, David H do... Feb. 28 

Fulton, John do. . .Feb. 28 



Mar. 8, 'G5... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Mar. 8, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Mar. 8, '65... Mustered out with compaay, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Feb. 28, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Feb. 28, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. fl, 1865. 
Feb. 28, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1S65. 
Feb. 28, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 
Feb. 28, '65... Promoted to Corp., Mar. 9, 1865— to Serg., 
June 6, 1865 — mustered out with company, 
Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with compar.y, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. ..Absent, sick, at muster out. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. IJ, l':565. 

'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1S65. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1S65. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1863. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Discharged by G. O., June 21, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1866. 

'65... Deserted Aug. 15, 1865. 

'05.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. II, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, T865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Discharged by G. O., May 21, 1865. 

'65... Deserted Aug. 15, 1865. 

'65... Deserted July 18, 1865. 

'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11. 1^05. 

'65... Discharged by G. O., May 23, 1865. 

'Go... Died at Nashville, Tenn., June 4, 1865. 

'65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., July 6, 1865. 

'65. ..Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

'65... Discharged by G. O., June 6, 1865. 

'65... Deserted Aug, 12, 1865. 

'65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



2CG 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



Name 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Remarks 

Fisher, David H Private Mar. 3, '65. . .T.Iustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Fouse, Samuel S do... Feb. 28, '65. .. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11^ 1865 

Felton, Christian do... Feb. 28, '65. .. Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Fultz, Samuel G do... Mar. 2, '65. . .Absent, sick, at mustgr out. 

Fisher, Casper do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., May 19, 1865. 

..do... Mar. '7, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., May 28, 1865. 

Mar. 7, '65... Died at Louisville, Ky., Aug. 22, 1865. 



Foust, John 

Foust, Benjamin do 



Green, William S do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Gardner, Andrew do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Tleiffner, Allison do... Mar. 6, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865, 

Hicks, James do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., Aug. 28, 1865. 

Hicks, Jonathan do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Heiffner, Peter do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Hood, John do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Hamilton, David do. . .Feb. 28, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Heifener, Josephus do... Mar. 6, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Hicks, Thomas H do... Mar. 6, '65. . .Deserted Aug. 12, 1865. 

Isenberg, Alfred P do... Mar. 7, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Jenkins, John do... Mar. 2, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 

Jones, Samuel do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., June 2, 1865. 

Keith, Lewis do... Mar. 7, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Lowrie, Samuel do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, May 1, 

1865. 

.Died at Nashville, Tenn., June 21, 1865. 

• Deserted July 27, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865 



Layton, Henry do... Feb. 28, '65. 

Lloyd, Taylor do... Feb. 28, '65. 

Morgan, Jonathan . . . . do . . . Mar. 6, '65 . 



Moyers, Washington S., do. . .Mar. 7, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Markle, Henry do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., May 12, 1865. 

Means, Edward do... Mar. 7, '65. . .Deserted July 18, 1865. 

M'Daniels, Oliver do... Mar. 7, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

M'Call, John do... Mar. 7, '65.. .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

M'Cormick, Wm do... Mar. 2, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Norris, Alexander do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Deserted July 4, 1865. 

Peightel, John do... Mar. 6, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Peightel, John F do... Feb. 28, '65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., June 14, 1865. 

Rogers, Arthur C do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Rice, Cornelius do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Rutter, Martin do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Ross, Alexander M. ...do... Feb. 24, '65... Absent, sick, at muster out. 

..do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Absent, on furlough, at muster out. 

..do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Discharged by G. O., June 7, 1865. 

..do... Mar. 7, '65... Discharged by G. O., June 7, 1865. 

..do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



Robb, William C. 
Riden, Samuel N. 
Russell, George . 
Smith, William S. 
Shultz, Anthony 



.do... Mar. 3, '65... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



Stone. John L do... Mar. 7, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



^ 



fiD-9 



HISTORY AND ROSTER 78th REGIMENT P. V. I. 



267 



Name 



Rank 



Date of Muster 
into Service 



Rcmarlis 

Stone, Jacob Private Feb. 28, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

phultz, William B do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Summers, David do... Feb. 28, '65 ... Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

3houtz, George W do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Schell, George W do... Mar. 7, '65. . .Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Swarm, George R do...Ma.r 27, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Snyder, David C do... Feb. 24, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Staley, Adam S do... Mar. 2, '65. . .Discharged by G. 0., May 12, 1865. 

States, Alexander do. . .Feb. 28, "65... Died at Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 16, 1865. 

Stone, Jacob H do... Mar. 7, '65. . .Deserted Aug. 13, 1865. 

rreese, Francis do. . .Feb. 28, '65. . .Discharged by G. 0., Sept. 9, 1865. 

V^arner, James S do... Mar. 24, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

^Visegarver, Geo. W. ..do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Absent, on furlough, at muster out. 

Weidner, John do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Wallace, Calvin do... Feb. 28, '65 ... Absent, on furlough, at muster out. 

Watson, James C do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Discharged by G. 0., June 6, 1865. 

You, William W do... Feb. 23, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 

Srocum, John do... Feb. 28, '65. . .Mustered out with company, Sept. 11, 1865. 



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